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EN
Lithium, a rare-earth element, has been in increasing demand. Spodumene flotation is an important and challenging step for lithium extraction and production from lithium ore. In the present work, flotation tests for three pure minerals (i.e., spodumene, quartz and feldspar) and a real spodumene ore were carried out at laboratory scale. The results showed that YOA, a mixture of oleic acid and dodecylamine with the molar ration of 10:1, could be used as collector to produce a spodumene concentrate with grade of 5.59% Li2O from the feed ore with grade of 1.48% Li2O where 85.24% of Li2O was recovered to the concentrate. The measured zeta potential, contact angle and adsorption capacity indicated that YOA was preferentially adsorbed on spodumene instead of on quartz or feldspar, with the spodumene surface being more hydrophobic than that of feldspar or quartz. The adsorption energies of YOA on spodumene were calculated and the results provided insights into the superior flotation performance obtained in the present work.
EN
Micro-encapsulated strawberry fragrance was successfully prepared with wall materials including maltodextrin, sodium octenylsuccinate and gum Arabic. The micro-capsule was added to wallpaper and aromatic wallpaper with strawberry characteristics was obtained. The particle distribution, surface morphology, chemical structure, thermal property and controlled release performance of micro-encapsulated fragrance and aromatic wallpaper were investigated using laser particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-TR), thermal gravity analysis (TGA) and chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results showed that the average diameter of micro-capsule was 2 μm and the particles mainly distributed in the tissues of wallpaper. The result of TGA showed that the micro-capsule had a good stability. Meanwhile, the aromatic wallpaper had strawberry aroma more than 3 months and took on excellent controlled release performance.
EN
High pressure apparatus is widely used in industries, the design of them depends on stress distributions in their walls. Most of high pressure apparatuses are made in form of cylinders. To raise load-bearing capacity and extend operation life for high pressure apparatus, the autofrettage technology is often used. To design autofrettaged high pressure apparatus, it is necessary to study characteristics of stresses in the wall of thick-wall cylinders, including residual stresses and total stresses, etc. In this study, through investigating the characteristics of stresses of cylinders subjected to internal pressure according to the maximum distortion strain energy theory, a set of simplified equations for residual stresses and total stresses are obtained, the safe and optimum load-bearing conditions for autofrettaged cylinders are found out, which are the basis for design of autofrettaged high pressure apparatus.
EN
Novel chromophore GZP1 with D-π-A structure was designed and prepared for its application as a sensor for the recognition of Cu2+ ions in polluted water. Reaction of aldimine condensation was used to synthesize chromophore GZP1. Its chemical structure of was characterized by mass spectrum, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum. Cu2+ ions were recognized via fluorescence spectra. Chromophore GZP1 showed specific detection ability of Cu2+. 14 other metal ions were used as reference. The detection limit was estimated to be 0.06 μmol/dm3 in aqueous solution, which was significantly lower than the typical concentration of blood Cu2+ in normal individuals and the limit of copper(II) in drinking water.
5
Content available remote Ozone Effect On the Properties of Aramid Fabric
EN
The limitation of aramid fiber is its surface property, which results in its very poor interfacial adhesion to most of commercial resins. In order to improve the surface property of the aramid fiber, ozone treatment was carried out in this work. The aramid fabrics were evaluated in terms of surface morphology, wicking effect, tensile property, and ball bursting test. The results showed that the surface morphology of aramid fabrics did not undergo an obvious change; the wicking effect increased slightly with an increase in ozone treatment time; the tenacity and elongation of aramid fibers and fabrics did not significant change after ozone treatment, but the tenacity and elongation of aramid yarns showed significant improvement after ozone treatment, and increased with the increase of ozone treatment time; the ball bursting load and penetration displacement had a slight increase as well after ozone treatment. Therefore, ozone treatment could be one method to improve the surface property of the aramid fiber.
6
Content available remote 3D Numerical Simulation of Laminar Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer through Fabric
EN
The air flow and conjugate heat transfer through the fabric was investigated numerically. The objective of this paper is to study the thermal insulation of fabrics under heat convection or the heat loss of human body under different conditions (fabric structure and contact conditions between the human skin and the fabric). The numerical simulations were performed in laminar flow regime at constant skin temperature (310 K) and constant air flow temperature (273 K) at a speed of 5 m/s. Some important parameters such as heat flux through the fabrics, heat transfer coefficient, and Nusselt number were evaluated. The results showed that the heat loss from human body (the heat transfer coefficient) was smallest or the thermal insulation of fabric was highest when the fabric had no pores and no contact with the human skin, the heat loss from human body (the heat transfer coefficient) was highest when the fabric had pores and the air flow penetrated through the fabric.
EN
In this paper, ionic gelation method was adopted to produce nanocapsules (CNs) encapsulated tuberose fragrance with chitosan (CS) and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) as wall materials. The effects of CS/TPP mass ratio, pH value of CS solution, molecular mass of CS and tuberose fragrance (TF) concentration on particle size and particle size distribution (PDI) of chitosan nanocapsules encapsulated tuberose fragrance (CNTs) were investigated systematically. CNTs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that CNTs were successfully prepared. The optimum preparation conditions were as follows: CS/TPP mass ratio 5:1, pH of CS solution 4.0, and molecular mass of CS 150 kda. CNTs emulsions were also systematically investigated by steady-state shear and oscillatory shear measurements respectively. The rheological behaviors of CNTs were obtained.
EN
l-menthol has been widely used in flavour, food and pharmaceuticals. Because of its high volatility and whisker growth, l-menthol-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex was produced to improve shelf-life, provide protection, and enhance the stability of l-menthol. The inclusion complex was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. The results show that l-menthol was successfully encapsulated in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. l-menthol loading capacity is about 8.44%. Geometries and binding energies of l-menthol-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes were investigated using molecular mechanics calculations. The shape and orientation of the most stable complex, and the minimum binding energy were determined. L-menthol release from complex was determined by thermogravimetric analysis. Two l-menthol release rate peaks were observed at 69.3 and 279.1°C. The l-menthol release reaction order, release activation energy and the preexponential factor were obtained.
EN
β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and its derivatives have been widely used to prepare inclusion complexes. However, systematic research on their thermal stabilities, pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics has rarely been reported. In this paper, thermogravimetric analysis was employed to investigate β-cyclodextrin and its two derivatives, 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and monochlorotriazinyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCT-β-CD). The pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic parameters were obtained. The results show that three stages can be distinguished during the heating process of the above three samples. The temperature of initial decomposition of HP-β-CD (309.5°C is higher than that of β-CD (297.8°C), while the temperature of initial decomposition of MCT-β-CD (231.4°C) is lower than that of β-CD. For the three cyclodextrins, the thermal stability in descending order is HP-β-CD, β-CD and MCT-HP-β-CD. The activation energy values are 350.6, 303.3 and 113.9 KJ/mol, and the pre-exponential factor values are 1.11×1031, 1.37×1026 and 1.39×1010 for β-CD, HP-β-CD and MCT-β-CD respectively.
10
Content available Study on the Wicking Property of Cotton Fabric
EN
In order to study the heat and moisture comfort, the wicking property of textiles has been used as an important and effective index. In this paper, the wicking behaviour of cotton fabric in the warp and weft directions was investigated in terms of the wicking height, rate of wicking, mass increment distribution per centimetre of the wicking height, and the durative wicking height after removal of the wicking liquid reservoir. The results showed that the wicking height square had a good correlation with the time in both the warp and weft directions. The wicking rate was higher in the weft direction than that in the warp, especially at the beginning of the wicking process. The mass increment of fabric per centimetre of the wicking height was inversely proportional to the wicking height; the mass of water absorbed in the fabric did not have a significant difference in the weft and warp directions.
PL
Badanie właściwości zasysania wody jest ważnym wskaźnikiem wykorzystywanym podczas oceny komfortu cieplnego tkanin. W pracy badano właściwości zasysania wody (efekt knota) tkanin bawełnianych w kierunku wątku i osnowy ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem wysokości zasysania, szybkości zasysania, rozkładu przyrostu masy cieczy na centymetr wysokości zasysania oraz czasu utrzymania się wysokości zasysania po usunięciu tkaniny ze zbiornika z cieczą. Wyniki pokazały, że kwadrat wysokości zasysania jest zależny od czasu, zarówno w przypadku osnowy jak i wątku. Szybkość zasysania jest wyższa w kierunku wątku, w szczególności na początku procesu zasysania. Rozkład przyrostu masy cieczy na centymetr wysokości zasysania był odwrotnie proporcjonalny do wysokości zasysania; nie odnotowano znaczącej różnicy w ilości zaabsorbowanej wody w tkaninie w kierunku wątku i osnowy.
EN
CO2 laser treatment can increase the surface roughness of plastic optical fibres (POFs) with the diameter of 0.5 mm and enhance the input intensity and attenuation coefficient accordingly, which is supposed to weaken the side emission of POFs in long distance above 375 mm. TiO2 particles were applied to improve the increasing optical loss of POFs by laser treatment. POFs were first modified with fine TiO2 particles and then treated by CO2 laser with the pixel time from 30 to 120 ìs. The surface morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the changes of micro-structure before and after laser treatment and the distribution of TiO2 particles. The illumination intensity and attenuation coefficient were calculated and compared in two methods. It is visible that the evaluation by model LLF2 with two parts is more suitable for the fitting of experimental data and shows higher input intensity and lower attenuation than that by standard power function. Both the evaluation methods exhibit that the utilization of TiO2 particles could play an active role in the enhancement of side emission of POFs treated by CO2 laser.
12
Content available remote Air Permeability of Polyester Nonwoven Fabrics
EN
Air permeability is one of the most important properties of non-woven fabrics in many applications. This paper aims to investigate the effects of thickness, porosity and density on the air permeability of needle-punched non-woven fabrics and compare the experimental values with two models which are based on hydraulic radius theory and drag theory, respectively. The air permeability of the samples was measured by an air permeability tester FX3300. The results showed that the air permeability of non-woven fabrics decreased with the increase in thickness and density of samples, increased with the increase of porosity, and the air permeability was not directly proportional to the pressure gradient. Meanwhile, the prediction model based on hydraulic radius theory had a better agreement with experimental values than the model based on drag theory, but the values were much higher than the experimental results, especially for higher porosity and higher pressure gradient.
EN
In this paper, a novel data denoising method is proposed for seismic exploration with a vibrator which produces a chirp-like signal. The method is based on fractional wavelet transform (FRWT), which is similar to the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT). It can represent signals in the fractional domain, and has the advantages of multi-resolution analysis as the wavelet transform (WT). The fractional wavelet transform can process the reflective chirp signal as pulse seismic signal and decompose it into multi-resolution domain to denoise. Compared with other methods, FRWT can offer wavelet transform for signal analysis in the timefractional- frequency plane which is suitable for processing vibratory seismic data. It can not only achieve better denoising performance, but also improve the quality and continuity of the reflection syncphase axis.
14
Content available remote An analysis of effective thermal conductivity of heterogeneous materials
EN
Effective thermal conductivity (ETC) is a very important index for evaluating the thermal property of heterogeneous materials, which include more than two different kinds of materials. Several analytical models were proposed for predicting the ETC of heterogeneous materials, but in some cases, these models cannot provide very accurate predictions. In this work, several analytical models and numerical simulations were studied in order to investigate the differences among them. In addition, some factors which would influence the ETC of heterogeneous materials were investigated by numerical simulation. The results demonstrated that the numerical simulation can provide very accurate prediction, indicated that different analytical models should be selected to predict specific problems based on their assumptions, and suggested that more variables need to be considered in order to improve these analytical models, such as inclusion shape, inclusion size, distribution of inclusions and contact area. Besides, numerical method could be an effective and reliable way to obtain the ETC of heterogeneous materials with any kind of complicated structures.
EN
Numerical simulation of resistivity logging-while-drilling (LWD) tool response provides guidance for designing novel logging instruments and interpreting real-time logging data. In this paper, based on selfadaptive hp-finite element method (hp-FEM) algorithm, we analyze LWD tool response against model parameters and briefly illustrate geosteering capabilities of directional resistivity LWD. Numerical simulation results indicate that the change of source spacing is of obvious influence on the investigation depth and detecting precision of resistivity LWD tool; the change of frequency can improve the resolution of lowresistivity formation and high-resistivity formation. The simulation results also indicate that the self-adaptive hp-FEM algorithm has good convergence speed and calculation accuracy to guide the geologic steering drilling and it is suitable to simulate the response of resistivity LWD tools.
EN
The autofrettage technique is an effective and important measure to improve load-bearing capacity and safety and to even distributions of stresses for pressure vessels. Based on the classical fundamental theory on autofrettage and by theoretical analysis of residual stresses, the total stresses, the overstrain and the load-bearing capacity, etc., in view of the cylindrical pressure vessels with outside-to-inside radius ratio larger than the critical ratio, the laws contained in the autofrettage theory are revealed, the essential cause and reason for the obtained laws are analyzed, the inherent and meaning relations between various parameters in the autofrettage theory are brought to light, and the safe depth of the plastic zone (overstrain) as well as the conditions of loading or optimum operation conditions are found out. It is shown that under the optimum operation conditions, pressure vessels are not only safe but also economic, and the equations of the autofrettage theory are simplified greatly and are quite terse, as a result, the essential relations between various parameters in the autofrettage theory are distinct, and these equations are convenient for application in engineering practice.
EN
The ability of polyamide 6 nanofibers membrane (P6NM) to remove acid dyes from effluent solution by adsorption has been studied. Equilibrium isotherms for the adsorption of three acid dyes, Acid blue 41 (AB41), Acid blue 78 (AB78), and Acid yellow 42 (AY42), on P6NM were measured experimentally. Simulated wastewater of acid dyes with the concentration of 10 mg/L for sorption process electrospun polyamide 6 with mass per unit area 12 g/m2 was used as the sorbent material. Ten sets of P6NM were dipped in separate simulated effluent. The weight of the original P6NM and the concentration of left solution were detected. Results were analyzed by the Langmuir equation using a linearized correlation coefficient. And it showed that all the dyes tested could follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, which gave excellent correlation for all the dyes.
EN
In this paper, the effects of position of substrates in flames, preparation time, stability of flames and catalyst precursors on the synthesis of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) by ethanol catalytic combustion (ECC) were investigated. For investigating the effects of these influence factors on the synthesis of CNFs, several sets of controlled experiments were performed, such as preparation experiments with different position of substrates in flames, different preparation time, stable and unstable flames, and different catalyst precursors. In our experiments, the catalyst precursors were iron nitrate, cobalt nitrate, nickel nitrate, and iron chloride, cobalt chloride, nickel chloride. The as-synthesized products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectroscopy. Our results indicate that the optimal position of substrates in flames is more than 1cm and less than 2.5cm, the optimal preparation time is more than 5min and less than 30min for massive yield, stable flames would be tent to synthesize CNFs with mainly single-type morphology and could improve the graphitization of CNFs, and the catalyst precursors obviously have effects on the synthesis of CNFs.
PL
W niniejszej pracy zbadany został wpływ położenia substratów w płomieniach, czasu przygotowania, stabilności płomieni i prekursorów katalizatora na syntezę nanowłókien węglowych (CNFs) metodaą katalitycznego spalania etanolu (ECC). W celu zbadania wpływu tych czynników na syntezę nanowłókien węglowych przeprowadzono kilka zestawów kontrolowanych eksperymentów, przy różnej pozycji podłoży w płomieniach, różnym czasie przygotowania, płomieniach stabilnych i niestabilnych i przy użyciu różnych prekursorów katalizatora. W naszych eksperymentach jako prekursory katalizatora stosowano azotany: żelaza, kobaltu i niklu oraz chlorki żelaza, kobaltu i niklu. Tak otrzymane produkty syntezy scharakteryzowano za pomocą skaningowej mikroskopii elektronowej (SEM), transmisyjnej mikroskopii elektronowej (TEM) i spektroskopii Raman'a. Nasze wyniki wskazują, że optymalna pozycja podłoży w płomieniach to więcej niż 1 cm i mniej niż 2,5 cm, a optymalny czas przygotowania to więcej niż 5 min i mniej niż 30 min dla dużej wydajności. Stabilność płomieni będzie sprzyjać syntezie nanowłókien o morfologii jednego typu i może poprawić ich grafityzacje, a rodzaj prekursora katalizatora ma wpływ na syntezę nanowłókien.
19
Content available remote Synthesis and characterization of SiO2 and SiC micro/nanostructures
EN
Silica-based nanowires, straight nanorods, straight Y-shaped słlica nanorods, flower-like microstructures, and SiC/Si02 core-shell coaxial nanocables have been generated through a simple thermal evaporation method. The synthesized samples were characterized by means ot" scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Raman spectrum. Generated silica nanowires with a diameter of about lOOnm and length of up to several tens of micrometers, straight silica nanorods and Y-shaped nanorods with a diameter about 50-200nm, and novel flower-like silica microstructures all are amorphous and consist only of silicon oxide, and have a neat smooth surface. Generated SiC/SiO? core-shell coaxial nanocables have a crystalline core and a surrounding amorphous layer. The results show that the present method should be possible to synthesis various micro/nanostructures under appropriate experimental conditions. These nanostructures may find applications as building blocks in nanomechanical or nanoelectronic devices.
PL
Nanodruty na podłożu Si02, proste (straight) nanopręty, krzemionkowe nanopręty w kształcie litery Y, mikrostruktury kwiatowe, SiC/Si02 rdzeniowo-powłokowe kable koncentryczne zostały wytworzone przy zastosowaniu prostej metody odparowania cieplnego. Poddane syntezie próbki scharakteryzowano przy pomocy skaningowej mikroskopii elektronowej, transmisyjnej mikroskopii elektonowej, wysoko rozdzielczej transmisyjnej mikroskopii elektronowej, rentgenospektroskopii z dyspresją energii widma oraz widmaRaman'a. Wytworzone krzemionkowe mikrodruty o średnicy około lOOnm oraz długości dochodzącej do kilkudziesięciu mikrometyrów, proste (straight) krzeminokowe nanopręty oraz nanopręty w kształcie litery Y o średnicy około 50-200nm jak również krzemionkowe mikrostruktury kwiatowe są wszystkie amorficzne i składają się jedynie z tlenku krzemowego wykazując uporządkowaną, gładką powierzchnię. Wytworzone SiC/SiOi rdzeniowo-powłokowe kable koncentryczne posiadają rdzeń krystaliczny oraz otaczają go warstwa amorficzną. Wyniki wykazują, że metoda o której mowa może być zastosowana do syntezy różnych mikro/nanostruktur przy zachowaniu odpowiednich reżimów eksperymentalnych. Nanostruktury, o których mowa, mogą znaleźć zastosowanie jako bloki konstrukcyjne w urządzeniach mechanicznych i nanoelektrycznych.
EN
A simple combustion approach for synthesizing bamboo-Iike carbon nanotubes was proposed by using liquid ethanol flame on the substrates. Copper piąte was employed as substrate, ethanol as carbon source and fuel, and iron chloride or iron nitrate solution as catalyst precursors, respectively. The as-grown black powder was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that some carbon nanotubes with good bamboo-Iike structure were obtained in our products, and these bamboo-like carbon nanotubes have diameters of about 10-100nm and length of up to several tens of micrometers. However, the morphology and microstructure of bamboo-like carbon nanotubes are affected by synthesis conditions, such as concentration of catalyst precursor solution, synthesis temperaturę, synthesis time, and flame perturbations etc. According to observation and analysis of TEM images, we tentatively propose and discuss for the possible growth mechanism of bamboo-like carbon nanotubes. The results also show that the present method is simpler to synthesize carbon nanomaterials, such as nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and nanoparticles etc. In addition, this method has some advantages, such as flexible synthesis conditions, simple setup, easier to be controlled, morę economic, and environment-friendly.
PL
Zaproponowano prostą metodę spalania w celu przeprowadzenia syntezy nanorurek węglowych o strukturze bambusowej przy użyciu płomienia z ciekłego etanolu na podłożu. Jako podłoże zastosowano płytkę miedzianą, etanol jako paliwo wglo-we oraz roztwów chlorku żelaza spełniających funkcje prekursora katalicznego. Powstały czarny proszek scharakteryzowano przy użyciu skaningowej mikroskopii elektronowej (SEM), transmisyjnej mikroskopii elektronowej (TEM) oraz spektroskopii Raman'a. Wyniki wskazują, że w naszych wyrobach udało się otrzymać nanorurki węglowe o silnej strukturze bambusowej o średnicy około 10 - lOOnm i długości dochodzącej do kilkudziesięciu mikrometrów. Jednakże na morfologię i mikrostrukturę tychże nanorurek wpłynęły warunki syntezy, takie jak, stężenie roztworu prekursora katalitycznego, temperatura syntezy, czas syntezy, niestabilność płomienia etc, Jak wykazały obserwacje i analiza obrazu TEM należałoby przyjrzeć się i przedyskutować możliwy mechanizm wzrostu nanorurek węglowych o bambusowej strukturze. Ponadto wyniki wskazują, że obecnie stosowana metoda syntetyzowania nanomateriałów węglowych takich jak nanorurki, nanowłókna węlowe i nanocząsteczki jest prostsza. Ponadto posiada zalety w postaci dobieralnych warunków syntezy, prostego oprzyrządowania, łatwego monitorowania, a także jeat mniej kosztowna i przyjazna środowisku.
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