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1
Content available Tvorba územného plánu mesta Košice
SK
Prednáška je zameraná na prípravu nového územného plánu mesta Košicez hľadiska vecných cieľov a princípov, ktoré sa v jeho riešení uplatňujú, a z hľadiska metodického prístupu k jeho tvorbe. V prvej časti bude prednáška zameraná na charakteristiku mesta Košice, jeho polohu v prírodnom prostredí a úlohu v sídelnej štruktúre, vývoj mesta v jednotlivých obdobiach a spoločenských zriadeniach a vymenovanie pozitívnych a negatívnych faktorov mesta. V druhej časti bude prednáška zameraná na hlavné princípy a ciele, na ktorých je koncepcia tvorby nového územného plánu založená a charakteristiku novej metódy spracovania územného plánu.
EN
The lecture is focused on the preparation of a new territorial plan of the city of Košice in terms of the objectives and principles used in its solution. The terms used in the creation of the methodical approach. The lecture will focus on the characteristics of the city of Košice. Its location in the natural environment. Its role in the settlement structure, the development of the city in particular periods and social institutions and the appointment of positive and negative factors of the city in the first part. In the second part of the lecture we will focus on the main principles and objectives underlying the concept of creating a new zoning plan established and characterization of a new method of processing land-use plan.
EN
Through a 3 week workshop in March 2014 a group of third year students from The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture will create their own imaginary city based on phenomenological experiments in Copenhagen and an interpretation of these experiences combining conventional and digital modelling. The workshop serves as an educationbased research project in which we want to investigate the potentials of working consciously with bodily movement as a generator in the creation of architecture by combining actual experience of the city with conventional model building and digital modelling seen through latest Virtual Reality technologies. Thus the research question is two-folded: What kind of architecture can we imagine and conjure through movement combining classical tools and methods with newest technology and how do we respond to these new tools and integrate them in the education of future architects? This paper is therefore likewise divided. The first part is about the city and the architectural tools involved in the workshop. This section is titled Representing the City. The second part is elab.
3
Content available remote The tightening of censorship rules in cartography in Poland 1944–1989
EN
In this article an attempt to formulate an answer to the question what influence the apparatus of power had on Polish cartographic publications for general use in the years 1944–1989 was made. To this end, written and cartographic archival documents and conduct an analysis of maps for the deformation of their contents were analysed by the author. Three sub-periods differing in the activity of the apparatus of power in relation to maps and cartographic activities were singled out. The years 1944–1949 cover a time of relative freedom in conducting cartographic mapping ending in the development of a legal basis for its effective limitation; the period from 1950 to 1963 was one of so-called “minimum content” mapping, while the years 1964–1989 cover a time in which the apparatus of power impose a duty to deform maps in cartometric terms. The results of the analysis prove the thesis that maps intended for general use published during the period 1944–1989 are an important historical source documenting the times in which they were developed, and a fairly unreliable source of information about elements of the geographical environment, particularly anthropogenic ones. This paper not only evaluates the impact of the apparatus of power on Polish cartographic publications, but also shows the social effects of counterfeiting maps.
PL
W artykule podjęłam próbę sformułowania odpowiedzi na pytanie, jaki wpływ wywarł aparat władzy w latach 1944–1989 na polskie publikacje kartograficzne do użytku powszechnego. W tym celu przeanalizowałam archiwalne dokumenty pisane i kartograficzne oraz dokonałam analizy map pod kątem deformacji ich treści. Wyodrębniłam trzy podokresy różniące się aktywnością aparatu władzy w odniesieniu do map i działalności kartograficznej. Lata 1944–1949 obejmują czas względnej swobody w prowadzeniu prac kartograficznych zakończony tworzeniem podstaw prawnych do ich skutecznego ograniczenia; lata 1950–1963 to okres wydawania map obrazujących tzw. „minimum treści”, lata 1964–1989 obejmują czas, w którym aparat władzy narzucił obowiązek deformowania map pod względem kartometrycznym. Wyniki analizy udowodniły tezę, że mapy przeznaczone do użytku powszechnego wydane w okresie 1944–1989 są niekwestionowanym źródłem historycznym dokumentującym czasy, w których powstały i mało wiarygodnym źródłem informacji o elementach środowiska geograficznego, zwłaszcza jego elementach antropogenicznych. W artykule oceniono nie tylko wpływ aparatu władzy na polskie publikacje kartograficzne, ale także przedstawiono społeczne skutki fałszowania map.
PL
Dostępność dużej ilości danych skłania do przekazania za pomocą mapy możliwie bogatej informacji, co często skutkuje przeładowaniem opracowań kartograficznych. Tę sytuację dobrze ilustruje przykład planów miast, które należą do najbardziej złożonych prezentacji kartograficznych. Przedstawiają one bowiem obszary o największej koncentracji różnego rodzaju obiektów i form działalności człowieka. Wobec faktu, że plany miast należą do najczęściej wykorzystywanych opracowań kartograficznych problem efektywności przekazu informacji za ich pośrednictwem nabiera szczególnego znaczenia. Chociaż złożoność od wielu lat jest przedmiotem zainteresowania kartografów, jednak żadna z dotychczas stosowanych w kartografii miar złożoności nie pozwala na jej automatyczne określanie w przypadku tak graficznie skomplikowanych opracowań jak plany miast. Konieczne było więc zaproponowanie nowej metody, pozwalającej na wyznaczanie złożoności graficznej tych opracowań. W tym celu zastosowane zostały techniki cyfrowego przetwarzania obrazów. Zaproponowana metoda zapewnia porównywalność map obciążonych różnymi elementami (sygnaturami punktowymi, liniowymi, napisami etc.). Na podstawie analizy wybranych materiałów kartograficznych można stwierdzić, iż metoda ta pozwala na ilościową ocenę obciążenia graficznego planów miast przy pomocy sformalizowanego wskaźnika.
EN
During the centuries the main problem on mapping was to obtain the sufficient and reliable source data; presently, an appropriate selection of the desired information from the deluge of available data is a problem. An availability of large amount of data induces to transfer the possibly rich information by means of map. It often results in overloading the cartographic documents, that is why they become less communicative and difficult to read. This situation is well illustrated by the example of city maps which are the most commonly used and thus the most frequently published cartographic products. Many user groups with different needs as well as preparation to read maps use these high volume publications. Therefore, the maps communication effectiveness problem is of particular importance. The city maps are the most complex cartographic presentations, because the presented areas are the places with the greatest concentration of different kinds of objects and forms of human activity arising from the civilization development. Conveying these specific features on the city maps leads to the problem of selecting the most relevant elements of content in terms of user’s needs, since presenting all objects and their characteristics is impossible if the city map readability is to be kept. Although complexity has been the cartographers’ object of interest for many years, because it exerts an impact on readability and effectiveness of cartographic documents, none of the measures used so far may be applied for automatic determination of complexity of such graphically complicated objects as city maps. Therefore a novel approach was needed for these applications. For that purpose digital image processing techniques have been proposed and successfully applied by the authors. The analysis of the spatial distribution of the objects’ edges on the map surface, calculated using continuous wavelet transform, is the basis of the proposed measure. The method allows for comparison of complexity of city maps loaded by different type of graphical elements (point signatures, lines, text, etc.). Extended analyses of selected cartographic materials proved the usability of the method for quantitative estimation of city map complexity via formal index.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono klasyfikację zakresu treści planów wybranych miast europejskich. Zakres treści planów poddano analizie metodą graficznego porządkowania danych Bertina, a następnie dokonano klasyfikacji uzyskanych wyników, otrzymując w rezultacie podział planów miast na pięć grup podobnych pod względem zakresu przedstawianej na nich treści.
EN
City maps are ones of the most often published and used cartographic publications. They are used by many groups of readers with various requirements and preparation to map reading. In the last two decades particularly significant changes in richness, variety, graphic level and detail took place in the maps of cities in East and Middle Europe. They followed the political transformation of the early 90-ties which abolished censorship and introduced market economy. In Western Europe situation was quite different because cartography developed continuously, without being distracted by external factors, such as censorship. In order to compare the range of contents of European city maps 50 plans of 20 cities had been chosen, mainly capitals, published by leading private cartographic publishers from the same country as the city itself. Bertin's method of graphic arrangement of data was used to compare the range of contents. Performed analyses showed 5 groups of city maps with common features as well as plans of 5 cities the contents of which did not belong to any of the groups. The analyses showed differences between the contents of city maps published in East and Middle Europe and those published in West Europe. The contents of maps published in East and Central Europe is usually much richer than in those from the West. This results from different conditions which influenced the development of city cartography in different parts of Europe. The analyses made it possible to determine the elements of contents which constitute a frame of European city maps, and appear on each map, irrespective of the presented area, place of publication, richness of contents or editorial level, as well as elements characteristic for particular publications.
6
Content available remote Geoportale miejskie i turystyczne na przykładzie Częstochowy
EN
Internet portals and geoportals are indispensable elements of information systems created to satisfy public information needs. Local governments face particular challenge in this context. City of Częstochowa has a great tourist potential. The city council took initiative to create Municipal Tourist Information System (MSIT). Its geoportal is available in Internet and in 50 info kiosks. The system includes an information database for tourists and pilgrims. The city council cooperates with local businesses providing services to the tourists (e.g. restaurants, hotels) to keep the database up-todate. This paper presents the technical architecture of the solution as well as the process of system implementation, including formal, legal and financial aspects. Usefulness of geoportal and its relation to INSPIRE is discussed.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano metodykę kompleksowego, interdyscyplinarnego podejścia do badania dawnych planów. Podejście to zastosowano do analizy i oceny najstarszego planu Lublina - interesującego dokumentu kartograficznego i ważnego materiału historycznego o znaczeniu ponadregionalnym.
EN
Maps of the past are the focus of interest of many groups of specialists; therefore various methodologies. Complex approaches which combine mathematic-cartographical (numerical) and historical (descriptive) methods are rare. The article presents such an approach to the oldest plan of the entire city of Lublin. Plan de la ville et fauxbourgs de Lublin is linked to the events of Tarnogrod confederation, which makes it a historical document of more than regional significance. The hand drawn document dated 1716 is authored by d'Orken, possibly a military engineer. The first stage was the evaluation of the plan of Lublin as a historic cartographical item. The applied criteria included: mathematical base, legend, range of contents, graphic solutions, use of color, lettering, technical quality and composition. Two of the plan's features are especially noteworthy. First, its contents go beyond a typical general information plan - a large number of elements referring to the negotiations of Tarnogrod confederation make it more of a 'thematic' plan. Second important feature is the application of innovative linear hachures to present relief and abandoning the use of perspective. The second stage was the analysis of plan's contents. At this stage the interdisciplinary character of complex research in the field of history of cartography became evident. As a result a number of controversies concerning interrelations of various objects within the city in the early 18th century were solved. Also, some thematic contents were researched for the first time ever. The final stage was the cartometry analysis of the plan. At first a number of points were selected, which could be recognized in the plan and assigned to the points in today's city. These 30 points created a base for a metering network which made it possible to calculate average local scales, distances, areas, locations and angles (fig. 5-10). These analyses established a number of zones of similar distortion. The least distorted ones are located in the center of the plan, where most of the contents can be found. The most distorted area is in the eastern part of the plan, which was unimportant for its users taking part in the negotiations of Tarnogrod confederation.
PL
Miejski serwis internetowy zawiera wielostronna charakterystykę danego miasta (obejmującą miedzy innymi informacje dotyczące położenia, historii, gospodarki i turystyki) z uwzględnieniem wiadomości bieżących. Przedstawienia kartograficzne są użyteczne właściwie przy prezentacji każdego z wymienionych zagadnień. Stosownie do przedmiotu serwisu podstawowa role należy przypisać ogólnemu planowi miasta, przedstawiającemu rozmaite obiekty ważne dla turystów i mieszkańców. Przedmiotem analizy, prowadzonej na podstawie przeglądu serwisów miejskich (zostały uwzględnione polskie miasta liczące poniżej 10000 mieszkańców), jest miejsce planu w witrynie, czyli przyporządkowanie w ramach działów oraz integracja z pozostałymi składnikami. Role i możliwości wykorzystania planu można wyjaśnić odnosząc sie przede wszystkim do jego treści: badane jest występowanie wytypowanych obiektów podstawowych i rozbudowa składników tematycznych.
EN
A municipal website includes many-sided description of a given town (including, among other, information on its geographical location, history, economy and tourism) with attention to current events. As a matter of fact, some cartographic representations are useful to discuss each mentioned question and, this way, they can be published anywhere in the web site. According to the main object of presentation, a general town map (showing various places, being of importance for tourists and residents) may be regarded as a fundamental component. Based on the review of Polish municipal websites (towns below the population of 10000 are considered), some analyses concerning the location of town map are made to determine the parts of website where maps are attached. The role of a town map can , first of all, be explained as regards its contents: some basic entities are selected for detailed comparison of occurrence and then thematic elements are described.
PL
W artykule omówiono historię i okoliczności powstania planów i map Zamościa oraz przedstawiono sylwetki autorów tych dzieł - kartografów wojskowych, geometrów Ordynacji Zamojskiej i architektów miejskich.
EN
In September 2005 Zamość hosted a conference organized on the 400th anniversary of the death of Jan Zamojski, the city's founder. Among the conference publications there are two articles on the historic cartography of Zamość (M. Sirko 2005, J. Zygawski 2005). The article aims to present the cartographers contribution into the history of Zamość between the 17th and 20th centuries. The catalogues of maps and city plans which have been prepared until today are not final. From time to time we learn about newly discovered maps, official registry plans or copies. At the same time there appear new names which have not been known before. Collected cartographic materials were ordered and divided into five periods important for the city's history (1580-1699, 1700-1771, 1772-1808, 1809-1866, 1867-1939). The first period was for Zamość the time of crystallization of city structure, economic life, investment in construction but also siege and war destruction. That period in the city's history demanded detailed maps. The oldest cartographic representation of Zamość is The plan of the Market (no scale) dated for the years 1603-1604. The woodcut from 1774 published in Jonsac's Historie des Stanislas Jablonowski in 1:4000 is considered to be the most true. The years 1700-1771 were very unstable in the city's history. In 1704 there appeared Zamojsc. Hwilken Hans Kongi May Konung Carl den XII... Fig. 2 published by Swedes, considered to be the most precise at the time. Several other plans were published by Germans. The third period (1772-1808), because of the partition of Poland, links Zamość with the kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. The first known city plan from the period of Austrian partition (1772) was prepared by F. Buzogany in scale 1:3000. For obvious reasons the plans' authors were military officers and surveyors. In the common opinion the best was Erstes Zaichrungs-Blat. Plan von der Festung Novi Zamość in der Konigreich Galizien nebst der um selbe auf 6, bis 700 Klaftern liegende Gegend in scale 1:1700 from 1777. The years 1809-1866 are the final period of the existing city form. However the cartographic activity at that time showed intense development thanks to the authors of plans and maps such as J.Ch. Mallet-Malletski, L. Jodko, M. Hauke, J.P. Lelewel and K. Bojanowski. The last period covers the years 1867-1939. Especially noteworthy are the works of surveyors employed in Ordynacja Zamojska (G. Sochacki, K. Pożerski, J. Widenko) and the architects working in the regional administration offices (W. Sienicki, W. Lucht, E. Kranz, J. Margules, T. Zaremba, W. Wieczorkiewicz).
10
Content available remote Przemiany internetowych planów miast polskich
EN
Internet maps of cities are a digital counterpart of widespread maps in printed form. These maps contain quite differentiated information about cities, with extended presentation of subjects being of interest to tourists. They are regarded as one of the most popular group of maps. City maps are intended, first of all, for visitors (but also for inhabitants) as a medium of local information, mainly useful in planning of sightseeing and in looking for the location of different institutions, facilities for tourists and other services. In recent years, great development of Internet cartography is easily observed. It refers, first of all, to the quantitative growth. Many services (especially published by local governments) were supplemented with city maps. Not long ago each project was elaborated separately, but at present there are sets of maps in regional or thematic portals. Also series of maps should be mentioned, as the publications elaborated along uniform rules. There are professional providers of Internet maps as a komplement to traditional publishing houses. There are also important changes in the contents and form of Internet maps. Extended scope of the contents requires suitable extension of user tools of the digital maps. Besides simple solutions, such as bringing to Internet a digital copy of a printed map or elaboration based on the concept of a classic atlas (an ordered set of complementary representations of parts of a given area), the number of maps performing typical Geographic Information System tasks increases. A set of specific tools enables each user to prepare cartographic visualization according to his personal preferences. User functions allow to select components of the contents of cartographic representation, including its details and theme parameters, and the scope of visualized area. Efficient usage of maps is possible by means of tools binding cartographic representation with textual part (containing additional information and description of object properties) and other multimedia components. Some maps have complex functions for searching objects meeting selected conditions, including spatial criteria. There are procedures for determining distance and route optimization: finding the shortest way or the best traffic connection between desired points. Cartographic representation is often matched with photogrammetric elaborations. The present study describes main features and layout ideas of city maps with regard to their changes that took place during last five years (2000 . 2005). The comparison and conclusions are based on the analysis of a selected set of Internet maps, comprising 470 maps of Polish cities.
12
Content available remote Zabytkowe plany miast : dzieło urbanistyki czy dzieło sztuki
EN
In the oldest human cultures the human colonies were formed as clusters of houses. They were placed according to the local conditions imposed by environmental factors. Through ages the men began to shape their settlements not only to render them more functional but aesthetic as well. This tendency was spontaneous at the beginning, but by the time it became a planned activity under the rules of town planing, then a developing art. The antique urban plans that remained from the past are an excellent source for those researching the history of a particularly town but also they are the works of art themselves.
EN
There is a number of ways to create a "town in the city." It may emerge, for example, as a result of preserving some specificity by an independent urban unit after it has lost its independence and become part of a greater one. Cracow was granted the Charter in 1257. Then it was the capital of Poland, nowadays it is the third biggest city in the country. From the 13th to the 20th century, eight neighbouring towns of different size and importance originated and grew more or less successfully next to Cracow to be eventually incorporated into the city. The author discusses mostly the epilogues of their stories, which took place after they had become the districts of Cracow. Three districts can be now recognized as "towns in the city": 14th-century Kazimierz, 18th-century Podgorze and 20th-century Nowa Huta, which were joined with Cracow in 1800, 1915 and 1951, respectively. Each of them was created in a sort of particular opposition against Cracow, however those reasons have already lost all significance. Before the unifications, those towns had full municipal rights, being already well-developed areas of considerable population, economy, and urban form. Still recognizable for their unique features and values, such as local traditions and attitude, particular functions and architecture, those three "towns in the city" have recently enjoyed increasing interest and attractiveness.
14
Content available remote Ekologiczny model kształtowania przestrzeni miejskiej
EN
Katedra Odnowy i Rozwoju Zespołów Urbanistycznych. Instytut Projektowania Urbanistycznego, Wydział Architektury Politechniki Krakowskiej, 31-155 Kraków, ul. Warszawska 24 In Europe today increasing numbers of cities have incorporated features related to ecological sustainability with conservation of natural resources and ecosystems. Placing ecology in the foreground of design it provides specific ways of transition from conventional forms of urban planning with the destructive environmental impacts to ecologically sound forms of harmonious balance between man and his sourrounding. Ecological design is a form of partnership with nature, adaptation to and integration with nature's processes. Sustainable development means minimizing energy and material use, reducing pollution and preserving habitat. It is a development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
15
Content available remote Autonomia kompozycyjna Dębnik w strukturze urbanistycznej Krakowa
EN
Located on the right side od the Wisła river opposite the Wawel castle Dębniki district composesits immediate and important vicinity. Closed- circle atmosphere, small scale, imaginitive and picturesque architecture, peace and quiet, ormanented villas bathed in vegetation are the greatest merits of such enclaves. Owing to a number coincidences they preserved its former urban structure and architectural scenery creating a refuge for the long- lost landscape, way of life as well as its urban customs and folklore. The old part of Dębniki having undoubtedly conspicuous urban complex characteristics create a specific autonomous enclave with its special climate and atmosphere Krakow would be impoverished and incomplete without. The district's area due to its historical context, picturesque location as well as numerous negligence and bad technical condition of the buildings might create on opportunity for the architects to display their talents.
16
Content available Plan Warszawy dla niewidomych
PL
W pierwszej części artykułu omówiono sposoby postrzegania przestrzeni przez osoby niewidome oraz problematykę opracowywania planów i map dla niewidomych, a w drugiej części opracowany przez autorkę Plan Warszawy dla niewidomych.
EN
Blind people use different aids to become acquainted with space. While moving in an unknown area they can use GPS technology with receivers adapted to their needs (J. and J. Kwapisz 1990, F. Mc Williams 1999). Application of these technologies leads to significant costs. Therefore tactual aids (especially maps) still play a significant role in transmission of information for blind people. Correct and optimal reading of a map by a blind person depends on a number of conditions. Among them there are: usefulness, functionality and readability (I. Badetko 1987). The article discusses the Map of Warsaw for the blind, which was prepared as an M.A. thesis in the Chair of Cartography of the Warsaw University Department of Geography and Regional Studies (E. Lipska 2001). It was meant for blind people from the Center for the Blind in Laski near Warsaw as an aid in learning the spacial organization of the city, the lacation of bigger districts, neighbourhoods and junctions. Scale limitations, for mat and contents make it suitable for blind people over the age of twelve; it can be used as an educational aid on geography lessons or at home. The map, which has the character of a reference map (in typhological sense), has been prepared in the scale of 1:30 000. To facilitate its use by blind people several solutions havbe been applied: - the North has been marked with a pointer, - top right corner of the sheet has been cut off, - the legend has been placed on the right. The map's contents has been limited due to capabilities of tactual perception, scale, format and purpose. These limitations effected in significant generalization of the source material (fig. 3). In preparation of a city map the cartographer confronts considerable difficulties because of an unusual level of generalization. The scale of difficulty can be grasped if we realize, that a structure of a city of more than 1 million inhabitants has been shown with only 14 symbols, 3 of which are surface ones. Additionally, he map has been enriched with the names of Warsaw districts and suburbs in Braille's alphabet (52names altogether). The contents of the map in 1:30 000 corresponds to a contents of atlas maps in scales between 1:150 000 and 1:200 000. Graphic form and the choice of symbols, which appear on the Map of Warsaw for the blind has been conditioned by the generalization of the source map and the technology of preparation of the matrix, from which the plan was pressed.
PL
Na przykładzie planów miast zaprezentowano związek wartościowej struktury graficznej dokumentu elektronicznego z poziomami czytania mapy. Omówiono cechy, jakimi powinien charakteryzować się właściwie zredagowany plan miasta: logicznie ułożone poziomy czytania oraz jasno określoną hierarchię elementów treści podporządkowaną zasadniczej funkcji tego typu map.
EN
Development of computer science, availability of equipment and easier to use computer software significantly altered the process of map preparation. Most graphic programs and GIS used in map preparation make it possible to create databases which have layer structure. Therefore one can ask to what extent the layer structure of a computer-elaborated map connects to its reading levels which are linked to the perception sequence of map's components, or their groups. To answer this question, the authors analyze the editing process of city plans, which are one of the most common types of maps. In most cases map components have various significance, depending on their importance to the reader. To facilitate map's perception, its contents is divided into various levels of reading, which arrange the perception sequence of its components. This sequence depends on sign's hierarchy of visual importance and how it is contrasted against the background. the highest level of reading is composed of signs, which are most graphically aggressive, so that they can be perceived first. Consistently, lower levels which are to be read as secondary, are composed of signs of lesser visual importance. As a result, the appears a sense of components being placed on different visual levels. On the included figures, which show a plan of a city center, different layers of electronic document have been organized to show separate reading levels: - streets and street names (fig. 1), becouse the main objective is to show ways and directions; - thematic contents - point symbols, names (except street names), public transportation, railways (fig. 2); rearing of the significance of line and point symbols on a city plan should be intuitive, and their location perceived quickly; names of districts, parks, buildings, etc. should use a visibly different font and color from street names; they should not obstruct streets or street names; - areas - background, built-up area, greens (fig. 3); areal symbols set a background to other components, therefore they should be in toned down colors A ready to print city plan, containing all of the above layers is presented in fig. 4 An average reader does not have to guess the assumptions of map,s editors. Quite the opposite, a map should be edited to enable the reader to intuitively perceive the meaning of symbols and see the cartographer's intention. Therefore it is vital to establish a correct hierarchy of contents and assign a proper visual importance to its components, to make them perceived on appropriate levels of reading.
PL
W artykule omówiono rozwój treści i formy planów miast wydanych przez PPWK w ciągu prawie piećdziesięciu lat. W pierwszej części dokonano charakterystyki dorobku wydawniczego w tym zakresie. Następnie scharakteryzowano główne cechy czterech generacji planów miast. Omówiono również pierwsze opracowania planów miast przez nowo powstałe firmy kartograficzne na przełomie lat osiemdziesiątych i dziewięćdziesiątych. W dalszej kolejności scharakteryzowano plany zaliczane do piątej generacji. Końcową część artykułu stanowi podsumowanie, w którym przedstawiono w ujęciu chronologicznym kolejne etapy doskonalenia planów miast PPWK.
EN
The paper pertains to the development of content and graphic design of city maps, published since 1955 by the State Cartographic Publishing House (Państwowe Przedsiębiorstwo Wydawnictw Kartografiucznych) - and the Polish Cartographic Publishing House since the nineties. During this period, over 800 city maps have been issued (nearly 200 new editions and over 600 updated ones, Table 1). the above number does not include historical city maps, reprints of old maps, city atlases or maps of foreign cities and towns. The number of maps published each year varies. No distinct growth trend can be noticed throughout this period. The largest number of the city maps (40) appeared in print in 1970. According to the city map classification introduced by the J. and W. Ostrowski (1968, 1986) the main group of maps published by the PPWK is composed of general-reference city maps. This category of maps, along with hiking maps are considered to be the most often used type of cartographic publications. The analysis of content and graphic form of city maps issued by the PPWK allows us to distinguish five generations of these maps. W. Nerlo (1986) described the first four ones. The first generation is composed of maps put out between 1955 and the easily sixties. Poor thematic content as well as the highly schematized public transportation presentation are characteristic of this group (Fig. 6a). The maps issued between the early sixites up and the mid-seventies would fall into the second generation. The map contents was largely increased and also the quality of graphic presentation improved significantly (color nominal point symbols have been introduced, Fig. 2and 6b). The next distinct step in the city map evolution can be noted in the mid- seventies - and lasted till the mid-eighties (third generation). W. Nerlo also decribed the fourth generation of the PPWK city maps, which is composed of maps based on large scale topographic and urban maps. This series was initiated in 1985 by the maps of Stalowa Wola and Stargard Szczeciński. The late 1980s and early 1990s brought significant changes to the map market in Poland. Numerous new cartographic firms dealing with city maps have been established during that time. Their city maps are of varied cartographic quality (K. Kałamucki 1996). They have numerous features characteristic of the PPWK maps. The impact of the PPWK cartographic style can easily be noticed. Since the late 1990s several new features have been introduced to the PPWK city maps. The most important ones include the modifications to the built-up areas presentation (presentation of individual buildings and their numbering), introduction of at least 4 new road and street categories, as well as the new color design (Fig.5). These modifications allow us to categorize this group as the fifth generation of the PPWK city maps. The first city maps prepared in part by digital means appeared in 1996 and 1997 (Szczecin, Wałbrzych, Jelenia gora0 and the years 1998-1999 saw the first maps prepared and printed entirely using the digital technology (Zakopane, Poznań and Kraków). The turn of the centuries brought further changes to the PPWK city map design. In September, 1999 first GPS-compatible maps appear in print. This would have been impossible without the preparation of fully cartometric maps and without giving the deatils of the cartographic projection used. The following new elements are being introduced since 2001: - new color design, - new built-up areas generalization style, - unification of editorial projects in all maps, lauching of the new map series under the "Copernicus"brand, - the city mass transit content was enriched. In the whole PPWK activity, the following facts should be stressed: - scale was shown city maps as late as in the mid 1980s., - first maps had the legend in Polish only Foreign map legends have been introduced in the late 1960s (most often in three languages), - the explanation of areal features (green areas and built-up areas) was fully intriduced as late as in 1980s., - it was not until the turn of the century that the full mathematical base information (including the cartographic projection and grid) was shown, - since the 1970s the entire area of cities and towns are shown in maps.
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