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EN
The paper concerns GMT application for studies of the geophysical and geomorphological settings of the Weddell Sea. Its western part is occupied by the back-arc basin developed during geologic evolution of the Antarctic. The mapping presents geophysical settings reflecting tectonic formation of the region, glaciomarine sediment distribution and the bathymetry. The GlobSed grid highlighted the abnormally large thickness of sedimentary strata resulted from the long lasting sedimentation and great subsidence ratio. The sediment thickness indicated significant influx (>13,000m) in the southern segment. Values of 6,000–7,000 m along the peninsula indicate stability of the sediments influx. The northern end of the Filchner Trough shows increased sediment supply. The topography shows variability -7,160–4,763 m. The ridges in the northern segment and gravity anomalies (>75 mGal) show parallel lines stretching NW-SE (10°–45°W, 60°–67°S) which points at the effects of regional topography. The basin is dominated by the slightly negative gravity >-30 mGal. The geoid model shows a SW-NE trend with the lowest values <18 m in the south, the highest values >20m in the NE and along the Coats Land. The ripples in the north follow the geometry of the submarine ridges and channels proving correlation with topography and gravitational equipotential surface.
EN
The study focuses on the Makran Trench in the Arabian Sea basin, in the north Indian Ocean. The area is tectonically active, with a system of ridges and fracture zones morphologically separating the Arabian Sea. The study examined the relationships between the topographic structure of the Makran Trench and the regional settings of the Arabian Sea: geomorphology, sediment thickness, geophysical fields, geology and tectonic lineaments. The methodology is based on the GMT scripting toolset. The spatial analysis includes high-resolution datasets GEBCO, EGM2008, GlobSed and data on tectonics, geology, geophysics, sediment thickness and topographic terrain model visualized by GMT. The paper also defined a way in which the proprietary ESRI data format can be transformed into the freely available GMT geospatial data of the geoid EGM2008 model. The geomorphological modeling included the automatic digitization of 300-km width cross-section profiles of the trench demonstrating its submarine relief. The analysis showed a correlation between the geological and tectonic structures, asymmetric geomorphology and geophysical anomaly fields. Gravity data indicate a crustal structure with anomalies generated by the bending of the lithosphere into the Makran subduction zone and density variations in the mantle reflected on the gravity maps. The gravity correlates with lineaments of the geomorphic structures. Bathymetric analysis revealed the most frequent depth (448 samples) at −3,250 to −3,500 m, followed by intervals: −3,000 to −3,250 m, −2,750 to −3,000 m. The declining continental slope correlates with gradually decreasing depths as equally distributed bins: 124 samples (−2,500 to −2,750 m), 96 (−2,250 to −2,500 m), 86 (−2,000 to −2,250 m). The trench is an asymmetric form with a high steepness on the continental slope of Pakistan and low steepness with a flat valley on the oceanward side. The multi-source data integration is important for seafloor mapping and the geomorphological analysis of oceanic trenches hidden to direct observations. The machine learning methods of GMT and cartographic modeling provide possibilities for the effective visualization of the trench. The comparison of the geomorphology with gravity anomalies, tectonic lineation, geological structures and topographical variations provides more detail to studies of the seafloor in the Arabian Sea.
PL
Dzięki zachowanym austriackim mapom wojskowym z XVIII i XIX wieku istnieje możliwość zbadania zmian przestrzennych, jakie miały miejsce m.in. na terenach Polski południowej. Szczególnie cenna jest tzw. mapa Miega – opracowanie wykonane w skali 1:28 800 (jeden cal = 400 sążni), obejmujące swoim zakresem teren Cesarstwa Austriackiego, sięgającego w tamtym okresie od Wenecji po Warszawę. Stanowi ona znakomitą bazę i punkt wyjściowy badań z zakresu historii urbanistyki – badań, które nie doczekały się do tej pory szerokiej realizacji. Niniejszy artykuł dołącza do nielicznych tekstów tego typu.
EN
Owing to preserved Austrian military maps from the 18th and 19th century, there is a possibility to examine spatial changes that occurred e.g. in southern Poland. Particularly valuable is the so called Mieg’s map – drawn in the scale 1:28800 (one inch = 400 fathoms), covering the area of the Austrian Empire which at that time stretched from Venice to Warsaw. The map constitutes an excellent basis and a springboard for the research on the history of urban design which has not been studied in-depth so far. This article is an addition to few texts of that kind.
EN
In the study of historical architecture, especially the one that was transformed or ruined, of key importance is iconography, i.e. views of and panoramas of cities or their parts or individual objects.
PL
W badaniach nad architekturą historyczną, a w szczególności pozostającą w stanie mocno przekształconym lub zrujnowanym, kluczową rolę odgrywa ikonografia, czyli widoki i panoramy miast lub ich fragmentów bądź poszczególnych obiektów.
EN
The study area is focused on the Kuril–Kamchatka Trench, North Pacific Ocean. This region is geologically complex, notable for the lithosphere activity, tectonic plates subduction and active volcanism. The submarine geomorphology is complicated through terraces, slopes, seamounts and erosional processes. Understanding geomorphic features of such a region requires precise modelling and effective visualization of the high-resolution data sets. Therefore, current research presents a Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) based algorithm proposing a solution for effective data processing and precise mapping: iterative module-based scripting for the automated digitizing and modelling. Methodology consists of the following steps: topographic mapping of the raster grids, marine gravity and geoid; semi-automatic digitizing of the orthogonal cross-section profiles; modelling geomorphic trends of the gradient slopes; computing raster surfaces from the xyz data sets by modules nearneighbor and XYZ2grd. Several types of the cartographic projections were used: oblique Mercator, Mercator cylindrical, conic equal-area Albers, conic equidistant. The cross-section geomorphic profiles in a perpendicular direction across the two selected segments of the trench were automatically digitized. Developed algorithm of the semi-automated digitizing of the profiles enabled to visualize gradients of the slope steepness of the trench. The data were then modelled to show gradient variations in its two segments. The results of the comparative geomorphic analysis of northern and southern transects revealed variations in different parts of the trench. Presented research provided more quantitative insights into the structure and settings of the submarine landforms of the hadal trench that still remains a question for the marine geology. The research demonstrated the effectiveness of the GMT: a variety of modules, approaches and tools that can be used to produce high-quality mapping and graphics. The GMT listings are provided for repeatability.
PL
Dyscyplina naukowa geodezji i kartografii znajduje się w okresie głębokich przemian. Rośnie wpływ technologii związanych z informacją przestrzenną. W przyszłości prawie wszystkie techniczne poczynania w zakresie geodezji i kartografii będą podporządkowane systemom informacji przestrzennej. W artykule podjęto próbę przedstawienia wybranych problemów naukowo-badawczych, które realizowano na potrzeby gospodarki i administracji publicznej i przez sylwetki niektórych profesorów, którzy wnieśli znaczący wkład zarówno do rozwoju teorii i technologii, jak i do organizacji badań oraz nauczania w zakresie geodezji i kartografii. Przedstawiono wybrane, ważniejsze osiągnięcia z różnych okresów rozwoju badań i technologii w  zakresie geodezji i kartografii.
EN
The scientific discipline of geodesy and cartography is in a period of profound changes. The impact of technologies related to spatial information is still growing. In the future, almost all technical activities in the field of geodesy and cartography will depend on spatial information systems. The article attempts to present selected scientific and research problems that were implemented for the needs of the economy and public administration and by the profiles of professors who contributed significantly to the development of theory and technology as well as to the organization of research and teaching in the field of geodesy and cartography. Selected, significant achievements from different periods of research and technology development in the field of geodesy and cartography were presented.
EN
The post-1989 transition from a centrally planned economy to a free-market economy generated new investment opportunities in Poland, heavily impacted by computerization. The article analyses the genesis, course and effects of implementation of computerization in a cartographic publishing house which spent several decades operating on a typical Central and Eastern European market. It also highlights the multi-dimensional nature of this process, presenting it in the context of political and socio-economic changes. The author indicates that the factors hindering efficient implementation of computerization were the very qualities which in the past determined the enterprise’s market potential: a great reserve of source and technical materials for publishing maps, efficient technological facilities, experienced employees and the management who sought modernization, but underestimated the potential of computerization and had to deal with its own psychological barriers related to the issue.
EN
Eye tracking constitutes a valuable tool for the examination of human visual behavior since it provides objective measurements related to the performed visual strategies during the observation of any type of visual stimuli. Over the last decade, eye movement analysis contributed substantially to the better understanding of how visual attention processes work in different types of maps. Considering the clear need for the examination of map user reaction during the observation of realistic cartographic products (i.e. static maps, animated maps, interactive and multimedia maps), a critical amount of experimental studiem were performed in order to study different aspects related to map reading process by the cartographic community. The foundation of these studies is based on theories and models that have been developed in similar research domains (i.e. psychology, neuroscience etc.), while the research outcomes that produced over these years can be used directly for the design of more effective and efficient maps. The aim of the present article is to summarize and present the current panorama of the existing eye tracking studies in cartographic research appeared over the last decade. Additionally, methodological contributions (including analysis tools) of cartographic society in the field of eye movement analysis are reported, while existing challenges and future perspectives are also discussed.
EN
The Archives of Photogrammetry, Cartography and Remote Sensing is a journal which, in the era of technological development of photogrammetry and remote sensing and changes related to cartography in the field of common digitization of sources and processing of spatial information in GIS environment, has been one of the most popular places for publishing articles in this field in Poland for years. Thirty volumes published throughout 25 years have provided nearly 1000 scientific articles and monographic studies summarizing the scientific work of several hundred authors from dozens of scientific institutions and production companies in Poland. This article is an attempt to summarize the achievements published in the journal in the field of bibliometric evaluation and statistical data of the publications from the time of the existence of this inter-association journal. The text quotes the history of the journal, indicates statistics on the number of articles, their citation with the most popular items, authors, reviewers. This evaluation was compared with other national and foreign journals.
PL
Archiwum Fotogrametrii, Kartografii i Teledetekcji jest czasopismem, które w dobie rozwoju technologicznego fotogrametrii i teledetekcji oraz zmian związanych z kartografią w zakresie powszechnej digitalizacji źródeł i przetwarzania informacji przestrzennej w środowisku GIS jest od lat jednym z najpopularniejszych miejsc publikacji artykułów w tym zakresie w Polsce. Wydanych trzydzieści tomów w 25 lat dostarczyło blisko 1000 artykułów naukowych i opracowań o charakterze monograficznym podsumowujących prace naukowe kilkuset autorów z kilkudziesięciu ośrodków naukowych i firm produkcyjnych w Polsce. Niniejszy artykuł jest próbą podsumowania dorobku opublikowanego w periodyku w zakresie oceny bibliometrycznej oraz danych statystycznych publikacji z czasów istnienia tego międzystowarzyszeniowego czasopisma. W tekście przytoczono historię czasopisma, wskazano statystyki odnośnie do liczby artykułów, ich cytowalności ze wskazaniem najpopularniejszych pozycji, autorów, recenzentów. Ocenę tę porównano z innymi czasopismami krajowymi i zagranicznymi.
EN
The aim of the article is to present different relief visualization techniques created using only free and open source GIS tools, such as QGIS and RVT. The criteria for selection of these techniques are that they should be, on the one hand, simple and fast for implementation and on the other suitable for multiple visualization purposes. Here we present several techniques which combine hillshade with other relief data layers derived from DEM and an assessment of advantages and disadvantages of their visualization.
EN
The authors examine the impact of the development of image-based remote sensing systems on the activities of state administrations in the cartographic production and making of geographical information publicly available in the Eastern Bloc countries. A convergence of cartography, secrecy, and power occurred during the Cold War. Through investigation of facts relevant to the acquisition image data of the Earth surface performed by the USA and the USSR, it aims to examine the key questions of why the logic behind the development of cartography in the Eastern Bloc countries after World War II was distorted. The lack of logic was reflected in the fact that the amount of information actually presented on maps decreased with an increase in the information about the surface of the Earth acquired by the means of remote sensing systems. It was suggested that image data in the member states of the Eastern Bloc, in spite of their restricted use and a drop in the informational value of maps, was the main factor behind the creation, detail, and geometric accuracy of civilian maps. Proving this thesis involved analyzing the correlations between the achievements in the field of remote sensing and the quality of maps developed during the Cold War in the Eastern Bloc states.
EN
The article presents military itineraries, i.e. planned descriptions of the routes of troops. Such sources constitute the oldest objects of military cartography. They also enable reconstruction of strategic concepts and operational activities planned by commanders. The time of Stefan Batory was discussed in the article because such cartographic support was the basis for often quite complicated planning. Itineraries could be perfectly used both during mobilization and relocation of the army, and also during military operations. They were especially useful in coordination of operations of two or more numbers of regiments or allied armies. Analysed examples suggest that at the time of the reign of Stefan Batory the early modern cartographic turn took place.
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