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1
Content available remote Paint-degrading microorganisms
EN
The paper presents a literature survey of research on the biodeterioration and biodegradation of paint coatings, as well as study findings on the biodegradation of varnish coatings and agents used for their removal.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono przegląd literaturowy dotyczący biodeterioracji i biodegradacji powłok malarskich. Przedstawiono również badania dotyczące biodegradacji substancji używanych do usuwania powłok lakierniczych.
2
Content available remote Active ingredients in paint strippers
EN
The papers presents the study on the application of acetals as active ingredients in paint strippers. The formulation was prepared and the ability to wrinkling of the shell was rated. The ability to wrinkling of the shell was rated by examining the force required to detachment the coating.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono badania dotyczące zastosowania acetali jako substancji aktywnych w preparatach do usuwania powłok lakierniczych. Sporządzono preparaty oraz oceniono ich zdolność do odspajania powłoki. Zdolność do odspajania powłoki oceniano badając siłę potrzebną do oderwania powłoki.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono możliwość zastosowania produktów ubocznych powstałych podczas otrzymywania cykloheksanonu w technologii Cyklopol w Zakładach Azotowych w Tarnowie-Mościcach, Grupa Azoty SA. Zbadano wpływ temperatury wrzenia rozpuszczalnika estrowego, stanowiącego jeden ze składników kompozycji, na stabilność żelowego preparatu do usuwania starych powłok lakierniczych. Za pomocą metody GC porównano skład otrzymanych frakcji estrów o różnym zakresie temperatur wrzenia. Przeprowadzono również badania stabilności i skuteczności działania otrzymanych preparatów. Wykazano, że warunkiem stabilności preparatu o zaproponowanym składzie jest użycie do jego przygotowania rozpuszczalnika estrowego o temp. wrzenia w zakresie od 90 do 120ºC.
EN
In this paper the possibility of using waste products, which are formed during the cyclohexanone production in technology Cyclopol in Zakłady Azotowe in Tarnów-Mościce Grupa Azoty SA, was presented. The influence of boiling point of the ester solvent, which is one of the component of composition, on stability of gel paint stripper was studied. The composition of obtained ester solvents with different boiling range was compared by GC analysis. The study of stability and effectiveness of action of obtained preparation was conducted. The studies shows that, the requirement of stability of the formulation is use to production the ester solvent with boiling range from 90 to 120ºC.
EN
Tea has been consumed all over the World for over two thousand years and now it is the most popular caffeine-containing beverage. Its worldwide consumption is second only to water [1–3]. The tea is not only important because of its popularity but also due to its beneficial influence on human health [4]. The biological benefits of tea are due to their flavanol content [5–13]. Tea flavanols are a group of natural polyphenols (Fig. 2). Therapeutic effects of tea have been extensively examined in many in vitro and in vivo tests. It was confirmed that tea leaves ingredients have antibacterial, antifungial, antiviral properties, they also prevent cell mutations and they inhibit progress of heart diseases. Moreover, tea can stimulate neural system and regulate its functions [14–20]. All this activities are mostly due to antioxidant ability of tea polyphenols (Fig. 4). Tea production process can be run in different ways and this affects of the tea taste, aroma, colour and antioxidants content. According to fermentation degree, different tea kinds can be obtained (Fig. 1). During the manufacturing process of black and oolong teas, tea leaves are crushed to allow polyphenol oxidase to catalyze the oxidation and polymerization of catechins to polymers called theaflavins and thearubigins (Fig. 3) [21–23]. Green or white teas are obtained through shorter fermentation, so the catechin concentration remains higher. Tea is prepared by infusing tea leaves in hot water. Brewing process conditions like temperature, brewing time, pH, besides other factors has a significant influence on polyphenols content [24-32]. Many studies have determined total flavonoids content and antioxidant activity according to different tea type and brewing conditions, tea plantation type or fermentation process. The amount of total polyphenol was determined using the F-C method, catechins, caffeine and polyphenolic acids were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with reversed phase. Obtained results let compare how different production and brewing processes affect the tea quality [33–56].
EN
In most of paint removers organic solvent are used as active ingredients. The analysis of the literature on modern manufacture preparations allowed to identify the most commonly used solvent for this purpose i.e. methylene chloride. Characterization of the advantages and risks associated with its use and the legal aspect of the use of this compound was described. Also the advantages and potential risks associated with the use of N-methylpyrrolidone were described. Substances from the group of alcohols, carbonates, carboxylic acid esters and derivatives of amides were also discussed. Compositions based on substances of natural origin and the solution involving biotechnological methods were presented. Developments in the production of such preparations were outlined.
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