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EN
The automotive sector is under constant pressure to minimize fuel consumption and reduce pollution emissions while maintaining a declining tendency for weight and cost reduction. This makes the material selection process a major of engineering design considerations. In the paper, the main automotive requirements were formulated to analyze the potential of selected deposition (low pressure cold spray and ultrasonic atomizing) and material fabrication (sol-gel method) techniques for application in the automotive industry.
PL
Sektor motoryzacyjny znajduje się pod ciągłą presją, aby minimalizować zużycie paliwa i redukować emisję zanieczyszczeń przy jednoczesnym utrzymaniu dotychczasowego tempa redukcji masy i kosztów. To sprawia, że dobór materiału jest szczególnie ważny podczas procesu projektowania wybranego elementu. W artykule sformułowano główne wymagania branży automotive do analizy potencjału wybranych technik osadzania (niskociśnieniowego natryskiwania na zimno i atomizacji ultradźwiękowej) oraz wytwarzania materiału (metoda zol-żel) do zastosowań jako powłoki ochronne w przemyśle samochodowym.
EN
The increasing growth of the textile industry does not only provide benefits in the economic sector but also has the potential to damage the environment, because it generates the dye wastewater which is hard to eliminate. Procion red is one of the synthetic textile dyes that is toxic to the aquatic environment and it needs to be processed properly. The photocatalytic method of processing dye wastewater is the most effective, because it can remove the harmful pollutants in the dye wastewater. This study aimed to prepare and characterize the ZnO-Zeolite nanocomposites for photocatalytic applications tested with a 50 mg/L procion red dye sample. The nanocomposites consisted of the ZnO semiconductors and synthetic zeolite adsorbents prepared by using the sol-gel method. The dye degradation test was carried out under the irradiation conditions with ultraviolet (UV) lamp. Apart from the ZnO-Zeolite nanocomposite, testing was also carried out with the synthetic zeolite and ZnO. The results of SEM-EDX and XRD characterization proved that the nanocomposite forming components were ZnO and zeolite and could be seen from the resulting peaks. BET showed that the surface area value of the ZnO-Zeolite nanocomposite increased to 95.98 m2/g, the pore size of the ZnO-Zeolite nanocomposite was 4.42 nm, and the total pore volume was 0.08 cm3/g. The obtained average crystalline size of ZnO-Zeolite nanocomposite was 32.87 nm. The percentage of dye degradation using the ZnO-Zeolite nanocomposite for 120 minutes has reached 90.42%.
EN
TiO2 thin films have been deposited on glass substrates with and without ZnO underlayer by sol-gel dip coating process. XRD patterns show the formation of anatase phase with the diffraction lines (1 0 1) and (2 0 0) in TiO2 /glass sample. In TiO2 /(ZnO/glass) sample, TiO2 is composed of anatase phase with the diffraction line (2 0 0) but the diffraction peaks of ZnO wurtzite are also well-defined. The determination of the refractive index and the thickness of the waveguiding layers has been performed by m-lines spectroscopy. The thickness of TiO2 thin films deduced by Rutheford Backscattering Geometry (RBS) agrees well with that obtained by m-lines spectroscopy. TiO2 /glass sample exhibits one guided TE0 and TM0 polarized modes. In TiO2 /(ZnO/glass) sample, only, TE0 single mode has been excited due to cutoff condition.
EN
Nanoparticles of Li2MnO3 were fabricated by sol-gel method using precursors of lithium acetate and manganese acetate, and citric acid as chelating agent in the stoichiometric ratio. TGA/DTA measurements of the sample in the regions of 30 °C to 176 °C, 176 °C to 422 °C and 422 °C to 462 °C were taken to identify the decomposition temperature and weight loss. The XRD analysis of the sample indicates that the synthesized material is monoclinic crystalline in nature and the calculated lattice parameters are 4.928 Å (a), 8.533 Å (b), and 9.604 Å (c). The surface morphology, particle size and elemental analysis of the samples were observed using SEM and EDAX techniques and the results confirmed the agglomeration of nanoparticles and, as expected, Li2MnO3 composition. Half cells of Li2MnO3 were assembled and tested at C/10 rate and the maximum capacity of 27 mAh/g was obtained. Charging and discharging processes that occurred at 3 V and 4 V were clearly observed from the cyclic voltammetric experiments. Stability of the electrodes was confirmed by the perfect reversibility of the anodic and cathodic peak positions observed in the cyclic voltammogram of the sample. The Li2MnO3 nanoparticles exhibit excellent properties and they are suitable for cathode materials in lithium ion batteries.
5
Content available remote Structural and optical studies of TiO2:Ag2O nanocomposite by sol-gel method
EN
As TiO2 is suitable for electronic and electrical applications, in the present work the authors have successfully modified TiO2 by adding silver (Ag) to form titanium oxide-silver oxide (TiO2:Ag2O) nanocomposite samples by using sol-gel technique. Characterizations of these composites have been performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. XRD study revealed that the crystal structure of the samples consisted of tetragonal and cubic phases. This study further showed an increment in the average crystallite size from 8 nm to 38 nm with an increase in Ag concentration. The increase in crystallite size has been confirmed additionally by SEM and AFM. The increment in the average particle size of the samples may be attributed to an increase in silver molarity in the TiO2 matrix. Significant red shift in the absorption edge has been observed, causing reduction in the energy bandgap of the composites from 3.89 eV to 3.46 eV with an increase in particle size which is evident from UV-Vis spectroscopic studies. This wide-band gap properties of the TiO2:Ag2O nanocomposite make it suitable for memory-storage devices and dielectric applications.
6
EN
Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on Si (1 0 0) and glass substrates by sol-gel spin coating technique. Zinc acetate dihydrate, monoethanolamine and isopropanol were used as the sources for precursor solution and the resulting gel was used for the preparation of ZnO thin films. The films were annealed at different temperatures (100 °C to 500 °C) and the effect of annealing on the structural and optical properties was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used for the analysis of the films. The XRD results indicated the polycrystalline hexagonal structure of the ZnO films with (0 0 2) orientation. The optical properties of the films were studied using UV-Vis spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 190 – 1100 nm. The optical characterization of the ZnO thin films showed the high transmittance of ~90 % for the films annealed at 400 °C. The films showed the absorbance ~360 – 390 nm and bandgap values of 3.40 – 3.10 eV, depending on the annealing temperature of the films.
EN
TiO2 thin films with different surface structure have been prepared from alkoxide solutions by the sol-gel method using different cationic precursors and heat treatment techniques. The effect of using titanium isopropoxide as well as titanium butoxide as a titanium source on the surface structure and photocatalytic activity of the resultant thin films was studied. Significant differences in the rate of hydrolysis and condensation reactions during the sol-gel synthesis were observed for these titanium precursors. This had a direct influence on the morphology of the as-prepared TiO2 films. Higher quality oxide coatings were obtained from titanium isopropoxide. They were characterized by a smaller grain size, improved surface roughness and uniform coverage of the glass substrate. A beneficial effect of calcination process after each sol application cycle in contrast to single step calcination after all dip-coating cycles was observed. Photocatalytic degradation tests showed that methyl orange was decolorized in the presence of all prepared TiO2 films by exposing their aqueous solutions to UV light (λ = 254 nm). The highest photocatalytic activity had the TiO2 layer produced using titanium isopropoxide.
EN
Porous silica, silica-cobalt, silica-zirconia and zirconia membranes were synthesized by the sol-gel method. Multi-step coating (two, six, and ten steps) was used to reduce the defectiveness of the mesoporous layer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated that an increase in the number of coating steps improved the mesoporous layer quality. The results obtained from gas permeability tests with nitrogen and argon, however, indicated a reduction in the gas permeability with increasing coating steps. The reduction in gas permeability from two to six coating steps was more pronounced than from six- to ten- coating steps. It was found that six-step coating was economically justified in obtaining a uniform mesoporous layer. The results of pore radius calculations by Knudsen flow mechanism revealed that the pores in the silica, silica-cobalt, and zirconia membranes were in the mesoporous range. The sols with a mean particle size more than 100 nm are not recommended for synthesis of mesoporous layer free of defects. Furthermore, the type of acid used as a catalyst is also important in obtaining a layer without defectiveness.
PL
Metoda zol-żel jest chemicznym sposobem wytwarzania materiałów z fazy ciekłej. W artykule przedstawione są osiągnięcia autora w zakresie wytwarzania metodą zol-żel i techniką dip-coating dwuskładnikowych SiO2:TiO2 warstw falowodowych, warstw ditlenku krzemu oraz warstw ditlenku tytanu. Opracowane warstwy dielektryczne pokrywają zakres współczynnika załamania od 1,2 do 2,3. Opracowane warstwy falowodowe są podstawą rozwoju układów optyki zintegrowanej na zakres Vis-NIR do zastosowań sensorowych. Warstwy ditlenku krzemu i ditlenku tytanu wykorzystywane były do wytwarzania zwierciadeł dielektrycznych i pokryć antyrefleksyjnych. W pracy przedstawiane są wyniki analiz teoretycznych, charakterystyki technologiczne i wybrane wyniki badań wytwarzanych struktur.
EN
Sol-gel method is a chemical process used to fabricate materials from a liquid phase. This work presents the author's accomplishments in the field of fabrication two-compound SiO2:TiO2 waveguide films, silica as well as titania layers fabricated via the sol-gel method and dip-coating technique. Developed dielectric layers cover refractive indices from 1.2 to 2.3. Elaborated waveguide films are the basis for the development of integrated optic circuits over the VIS-NIR spectral range. Silicon dioxide layers, as well as titanium dioxide layers, were used to fabricate dielectric mirrors and anti-reflective coatings. This work presents the results of the theoretical analysis, technological characteristics and some of the author's experimental results of fabricated structures.
10
Content available remote Effects of Al doping on defect behaviors of ZnO thin film as a photocatalyst
EN
Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were prepared on silica substrates by sol-gel method. The films showed a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferred orientation along c-axis. Suitable Al doping dramatically improved the crystal quality compared to the undoped ZnO films. Dependent on the Al dopant concentration, the diffraction peak of (0 0 2) plane in XRD spectra showed at first right-shifting and then left-shifting, which was attributed to the change in defect concentration induced by the Al dopant. Photocatalytic properties of the AZO film were characterized by degradation of methyl orange (MO) under simulated solar light. The transmittance of the films was enhanced by the Al doping, and the maximum transmittance of 80 % in the visible region was observed in the sample with Al concentration of 1.5 at.% (mole fraction). The film with 1.5 at.% Al doping achieved also maximum photocatalytic activity of 68.6 % under solar light. The changes in the film parameters can be attributed to the variation in defect concentration induced by different Al doping content.
EN
Magnesium-aluminum-bismuth layered double hydroxides (Mg3Al1-xBix; LDHs) were prepared using both coprecipitation and sol-gel methods. For the preparation of Mg/Al/Bi LDH by the co-precipitation method, the appropriate amounts of dissolved starting materials (Al(NO3)3·9H2O, Mg(NO3)2·6H2O and Bi(NO3)3·5H2O) were mixed with a solution of NaHCO3:NaOH. In the sol-gel processing, the precursor Mg–Al–Bi–O gels were synthesized using the same starting materials and ethylene glycol as complexing agent. The mixed-metal oxides obtained by subsequent heating of Mg–Al–Bi–O gels at 650 °C were reconstructed to Mg3Al1-xBix LDHs in water at 80 °C. All the synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dielectric measurements.
EN
The present research is focused on developing ZnAl2O4 (gahnite) spinel as an antireflection coating material for enhanced energy conversion of polycrystalline silicon solar cells (PSSC). ZnAl2O4 has been synthesized using dual precursors, namely aluminum nitrate nonahydrate and zinc nitrate hexahydrate in ethanol media. Diethanolamine has been used as a sol stabilizer in sol-gel process for ZnAl2O4 nanosheet fabrication. nanosheet was deposited layer-by-layer (LBL) on PSSC by spin coating method. The effect of ZnAl2O4 coating on the physical, electrical, optical properties and temperature distribution in PSSC was investigated. The synthesized antireflection coating (ARC) material bears gahnite (ZnAl2O4) spinel crystal structure composed of two dimensional (2D) nanosheets. An increase in layer thickness proves the LBL deposition of ARC on the PSSC substrate. The ZnAl2O4 2D nanosheet comprising ARC on the PSSC was tested and it exhibited a maximum of 93 % transmittance, short-circuit photocurrent of 42.364 mA/cm2 and maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) 23.42 % at a low cell temperature (50.2 °C) for three-layer ARC, while the reference cell exhibited 33.518 mA/cm2, 15.74 % and 59.1 °C, respectively. Based on the results, ZnAl2O4 2D nanosheets have been proven as an appropriate ARC material for increasing the PCE of PSSC.
PL
W pracy zaprezentowano wyniki badania wpływu ilości domieszki (2% at. oraz 4% at.) oraz temperatury wygrzewania (300°C i 600°C) na zdolność do rozkładu oranżu metylowego przez nanocząstki dwutlenku tytanu domieszkowane cerem (TiO₂:Ce) w wyniku procesu fotokatalizy. Nanocząstki TiO₂ zostały wytworzone metodą zol-żel, przy użyciu TTiP jako prekursora. Zaobserwowano, że lepsze właściwości fotokatalityczne ma próbka domieszkowana mniejszą ilością ceru, co oznacza, że istnieje optymalna zawartość domieszki. Aktywność fotokatalityczna tej próbki wynosiła 16,7%. Wygrzewanie w wysokiej temperaturze miało negatywny wpływ na zdolności próbek do rozkładu barwnika, gdyż aktywność fotokatalityczna żadnej z wygrzanych próbek nie przekroczyła 4%.
EN
This paper presents the results of the investigation of concentration of the dopant (2 at.% Ce and 4 at.% Ce) and high-temperature annealing (300°C i 600°C) on the decomposition of methyl orange by titanium dioxide nanoparticles doped with cerium (TiO₂:Ce) as a result of photocatalysis process. Methyl orange was decomposed by TiO₂:Ce nanoparticles, which were synthesized by sol-gel technique with using TTiP as a precursor. It was observed that the higher photocatalytic activity has been obtained by TiO₂ doped with smaller amount of cerium, which suggests the existence of the optimum dopant concentration. The photocatalytic activity of this nanoparticles was equal to 16.7%. Moreover, high-temperature annealing had a negative effect on TiO₂:Ce nanoparticles on decomposition ability, due to the fact that the photocatalytic activity of all annealed nanoparticles did not achieve 4%.
EN
Purpose: The article presents the results of research on titanium dioxide synthesized by a sol-gel method that is an easy process enabling the control of the shape and size of particles The purpose of this article is to examine titanium dioxide nanoparticles and thin films deposited by an atomization method. Design/methodology/approach: Titanium dioxide sol was synthesized by using titanium isopropoxide as a precursor. Optical properties were measured by a UV-Vis spectrometer. Structural studies were performed by Raman spectroscopy. Qualitative analysis was performed by the EDS. Surface morphology of nanoparticles and thin films was performed by the SEM technique. Findings: The sol-gel method allows the formation of uniform nanoparticles and thin films of titanium dioxide. The atomization method is a successful method for the deposition of sol to the surface of substrates. Research limitations/implications: The next step in the research will be to investigate the obtained thin films in dye-sensitized solar cells as a semiconductive layer. Practical implications: Unique properties of produced titanium dioxide nanostructural materials have caused the interest in them in such fields as optoelectronics, photovoltaics, medicine and decorative coatings. Originality/value: Titanium dioxide thin films and nanoparticles were synthesized using the sol-gel method and then deposited by the atomization method.
15
EN
High-quality CdS nanocrystalline thin films were grown by sol-gel spin coating method at different solution temperatures on glass substrates. As-deposited films exhibited nanocrystalline phase with hexagonal wurtzite structure and showed good adhesion and smooth surface morphology. It was clearly observed that the crystallinity of the thin films improved with the increase in solution temperature. Crystallites sizes of the films also increased and were found to be in the range of 10 mm to 17 nm. The influence of the growth mechanism on the band and sub-band gap absorption of the films was investigated using UV-Vis and photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS). The band gap values were calculated in the range of 2.52 eV to 2.75 eV. The band gap decreased up to 9 % with the increase in solution temperature from 45 °C to 75 °C. Absorption coefficients estimated by PDS signal showed the significant absorption in low photon energy region of 1.5 eV to 2.0 eV. The dark and illuminated I-V characteristics revealed that the films were highly photosensitive. The results demonstrated the potential applications of sol-gel grown CdS nanocrystalline thin films as photoconductors and optical switches.
EN
In this research article, pure and 1 %, 3 % and 5 % aluminium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared via sol-gel method and then calcined at 500 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to investigate the structural, optical and thermal properties of synthesized pure and Al doped ZnO nanoparticles. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis revealed high purity of nanoparticles in the synthesized products without any impurity peaks. Mean dimension of the nanoparticles was ~28 nm and they were hexagonal in shape, according to the images analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The optical absorption spectra of pure and Al doped ZnO samples studied using UV-Vis spectrometry have been presented and we have observed that the band gap increases with increasing Al concentration. In FT-IR spectra, the broad absorption peaks around 485 cm-1 and 670 cm cm-1 were assigned to Zn–O vibration. Above 450 °C, the TG curve became flat what means there was no weight loss. In the DSC curve it is seen that the transition at 150 °C was highly exothermic because of structural relaxation and on doping the exothermic peaks became shifted to the lower value of temperature. These types of materials are very useful in optoelectronics applications.
EN
Purpose: The article presents the results of research on ZnO nanopowder prepared using sol-gel method that is the easy process enabling us to control shape and size of particles The purpose of this article is to synthesized ZnO nanostructures by sol-gel method and characterized them for use in dye sensitized solar cells. Design/methodology/approach: Zinc oxide nanopowder was synthesized by using zinc acetate dehydrate as a precursor. The prepared nanopowder has been subjected to structural analysis using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) images were taken with a Zeiss Supra 35. Qualitative studies of chemical composition were also performed using the Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). The structure of zinc oxide was investigated by X-ray crystallography The absorbance of zinc oxide layers with and without dye were measured by Thermo Scientific Evolution 220 spectrophotometer equipped with a xenon lamp in the wavelength range from 190 nm to 1100 nm. Findings: Sol-gel method allows the formation of uniform nanoparticles of zinc oxide. The nanoparticles have been successfully used in photoelectrode of dye sensitized solar cell. The light harvesting efficiency of the electrode it remains in a wide spectral range above 85%, which gives better results than in the case of titanium dioxide. Research limitations/implications: The next step in the research will be to investigate the ZnO/NiO composite on the properties of the photoelectrode of dye sensitized solar cell. Practical implications: he unique properties of produced ZnO nanostructural materials have caused their interest in such fields as medicine, transparent electronics and photovoltaics. Originality/value: The ZnO nanoparticles were prepared using sol-gel method and then effectively used in the photoanode of dye sensitized solar cell.
18
Content available remote New approach for n-hexadecane biodegradation by sol-gel entrapped bacterial cells
EN
In this study sol-gel hybrid materials in the system SiO2-chitosan (CS) - polyethylene glycol (PEG), as novel structures with potential application in bioremediation were investigated. The organic components - CS and PEG were used as structural modifiers for functionality improvement. The catabolic activity to n-hexadecane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa BN10 free and immobilized cells was estimated. The cell immobilization technique was employed to evaluate its efficiency on biodegradation and protective effect from high levels of hydrocarbons. The characteristics of obtained hybrid materials were investigated via X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) analyses. The obtained results revealed that the organic part in the synthesized hybrids is important for microstructure and defined properties creation. The rate of n-hexadecane mineralization by the bacterial strain was influenced by variation in cell densities applied in the immobilization procedures. Semi-continuous processes with multiple xenobiotic supplies were carried out. The synthesized by the sol-gel method hybrid matrices proved to be suitable carriers for realizing an effective biodegradation process of n-hexadecane by Pseudomonas aeruginosa BN10. Biodegradation of 50 kg/m3 of n-hexadecane was realized by free cells. Significantly greater quantity (150 kg/m3) was mineralized for 15 active cycles by entrapped bacterial cells. Biodegradation process with gradual increase of xenobiotic concentration reaching 30 kg/m3 for 120 h was also accomplished.
19
Content available remote Application of one-pot sol-gel method to prepare polyolefin fillers
EN
The application of silica-based fillers for polymers and nanocomposites is a subject of extensive research, mostly due to the demand for new materials of improved physicochemical, mechanical or thermal properties. In this paper we present a new, one-pot sol-gel (OPSG) method to synthesize fillers for polyolefins. The developed method assumes direct synthesis of the filler together with its modification upon the addition of organofunctional silane. It allows fillers with controlled porosity and hydrophobic properties to be obtained, which undergo better dispersion in a polymer matrix. The characteristics of the obtained composites were defined by thermal analysis, as well as tensile and impact tests. The contact angle was measured by the sessile drop technique to determine the hydrophobic-hydrophilic properties of the fillers. Morphological analyses were performed using SEM, surface area and pore volume measurements. The one-pot method is a preferred alternative to the multi-step synthesis methods for synthetic fillers.
PL
Zastosowanie napełniaczy krzemionkowych w materiałach kompozytowych ma swoją długoletnią tradycję, wynikającą z uniwersalności tego powszechnie stosowanego napełniacza. Pomimo wieloletnich badań nad systemami kompozytowymi opartymi o krzemionkę, nadal istnieje zapotrzebowanie na nowe metody jej modyfikacji i funkcjonalizacji, zarówno w obszarze struktury i morfologii cząstek, jak i obróbki powierzchniowej. W prowadzonych przez nas badaniach koncentrujemy się na jednoetapowej metodzie zol-żel, w literaturze określanej jako one-pot sol-gel (OPSG). Najważniejszą różnicą w porównaniu do tradycyjnych metod otrzymywania funkcjonalnych napełniaczy jest to, że etap syntezy napełniacza oraz modyfikacja chemiczna odbywają się w tym samym naczyniu reakcyjnym (lub reaktorze) bez konieczności suszenia i preparacji napełniacza. Metoda ta pozwala na otrzymanie napełniacza zaprojektowanego pod indywidualne potrzeby finalnego materiału kompozytowego, zapewniając większą adhezję do osnowy, lepsze zwilżanie czy wreszcie, co bardzo istotne, dobrą dyspergowalność przy mieszaniu z osnową. W pracy zaprezentowano metodę syntezy sferycznej krzemionki Stöbera modyfikowanej jednoetapowo z użyciem organofunkcyjnego silanu. Na osnowie polipropylenu otrzymano kompozyty z zastosowaniem tak otrzymanego napełniacza. Kompozyt został scharakteryzowany z punktu widzenia właściwości mechanicznych i termicznych. Przeprowadzono również wszechstronną charakterystykę napełniacza w porównaniu do standardowej krzemionki typu Stöbera. Podsumowując, jednoetapowa metoda zol-żel jest interesującą alternatywą dla klasycznych metod syntezy napełniaczy funkcyjnych materiałów kompozytowych.
EN
In this study, ceramic TiO2 thin films were prepared on glass substrates using sol-gel and spin-coating methods from the TNBT/ AcOH/ EtOH/ H2O solution. The obtained coatings were subjected to drying at room temperature and were then calcined in the air at different temperatures in a range of 400–600°C in order to obtain clean TiO2   layers. The surface morphology and chemical composition were characterized with the use of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDX). Research has shown the presence of elements in the TiO2   and the influence of temperatures on layer thickness. Analysis of optical properties and energy gap width of the prepared coatings was determined by means of spectra analysis of absorbance as a function of radiation energy obtained with the use of the UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The obtained spectra of the layers are characterized by a shift of absorption lines towards the visible light wavelengths and the obtained values of band gaps decrease as the calcination temperature rises. The obtained and developed results of TiO2   thin films testify to the wide application possibilities of the layers in elements which use photocatalytic processes such as self-cleaning surfaces, solar cells, pollution removing membranes and optoelectronic components.
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