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EN
The heavy metal accumulation in the sediment and removal efficiency in stabilization ponds with Hydrocotyle ranunculoides filter were evaluated. Sediment and water were sampled in June, July and August 2018. The sediment sampling for each lagoon was conducted at three sites forming a composite sample. The water samples were collected in the tributary and effluent pipelines to determine the heavy metal concentration and removal efficiency by Hydrocotyle ranunculoides. The determination of heavy metals was performed with the method of atomic flame absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentration of heavy metals in the sediment, in a descending order, was: Fe > Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd. The concentrations of these metals ranged from 998.0 to 1365.02, from 488.01 to 600.30, from 88.23 to 95.01, from 1.47 to 1.53 and from 0.01 to 0.13 mg/Kg, respectively. In the four stabilization ponds, the pollution factor values for Cd, Cu and Fe qualified as low pollution factor. While for Zn and Pb, they qualified as moderate pollution factors. The heavy metal removal rates from the water varied by metal.
EN
Mangroves play an integral role as a metal accumulator in tropical and subtropical marine ecosystems. Twenty-one sets of sediment samples and portions of mangroves were collected along the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea to assess the accumulation and ecological risks of heavy metals. Results showed that the following mean concentrations of heavy metals in sediments: Cr (46.14 μg g−1 ± 18.48) > Cu (22.87 μg g−1 ± 13.60) > Ni (21.11 μg g−1 ± 3.2) > Pb (3.82 μg g−1 ± 2.46) > Cd (0.75 μg g−1 ± 0.87). The maximum concentrations of the studied metals were above the threshold effect level, indicating a limited impact on the respective ecosystems. The maximum concentration of Cd exceeded its toxic effect threshold, revealing a harmful risk to biota in the sediments. Based on metallo-phytoremedation, biological concentration factors were >1, suggesting that Avicennia marina can accumulate heavy metals, especially Cr and Pb. The translocation factor was above the known worldwide average. The geo-accumulation index revealed that sediments in mangrove areas ranged from moderately to heavily contaminated with Cd at Al-Haridhah and moderately contaminated at South Jeddah, Rabigh, Duba, and the wastewater treatment station near Jazan. The ecological risk index revealed that Cd could pose a relatively very high risk to the mangrove ecosystem. The present study emphasized the possibility of establishing a framework for the management of the coastal aquatic ecosystems along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia.
EN
Gala Lake National Park that has an international importance is one of the most important wetland ecosystems for Turkey. As same as many aquatic habitats, Gala Lake is under a significant anthropogenic pressure originated from agricultural activities conducted around the lake and from industrial discharges by means of Ergene River. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sediment quality of Gala Lake and Irrigation Canal by investigating some toxic element accumulations (As, B, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu) from a statistical perspective. Pearson Correlation Index (PCI) and Factor Analysis (FA) were applied to detected data in order to determine the associated contaminants and effective factors on the system. Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) and Biological Risk Index based sediment quality guidelines (mERM-Q) applied to detected data in order to assess the ecological and biological risks of heavy metals in the ecosystem. Also Geographic Information System (GIS) technology was used to make visual explanations by presenting distribution maps of investigated elements. According to the results of PCI, significant positive correlations were recorded among the investigated toxic elements at 0.01 significance level. According to the results of FA, two factors, which were named as “Agricultural Factor” and “Industrial Factor”, explained 86.6% of the total variance. According to the results of Potential Ecological Risk Index, cadmium was found to be the highest risk factor and according to results of Biological Risk Index, nickel and chromium were found to be the highest risk factors for Gala Lake and Irrigation Canal. As a result of the present study, it was also determined that heavy metal contents in sediments of Gala Lake National Park reached to critical levels and the system is intensively under effect of agricultural and industrial originated pollution.
EN
Sediments of two dam reservoirs in SE Poland, Zalew Zemborzycki (ZZ) and Brody Iłżeckie (BI) were studied. The sediments from both reservoirs were sampled in the transects perpendicular to the shoreline, at the river inflow and the frontal dam. The total concentration of Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr and Ni was determined by ICP-EAS method after the sample digestion in the mixture of concentrated HNO3 and HClO4 acids. The statistical analyses: value intervals, mean values, variation coefficient, the median and the skewed distribution were performed. To estimate differences between the means for transects, Tukey’s test was applied with least significant difference (LSD) determination. The maps of the metal spatial distribution were drawn and sediment quality according to the geochemical and ecotoxicological criteria evaluated. Differences between the reservoirs in terms of heavy metals concentration in bottom sediments, and regularities in their spatial distribution were found. In the ZZ sediments the concentration was at the level of geochemical background (Zn, Cr), slightly (Cd, Cu, Ni) or moderately (Pb) contaminated sediments. The metal concentration in the sediments of the BI was up to eight times higher as compared to the ZZ. Moreover, sediments from the BI reservoir showed a greater variability of metal concentration than those from ZZ, which resulted from the dredging operation performed in the part of the reservoir. Metal concentration in sediments of the dredged part was ca. 2–5 times lower than in the undredged one, which indicates that after the dredging operation, accumulation of these metals was slight. The concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd from the undredged part of BI were at the level of contaminated sediments and exceeded the probable effects level (PEL). In the ZZ, the greatest accumulation of metals occurred in the upper part of the reservoir and at the frontal dam, and the lowest in the middle part of the reservoir. In BI, the lower outflow of water in this reservoir caused a lower metal concentration in the sediments at the frontal dam, as compared with the other sediments in the undredged part of the reservoir. The results indicate that in small and shallow reservoirs, areas of accumulation of heavy metals depend on such factors as a parent river current, reservoir depth, water waving, reservoir shape (narrowing, coves/bays), and type of water outflow.
PL
Badano osady dwóch zbiorników zaporowych w SE Polsce - Zalewu Zemborzyckiego (ZZ) i zbiornika Brody Iłżeckie (BI). W obydwu zbiornikach osady pobrano w transektach prostopadłych do linii brzegowej, w dopływie rzeki oraz przy zaporze czołowej. Oznaczono całkowitą zawartość Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr i Ni metodą ICP-EAS po zmineralizowaniu próbki w mieszaninie stężonego kwasu HNO3 i HClO4. Przeprowadzono analizę statystyczną wyników: zakresy, wartości średnie, współczynnik zmienności, mediana, skośność rozkładu. Do oceny różnic między średnimi dla transektów zastosowano test Tukey’a z wyznaczeniem najmniejszej istotnej różnicy (NIR). Opracowano mapy rozkładu przestrzennego metali oraz oceniono jakość osadów wg kryterium geochemicznego i ekotoksykologicznego. Stwierdzono różnice między zbiornikami pod względem zawartości metali ciężkich i ich rozmieszczenia przestrzennego w osadach. W osadach ZZ zawartość metali kształtowała się na poziomie tła geochemicznego (Zn, Cr), osadów słabo (Cd, Cu, Ni) lub miernie zanieczyszczonych (Pb). Zawartość metali w osadach BI była do ośmiu razy większa w porównaniu z osadami ZZ. Ponadto, osady zbiornika BI wykazały większą zmienność zawartości metali niż osady ZZ, co wynikało z zabiegu bagrowania, przeprowadzonego w jego części. Zawartość metali w osadach części bagrowanej była ok. 2–5 razy mniejsza niż w niebagrowanej, co wskazuje, że po zabiegu bagrowania ich akumulacja była niewielka. Zawartości Zn, Pb i Cd w części niebagrowanej BI były na poziomie osadów zanieczyszczonych i przekroczyły wartości PEL (ang. probable effects level). W ZZ największa akumulacja metali w osadach wystąpiła w górnej części zbiornika oraz przy zaporze czołowej, a najmniejsza w jego środkowej części. W BI dolny odpływ wody ze zbiornika spowodował zmniejszenie zawartości metali w osadach przy zaporze czołowej w porównaniu z innymi osadami części niebagrowanej. Wyniki badań wskazują, że w małych i płytkich zbiornikach zaporowych akumulacja metali ciężkich zależy od czynników takich jak: pierwotny nurt rzeki, głębokość zbiornika, falowanie wody, kształt zbiornika (przewężenia, zatoczki/zatoki), a także od typu odpływu wody.
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Content available remote Utilization possibilities of sediment waste extracted from water reservoir
EN
Sediments are a highly dynamic part of river systems and are not tied to a particular area but are transported through the river basin and cause silting of small water reservoirs, which is one of important problems in water management mainly due to the reduction of the basin accumulation capacity. Most reservoirs in the world, from small through medium to large capacity, are subject to siltation problems to some degree. For that reason it is necessary to control reservoir sedimentation rather than sediment removal. Otherwise, water management organizations must solve the problem with extracted sediment treatment, disposal or utilization. In this paper we present the results of monitoring the quality of bottom sediment that accumulates in the Klusov small water reservoir, where trapped sediments were removed from the drained reservoir for the reason of its silting. Also a possible use of extracted sediments is discussed here.
PL
Osady zaliczają się do wysoce dynamicznej części systemu rzecznego i są transportowane w strefie przydennej, a w konsekwencji powodują zamulanie małych zbiorników wodnych. Jest to jeden z ważnych problemów w gospodarowaniu zasobami wodnymi, a szczególnie w zmniejszaniu pojemności zbiorników. Problem zamulania dotyczy większości zbiorników wodnych na świecie, począwszy od małych poprzez średnie, aż do zbiorników o dużej pojemności. Z tego powodu ważniejsze jest kontrolowanie procesów sedymentacji niż usuwanie zalegających osadów. Ponadto podmioty zajmujące się gospodarką wodną muszą rozwiązać problemy związane z gospodarowaniem osadami dennymi, tzn. wydobyciem, składowaniem lub utylizacją. W artykule przedstawiono rezultaty monitoringu jakości osadów dennych gromadzących się w małym zbiorniku wodnym Klusov, z którego osady zostały usunięte po jego osuszeniu w celu jego odmulenia. Zamieszczono także dyskusję nad możliwością wykorzystania wydobytych osadów dennych.
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