The article deals with the influence of surface roughness, processed by various technological methods, on the wear-resistance characteristics of the surface layer of high-precision parts of ship machinery and mechanisms. It considers various technological methods of processing parts; rotary cutting, grinding with vibration damping, rotational honing, grinding with metered removal of surface material and elastic rolling. It was found that the application of rotational boring as a method of finishing not only forms an additional, highly wear-resistant surface layer on the surface of the parts, but also provides high productivity. The process of grinding with vibration damping significantly reduces the transfer of abrasive particles to the surface being treated, and improves the accuracy, quality and wear resistance of the surface layer. On rotational honing, the discontinuity of the cutting of individual grains is combined with the continuity of the chip formation process; the metal does not adhere to the working surface of the cutting part of the tool, and the temperature in the cutting zone decreases, resulting in a high-quality, wear-resistant surface layer on the parts. When lapping with dosed removal of the material of the surface layer, the optimum thickness of the highly-deformable surface layer is ensured, due to the possibility of controlling the abrasive action on the surface to be treated, which promotes the formation of a reliable, wear-resistant layer. Elastic rolling allows processing of non-rigid, thin-walled parts by stable, balanced, controlled forces, without reducing their accuracy, quality and wear-resistant characteristics.