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PL
W pracy przedstawiono możliwości prowadzenia pomiarów chemicznych z zastosowaniem przenośnego spektrometru fluorescencji rentgenowskiej z dyspersją energii EDXRF w atmosferze helu. Metodyka badawcza wraz z tworzeniem modeli i interpretacją danych powstała w oparciu o zastosowanie aparatu XRF firmy Bruker, model Tracer 5g. Prowadzenie pomiarów w atmosferze helu umożliwia obniżenie progów detekcji dla pierwiastków lekkich, w tym określanie udziałów sodu (Na) i magnezu (Mg) oraz pierwiastków wchodzących w zakres spektrometrycznego profilowania gamma: potasu (K), uranu (U) i toru (Th). Jednym z elementów nowej procedury pomiarowej jest przygotowanie preparatów w formie pastylek, przy użyciu prasy hydraulicznej o sile nacisku do 25 ton. Pomiary w atmosferze helu mogą być wykonywane jedynie na materiale skonsolidowanym (lita skała, rdzeń wiertniczy lub twarda pastylka). Materiał do badań został pobrany z rdzeni wiertniczych, następnie skwartowany i rozdzielony na poszczególne analizy. Wyniki analiz XRF uzyskane metodą, w której zastosowano przepływ helu, porównano z wynikami pomiarów wykonanych standardową aparaturą XRF, chemicznych badań laboratoryjnych, analiz składu mineralnego XRD oraz badań naturalnej promieniotwórczości gamma. Analizy XRF bez możliwości prowadzenia pomiarów w atmosferze helu wykonane zostały aparatem Titan S1 (firmy Bruker). Badania przeprowadzono na próbkach skał pochodzących z dwóch otworów wiertniczych – P4 (19 próbek) i J1 (11 próbek). W przypadku P4 dysponowano dokładnymi pomiarami laboratoryjnymi ICP-MS (ang. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), ICP-OES (ang. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) oraz wynikami XRD, natomiast w J1 – wynikami badań radiometrycznych i mineralnych. W próbkach z otworu J1 występowały skalenie oraz dolomit, co umożliwiło przetestowanie budowy modeli uwzględniających te minerały w odniesieniu do wyznaczenia udziałów sodu i magnezu. W końcowej części pracy przedstawiono wykresy korelacyjne dla wybranych, najważniejszych pierwiastków budujących matrycę skalną, modele mineralno–chemiczne zbudowane na ich podstawie oraz wykresy korelacyjne dla spektrometrycznych pomiarów gamma.
EN
In the paper, author presented the possibility of conducting chemical measurements in a helium atmosphere using a portable Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). The methodology, model creation and data interpretation were based on the Tracer 5g XRF (Bruker) application. Measurements in a helium atmosphere enable the reduction of detection limits for light elements, including the determination of sodium (Na) and magnesium (Mg), as well as elements applied in the spectral gamma-ray profiling range: potassium (K), uranium (U) and thorium (Th). One of the new measurement procedure aspects is the preparation of pellets using a hydraulic press with a pressure of up to 25 tons. Measurements with helium flow can only be performed on a consolidated material (solid rock, drill core, or pellet). The material for the research was taken from the cores, then quartered and divided into individual analyses. The results of the XRF analyses obtained with the helium flow method were compared to measurements made with standard XRF equipment, chemical laboratory tests, the results of XRD mineral analyses, and tests of natural gamma radioactivity. XRF analyses without the possibility of conducting measurements in a helium atmosphere were performed with the Titan S1 apparatus (Bruker). The tests were carried out on rock samples from two boreholes, P4 (19 samples) and J1 (11 samples). In P4, precise laboratory measurements ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry) and XRD results were available, while in the J1, radiometric and mineral tests were performed. Feldspars and dolomites were present in the samples from the J1 borehole, which made it possible to test the construction of models incorporating these minerals in relation to sodium and magnesium. The final part of the work presents correlation diagrams for selected, most essential elements forming the rock matrix, mineral and chemical models built on their basis and correlation diagrams for gamma spectrometric measurements.
EN
Majority of ca. 90 sites ofsandstone crag groups and individual crags, occurring in the Świętokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mts. region, represent the following crag-forming lithostratigraphic units: Cambrian Wiśniówka Formation, Devonian Barcza Fm and Zagórze Fm, Triassic Zagnańsk Fm and Krynki Beds, as well as Jurassic Skloby Fm and Ostrowiec Fm. Specific features of these rocks are the occurrence of sandstone series, up to 20 m thick, above more plastic, clayey or heterolithic series, high-energy depositional environments, and siliceous composition. The crag-forming sandstones differ in the amount of siliceous cement: from strongly cemented Paleozoic quartzitic sandstones to porous Mesozoic sandstones with poor cement, which determines diverse mechanical properties. Strongly cemented Paleozoic rocks display high rock strength and abrasion resistance, while porous and theoretically friable Mesozoic sandstones are characterised by high grain packing due to compaction. Regarding the principal role of gravitational disinte¬gration of rock massifs under the periglacial conditions in the Pleistocene, other factors constraining the crag formation and shaping are the tectonic situation of rocks (orientation of strata and joints), adequate joint spacing, and bed thickness. The interrelations between lithological and structural features of crag-forming sandstones and tectonics, conditioning erosion and weathering rates are specific for particular types of these sandstones.
PL
Obszar badań położony jest w rejonie centralnej części zapadliska przedkarpackiego, około 12 km na południe od północnego brzegu Karpat. W podłożu miocenu autochtonicznego zalegają węglanowe utwory mezozoiku (kredy górnej i jury górnej), a w jego nadkładzie występują utwory miocenu allochtonicznego oraz utwory fliszowe jednostek karpackich. Główny element strukturalny, z którym związana jest akumulacja gazu, ograniczony jest od strony północnej regionalną płaszczyzną dyslokacji. Omawiany obszar od kilkudziesię- ciu lat stanowi przedmiot intensywnych badań geologicznych, geofizycznych i prac wiertniczych, czego efektem było odkrycie kilku złóż gazu ziemnego i ropy naftowej. W obszarze badań i jego sąsiedztwie wykonano dotychczas szereg prac sejsmicznych, które pozwoliły na lepsze rozpoznanie budowy geologicznej. Skomplikowana budowa geologiczna związana z nasunięciem Karpat nie zawsze pozwala na jednoznaczną ocenę materiału sejsmicznego, szczególnie w przykarpackiej strefie zapadliska przedkarpackiego. Duża zmienność litofacjalna utworów miocenu ma związek z molasowym typem sedymentacji. Zasadniczym celem artykułu jest wykazanie możliwości wykorzystania wyników otworowych pomiarów geofizycznych do przedstawienia ilościowej i statystycznej zmienności analizowanych wartości pomiarowych. Otrzymane wyniki posłużyły do skonstruowania map zmienności litologicznej, wykresów zapiaszczenia, przekroju geologicznego i przeprowadzenia analizy statystycznej. W trakcie realizacji tematu wykonano korelację międzyotworową dla wybranych odwiertów, co pozwoliło na rozpoznanie facjalne utworów miocenu, który rozwinięty jest w facji ilasto-mułowcowej, z większym lub mniejszym udziałem piaskowców.
EN
The research area is located in the central part of the Carpathian Foredeep, about 12 km south of the northern bank of the Carpathians. The Mesozoic (Upper Cretaceous and Upper Jurassic) carbonate complex is located in the autochthonous Miocene basement. The upper stage is composed of the allochtonic Miocene sediments and flysch deposits belonging to the Carpathian units. The main structural element, to which the gas accumulation pertains, is limited from the north by a regional dislocation zone. The area in question has been the subject of intensive geological and geophysical research as well as drilling works for several decades, which resulted in the discovery of several deposits of natural gas and crude oil. A series of seismic works have been carried out so far in the research area and its vicinity, which allowed for better recognition of the geological structure. The complexity of the geological structure associated with the Carpathian overthrust does not always provide an accurate assessment of the seismic data, especially in the part of the Carpathian Foredeep which is located below the Carpathian overthrust. The high lithofacial variability of the Miocene deposits is related to the molasse type of sedimentation. The main aim of the article is to demonstrate the possibility of using the interpretation of well geophysical measurements to illustrate the quantitative and statistical variability of analysed values. The obtained results were used to construct maps of lithological variability, sand content graphs, geological cross-sections as well as statistical analysis. In the progress of the project, a well correlation was carried out for selected boreholes, which allowed for the facial recognition of the Miocene formations, which are developed especially in clay and silt facies with a diversified proportion of sandstones.
EN
Soil erosion by water is one of the most important factors affecting contemporary landscape changes within the lowland geoecosystems in Central Europe. Soil erosion by water mainly depends on: rainfalls (especially its intensity and erosivity), length of slope and its inclination, type of cultivation and usage of land, anti-erosion treatments and susceptibility of soils to erosion. The aim of conducted research was to evaluate conditioning and magnitude of secular and extreme soil erosion processes in the Drawsko Lakeland with special considering of rainfall erosivity index (EI30). The main goal was realised through several research tasks. The first task involved examination of surface runoff and slope wash conditionings, course and quantity in the testing plot located within the Chwalimski Potok catchment. The second task was related to evaluate rainfall impact to soil erosion by water processes. It was realised by computation rainfall characteristics: intensity, kinetic energy and erosivity. In order to assess secular and extreme soil erosion impact to land relief changes, research were provided with additional details by conducting three field experiments with simulated rainfall. Stationary observation and quantitative researches of soil erosion (at testing plots) have been conducting within the Chwalimski Brook catchment for three hydrological years (2012–2014). The slope with the test area is located within the 1st order catchment being a subsystem of the Młynski Brook catchment and then followed by the upper Parsęta catchment. This area covers 4.8 hectares and is characterised by short slopes with small height variances up to 10 meters. Historically, the area was covered with agricultural crops, currently they cover about 10% of the area. The slope is covered with gleyic retisols and its average inclination is about 4 degrees with its south-east exposure. The measuring system of soil erosion covered 5 testing plots with different agricultural use (bare fallow, meadow, potatoes, spring and winter crops). Plots are 42 metres long and 4 metres width. In the bottom edge of each plot catchers with volume of 800 dm3 were installed. In this research, only data from black fallow were considered. Such tillage is recognised as a standard in soil erosion studies. Two experiments have been conducted in this testing plot. The third one has been conducted on slope located within an area of undulated morainic plateau in the Kłuda catchment. The slope is characterised by greater height variances than in Chwalimski Brook catchment. The slope, where the experiment has been conducted, is situated within local closed depression and is covered by sands underlain by boulder clay. Its average slope is about 10° with its southwest exposure. Although annual precipitation in the three-year measurement period was comparable with mean value from multi-year period (1987–2014), its intensity and erosivity were distinguishably lower. Such rainfall conditions are not favourable for extreme soil erosion by water processes, thus any relief forms from such geomorphological processes were not observed in the Drawsko Lakeland. Due to lack of that kind of forms, in 2013 and 2014, three field experiments were conducted. The main aim of experiments was to evaluate the impact of high intensity rainfall on soil surface. The first experiment consisted of 5, the second and the third of 4 rainfall simulations. The rainfall was created by using a purpose-built rain simulator, consisting of 3 and 6 sprinklers placed around the testing plot. Despite the slope inclination in the Kłuda catchment was 2.5 times steeper than Chwalimski Potok’s slope, surface runoff attained smaller volume, because of remarkably higher infiltration rate. In 2012–2014, surface runoff and soil loss has occurred 8 times each year. The maximal monthly surface runoff volume was registered in February 2012, and it equalled 10.1 dm3 m−2 and the maximal soil loss value was registered in May 2013 and equalled 3,198 kg ha−1. Annual runoff volumes were between 31.2 dm3 m−2 in 2012 and 38.8 dm3 m−2 in 2013, whereas annual soil loss values ranged from 740 kg ha−1 in 2012 to 5,700 kg ha−1 in 2013. Soil erosion values caused by simulated rainfall during field experiments were similar or significantly higher than annual values. Surface runoff was between 31.2 dm3 m−2 in the first experiment and 34.2 dm3 m−2 in the second one, whilst soil loss was between 4,632 kg ha−1 and 8,637 kg ha−1. The achieved experiment results have been compared with soil erosion rate achieved from stationary observations. The results show that runoff and soil loss considerably increase during rainfalls with high amount, intensity and erosivity. Furthermore, individual extreme erosive events may exceed annual (secular) soil erosion processes. Conducted stationary research indicates that annual soil erosion primarily depends on individual rainfall and erosive events, which considerably exceed mean values. In order to evaluate the soil susceptibility to erosion by water in the Drawsko Lakeland, high resolution potential and actual soil erosion risk maps were prepared. The qualitative assessment of soil erosion risk was based on geoinformation technologies. The model considers following conditions affecting the size of soil erosion: slope steepness and aspect, topographic factor LS (unit upslope contributing area), lithology, rainfall erosivity (Modified Fournier Index calculated from monthly and annual precipitation data) and land use and land cover from Corine Land Cover 2006. To prepare the map of potential soil erosion risk, land use from Corine Land Cover was not considered. Thematic maps have been reclassified into a 4-degree division. The results of the soil erosion risk assessment in the Drawsko Lakeland reveal the fact that a majority of its area is characterized by moderate or low erosion risk levels. Areas with high erosion risk are mostly located in the northern part of the Lakeland. The achieved results from stationary observations and field experiments may indicate that the soil loss magnitude significantly increases during rainfall with higher intensity, greater totals and accumulated in time rainfall events. This may confirm the high potential of soil erosion by water processes of above- -average magnitude and intensity in the discharge of material from agricultural used slopes.
EN
The Semarang city is the capital of the Central Java Province that is experiencing rapid urban growth. Land subsidence in Semarang has been widely reported and its impacts can be seen already in daily life. In order to minimize its damage, land subsidence monitoring is required as a part of natural disaster mitigation. On the other hand, understanding of the subsurface lithology conditions is needed to explore the causes of subsidence in certain areas. One of the methods of monitoring land subsidence is by utilizing Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite image which is used in this research. In turn, the subsurface lithology can be studied with the geoelectric methods, one of which is the resistivity method. The purpose of this research is to estimate the land subsidence in the Semarang city using the Sentinel Image Analysis by means of the DInSAR Method and its relation with subsurface lithology studied using the resistivity geoelectric method. The result of the research shows that the average value of subsidence was located in the Genuk District area and Semarang Utara District area which each subsidence value is 9.8 cm/year and 12.7 cm/year. This is because the lithology under the surface of the two locations is clay and silt in a soft condition that is thicker than other locations. The saltwater content contributes to the consolidation process in the lithology. There is a tendency that land subsidence is greater in the port and industrial areas than in other regions, due to building loads.
EN
The subsurface groundwater potential was calculated through the Geographic Information System (GIS) tool in district Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan; research was carried out in the vulnerable and arid climatic regions of the study area, which experienced unpredictable droughts and extreme foods. The primary recharging source of the aquifer is rainfall only in monsoon season from July to September. The current situation of water resources is critical in the region; in the present research work, two principal groundwater aquifers were encountered present in lithology of Laki formation mostly in sand and gravel lithology, which are shallow and deep aquifers. The GIS has been employed as a preservative tool to estimate groundwater potential. The estimated groundwater potential was 29,330.22 million cubic meter (MCM) under the monitoring area of 3207.25 square kilometers (km²); thus, the volume of groundwater was 9.14 MCM/km² in the selected cluster zone of the study area. It is realized that using a GIS tool combats the susceptible situation and shows authenticated results of groundwater potential.
EN
Gridded aeromagnetic and aeroradiometric datasets of Isanlu sheet 225 were processed and interpreted in order to map the geological structures and characteristic lithology, as well as potential mineral ore zones in the area. Recorded aeromagnetic data were reduced to the magnetic equator before fltering operations which enhanced the magnetic anomalies. Analytic signal map was created, and subsequently a model was generated along a selected profle for better interpretation of the subsurface materials. On the aeroradiometric data were performed both enhancement and statistical operations. The lithological zones were identifed. They are metasedimentary rocks, migmatites and igneous rocks occupying varying proportions within the entire area. Some potential radioactive or precious metal ore zones were also localized. A major structure interpreted in the study area trends in the SE–NW direction. Other surface structures were also delineated and general orientation was evaluated. This information may serve as a valuable database for further prospective research and mineral exploration in the region.
EN
The research was conducted at the Kwiatków site, in the Koło Basin (Central Poland). It included a fragment of a low terrace and the valley floor of the Warta river valley. The archaeological investigation documented over 100 wells that archaeological material indicates are associated with the Przeworsk culture. Geomorphological, lithological and geochemical studies were carried out at the archaeological sites and their surroundings. Selected for the presentation were two wells whose fillings were carefully tested and subjected to geochemical and lithological analyses. The wells showed a slightly different content of artifacts, as well as differences in their grain-size distributions, the structure of their filling deposits, and their geochemistry. This allows us to conclude that the two wells were used differently, but also probably about a different course for how each well was filled after the end of its operation.
PL
Artykuł podejmuje ważną kwestię roli wyrobisk eksploatacyjnych surowców skalnych w krajobrazie obszarów zurbanizowanych. W obszarach tych występuje znaczny deficyt terenów przydatnych do różnych form zagospodarowania. Problem zilustrowano na przykładzie Górnośląsko-Zagłębiowskiej Metropolii (województwo śląskie). Na podstawie terenowego rozpoznania licznych wyrobisk dokonano analizy i klasyfikacji typologicznych wyrobisk z punktu widzenia ich roli krajobrazowej. Zagospodarowanie wyrobisk powierzchniowych nadal jest problemem otwartym, a ich obecna i docelowa rola w kształtowaniu krajobrazów w układzie przestrzennym konurbacji Górnośląskiej (metropolii GZM) jest bardzo istotna, lecz dotąd mało rozpoznana. Zaprezentowane badania oparto na obserwacjach i pomiarach licznych obiektów (kamieniołomów, piaskowni, glinianek i mniejszych wyrobisk surowców skalnych), analizowanych w dużych skalach przestrzennych. Syntezę wyników przedstawiono kartograficzne w wielu ujęciach. Opracowanie stanowi element naukowej dyskusji nad rolą krajobrazową terenów zdewastowanych przez górnictwo powierzchniowe, które cechuje znaczący potencjał i istotne walory przyrodnicze i kulturowe.
EN
This article deals with the important issue of the role excavations left after the extraction of rock raw materials play in the landscape of urban areas. Such areas suffer from a considerable deficit of land usable for various purposes. This problem is discussed on the basis of the GZM Metropolitan Area (the Silesian Province, Poland). Extensive fieldwork carried out on numerous excavation sites has enabled the author to analyse and to classify them into several types according to their role in the landscape. The reclamation of surface excavations remains an open issue. Undoubtedly, their present and future role in shaping the landscape of the Upper Silesian Conurbation is crucial, but it still remains under-researched. This study is based on the observation and measurement of numerous facilities (quarries, sandpits, clay-pits and smaller excavations of rock raw materials), analysed on a large spatial scale. A synthesis of the results is shown in numerous maps. This study contributes to the scholarly discussion on the role in the landscape of land devastated by surface mining, which possesses considerable potential and is valuable from the perspective of nature and culture.
EN
The new boreholes drilled between 2009 and 2012 enabled a detailed exploration of the profile of the Kraków sandstone series in the Dąb area between the “Sobieski” and “Janina” mining plants, USCB (Upper Silesian Coal Basin). The core from the No. 111. bituminous coal seam was selected for further analysis. 30 intervals corresponding to the defined lithotypes were separated in the seam with a thickness of 116.8 cm. The thickness of lithotypes ranges from 10 mm to 89 mm. A microprofile of the examined seam was made using the modified method of determining microlithotypes. A quantitative determination of the maceral composition was performed for each interval corresponding to the separated lithotypes. This allowed petrographic and facies characteristics of the seam to be determined. Its lower part is dominated by lithotypes with a large share of bright coal – vitrain coal. This section of the profile was formed under conditions of a strongly flooded wet forest swamp. In the upper section of the seam, a higher macroscopic share of dull coal – durain was observed. The microscopic analysis has shown that the conditions dominant during the formation of this section were typical for swamp forest peats. New technologies also require expanding knowledge about the structure of coal seams. This is only possible with a detailed profiling of the coal seam on a macro scale combined with micro-profiling and a detailed petrographic description of the isolated lithotypes. This methodology is also useful in the facies analysis of bituminous coal seams.
PL
Nowe odwierty w latach 2009–2012 rozpoznały szczegółowo profil utworów krakowskiej serii piaskowcowej w rejonie miejscowość Dąb pomiędzy granicami zakładów górniczych Sobieski i Janina, GZW. Z nawierconych pokładów węgla do dalszych badań pobrano rdzeń pokładu węgla Kamiennego 111. W pokładzie o miąższości 116,8 cm wydzielono 30 interwałów odpowiadających zdefiniowanym litotypom. Miąższość litotypów waha się w przedziale od 10 do 89 mm. Za pomocą zmodyfikowanej metody wydzielania mikrolitotypów wykonano mikroprofil badanego pokładu pokładu. Dla każdego interwału odpowiadającego wydzielonym litotypom wykonano oznaczenie ilościowe składu macerałowego. Pozwoliło to na charakterystykę petrograficzną, jak i facjalną pokładu. Dolna jego część zdominowana jest przez litotypy mające duży udział węgla błyszczącego – witrynu. Ten odcinek profilu tworzył się w warunkach torfowiska silnie podtopionego typu Wet Foret Swamp. W odcinku górnym pokładu zaobserwowano makroskopowo większy udział węgla matowego – durynu. Badania mikroskopowe wskazują, że podczas tworzenia się tego odcinka dominowały warunki wskazujące na torfowisko typu Swamp Forest. Nowe technologie przetwarzania węgla wymagają również poszerzenia wiedzy na temat budowy pokładów węgla. Jest to możliwe tylko dzięki szczegółowemu profilowaniu pokładu węgla w skali makro w połączeniu z mikroprofilowaniem i szczegółowym petrograficznym opisem wydzielonych litotypów.
EN
The study is conducted to focus on the subsurface geological and hydrological mapping for groundwater presence in the area located Nooriabad of the Jamshoro district left side of M-9 Motorway toward Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Vertical electrical sounding (VES) is carried out by using the Schlumberger electrode array method with ranging from 02 to 300 m. IPI2win software is used on the collected data of VES to interpret with qualitatively that indicated the four distinct lithological units demarcated as clay, sandy clay, shale and alluvium or weathered layer of Tiyon formation and limestone and fractured sandstone beds of the Laki formation of Eocene age. On the collected VES data, it is concluded that the first and second layer of soil is 16 m thick and composed of shale to clay beds and alluvium having the apparent resistivity between 05 and 15 Ωm. With increasing depth from 50 to 100 m, it is interpreted that there are fractured sandstone and limestone beds with average resistivity ranges between 15 to 60 Ωm. Further, processed the data and generated pseudo-section, apparent resistivity section and statistical curve by using software IPI2win to interpret the apparent resistivity map at 50, 60, 70 and 80 m are correlated with the hydrogeology and geology of the area. The results are interpreted that the good aquifer zones are present in the 50–100-m-thick limestone and fractured sandstone beds having interconnection with clay. Accumulation of groundwater is found by controlling the physiography and geological structure of the study area.
EN
Springs are a vital source of water supply in Quaternary volcanic environments, such as Rinjani Volcano on Lombok Island, and yet little is known about their emergence and recharge areas. Knowledge of spring recharge area can substantially support further spring analysis and management. This study was performed in two spring zones on the southern flank of Rinjani Volcano. It combined the available morphological, lithological, and hydrological datasets to build a conceptual model of the spring recharge areas. According to the analysis results, the conceptual model allowed to describe the flow medium, the aquifer type, and the characteristics of the flow system. The local morphology controlled the direction and gradient of groundwater flow to the springs. The analysis also revealed that the spring water in the study area was meteoric water, which mainly came from rainwater infiltration. Therefore, the boundaries of the spring recharge areas were represented by the morphological divides.
EN
The study was conducted to assess the groundwater potential at Haji Rehmatullah Palari village aquifer, Union Council Sari of Kalu Khuhar along M-9 Motorway near Nooriabad, Sindh, Pakistan, through vertical electrical sounding (VES) by using Schlumberger electrode array method with 02–210 m. The collected data of 12 VES were interpreted by using IPI2win software. Monsoon rainfall period is very short, which starts from July to September (every year in Pakistan). Average rainfall is 150 mm with variation of 25 mm, in some year zero rainfall. During summer season, the evaporation and transpiration rate are about 70%, while the infiltration rate is 15%. Kalu Nadi (hill torrent) is the only source of recharge of this aquifer that depends on the rainfall. Lithological logs interpreted that mostly aquifers are present in sandstone lithology of Nari Formation which hold these freshwater aquifers having minimum 50 m thickness and have great potential for freshwater exploitation. Lithological logs interpreted that mostly aquifers persist in sandstone lithology of Nari Formation which hold the freshwater. Totally, five tube wells were installed at this aquifer and discharging the freshwater of about 98.55 million gallons per year and rapidly depleting the aquifers. Water business is also observed at this aquifer which was breaking influenced on the aquifer without considering the agricultural development to protect the environment. The aquifer is under pressure to drawdown and may suffer with its quantity and quality, if this trend continues.
EN
A brief review of the evolution of denudation research since the 1960s is followed by a review of specific sediment yield variability in mountainous regions of the world as a function of spatial scale, relief, glaciation, lithology and disturbance type and location within the basin. A general model of scalar relations of suspended sediment yield for Canadian regions warns against comparing data from basins with areas ranging over several orders of magnitude. A regional summary of specific sediment yield in mountainous British Columbia confirms that in basins <1 km2 and >30,000 km2 specific sediment yield decreases with basin size whereas in basins of intermediate size (between 1 km˛ and 30,000 km˛) specific sediment yield increases with basin size. This effect is interpreted in terms of three distinct process zones in every mountain basin. These zones can be characterized as a) generally degrading hillslope zones, b) generally aggrading footslopes and valley sides, and c) channelized flows on valley floors demonstrating either net aggradation or degradation. These are identifiable repeating elements in such landscapes. Suspended sediment yield data from mountainous regions around the world are considered in light of the British Columbia model. Some support for the model is found where basins are stratified according to scale, relief, lithology, disturbance types, and location within each basin. Disturbance types include the presence of glaciers, land use activities of various kinds, such as increasing population pressure in the intertropical montane zone, changing population distribution and associated economic activities in the temperate montane zone, and potentially hydroclimate change.
EN
The article concerns the issue of using imagery reconnaissance sensors for the identification of geological-engineering conditions in river channels, in the aspect of evaluating the forcing of a water obstacle. It discusses the issues associated with using air platforms (manned and unmanned) in remote sensing surveying of selected fragments of the Vistula and Bug river channels and the correct interpretation of the obtained results, through their verification using bathymetric tests conducted directly in the river channels.
PL
Artykuł dotyczy problematyki wykorzystania sensorów rozpoznania obrazowego do identyfikacji warunków geologiczno-inżynierskich w korytach rzek w aspekcie oceny możliwości forsowania przeszkody wodnej. Omówione zostały zagadnienia wykorzystania platform powietrznych (pilotowanych i bezpilotowych) w badaniach teledetekcyjnych wybranych fragmentów koryt Wisły i Bugu oraz poprawność interpretacji uzyskanych wyników poprzez ich weryfikację badaniami batymetrycznymi wykonanymi bezpośrednio w korytach rzek.
PL
W artykule opisano wykształcenie litologiczno-facjalne złoża rud miedzi na monoklinie przedsudeckiej, w strefach tzw. depresji stropu białego spągowca. Szczególny nacisk położono na wzajemne relacje między sąsiadującymi ze sobą odmianami litologicznymi a wykształceniem złoża bilansowego we fragmencie obszaru górniczego Sieroszowice. Badaniami objęto fragment depresji stropu białego spągowca położonej między Centralną i Północną Elewacją Rudnej. W celu zilustrowania zmienności parametrów złożowych ściśle związanych z uwarunkowaniami facjalno-litologicznymi skał goszczących, na podstawie obserwacji terenowych i wyników opróbowania złoża, wykonano metodami geostatystycznymi trójwymiarowe modele litologiczne i geochemiczne. Na podstawie map izoliniowych miąższości utworów piaskowcowych, łupkowych i węglanowych oraz przekrojów przez modele 3D, opisano wykształcenie złoża w obszarze depresji białego spągowca, gdzie profil litologiczny jest określany jako „typowy”, tj. w profilu złoża są obecne wszystkie główne typy litologiczne rud miedzi charakterystyczne dla złóż LGOM. W artykule scharakteryzowano zmienność kształtu bryły złożowej, nieregularność granic stref mineralizacji bilansowej, czym potwierdzono liczne odstępstwa od ogólnie przyjętego modelu złoża. W badanym polu eksploatacyjnym, rozpoznanym gęstą i regularną siatką opróbowania, stwierdzono wyraźną zależność między miąższością łupków miedzionośnych a obecnością w nich bilansowej mineralizacji miedziowej. Opisano również wpływ obecności utworów łupkowych o znacznej miąższości na obecność i wykształcenie bilansowej mineralizacji w leżących wyżej utworach węglanowych. Scharakteryzowano ponadto zaobserwowane w obszarze badań zróżnicowane formy wykształcenia złoża wynikające ze zmienności sekwencji litologicznej.
EN
The article discusses the lithological and facies development of the copper ore deposit in the Fore-Sudetic Monocline in the so-called depression at the top of the Weissliegend. The lithological variability and quality parameters of the deposit in the exploitation field located between the Central and Northern elevations of Rudna, where the deposit profile is described as “typical”, i.e. the Cu-Ag mineralization occurs in all three basic lithological types of copper ore, is analyzed. The lithological variability of ores in depression zones is the reason why the degree of mineralization and the parameters of the economic deposit are highly variable. The authors focused on the mutual relationships between the neighbouring lithological units and the development of the balance deposit. To illustrate the variability of deposit parameters closely related to the lithological and facies development of the host rocks, three-dimensional lithological and geochemical models and isoline maps of the thickness of individual specific copper ore types were made using geostatistical methods and based on field observations and sampling of the deposit.
EN
The southern slope of Łysica Mountain, which is the highest elevation of the Holy Cross Mountains, is comprised of three lithological complexes divided by parallel fault zones. The uppermost part of the succession consists of quartzitic sandstone of the Wiśniówka Formation. The formation is underlain by a complex of sandstone with mudstone interbeds, with black claystone underneath, which is exposed in the upper part of the Glęboczka ravine succession. The strata of the first and the third complexes dip northward, whereas those of the second complex dip southward. In the fault-bound zone between the second and the third complexes, there are concentrations of weathering iron ore. The black claystone, which is lithologically similar to this of the Pepper Mountains Formation, contains a taxonomically rich assemblage of organic-walled microfossils (acritarchs) diagnostic of the Upper Cambrian (Lower Furongian) successions. The new record of microfossils allows determining the age of the succession composing the Łysogóry Mountains for the first time in the history of regional geological investigation.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki analiz przestrzennego zróżnicowania pionowego następstwa odmian litologicznych łupku miedzionośnego na obszarze trzech depresji stropu białego spągowca w granicach centralnej i północnej części złóż rud miedzi Rudna i Sieroszowice. Wyróżniono następujące odmiany litologiczne łupku: smolisty (ilasto-organiczny), ilasty i dolomityczny. W celu graficznej wizualizacji zmienności pionowych następstw wykonano zestawienia własnych profili litologicznych oraz profili pozyskanych z bazy danych KGHM wzdłuż 13 wyznaczonych linii przekrojowych. Próbki z profili własnych poddano analizie makroskopowej. Wyróżniono osiem typów pionowych następstw odmian litologicznych łupku, a następnie przeanalizowano częstość ich występowania wzdłuż linii przekrojowych i w poszczególnych strefach depresji. Na tej podstawie zarówno w profilach własnych, jak i kopalnianych stwierdzono najczęstsze sekwencje łupku smolistego z łupkiem dolomitycznym. W profilach przeanalizowanych przez autorkę dominowała sekwencja modelowa, zbudowana z łupku smolistego, ilastego i dolomitycznego oraz następstwo łupku smolistego i ilastego. Obecność takich profili stwierdzono wzdłuż czterech linii przekrojowych na obu skłonach Północnej Elewacji Rudnej, co wskazuje na lokalną zależność litologii od lokalizacji w obrębie depresji. Wystąpienia kilku profili z sekwencjami nietypowymi mogą sugerować większą zmienność warunków sedymentacji w usytuowanej najdalej w kierunku północno-wschodnim Depresji Tarnówka.
EN
The paper presents analyses of spatial diversity of the Kupferschiefer lithologies in the area of three top surface depressions of the Weissliegend relief in the central and northern part of the Rudna and Sieroszowice copper deposits. These are organic-rich (pitchy) shale, clay shale, and dolomitic shale. Sequences of author’s own lithological profiles and those received from the KGHM database were analyzed along 13 cross-section lines. Macroscopic studies were conducted on samples from author’s profiles. Eight types of lithological successions were distinguished and then the frequency of their occurrence along each cross-section and depression was analyzed. The most common sequence with organic-rich and dolomitic shale is observed both in author’s profiles as well as in the profiles received from the mine. In the profiles tested by the author, the dominant configurations were (1) organic-rich shale, clay shale and dolomitic shale (model sequence) and (2) organic-rich shale and clay shale. Such assemblages were observed in four cross-section lines on both slopes of the Northern Rudna Elevation, which suggests a local dependence between different lithological successions of shale and their location in the depression zones. Occurrences of a few profiles with non-standard shale sequences may suggest wider variability of sedimentation conditions in the north-easternmost Tarnówek Depression.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono efektywność wzbogacania urobku dostarczonego z zakładów górniczych w świetle jego właściwości fizykochemicznych, charakterystycznych dla trzech głównych odmian litologicznych skał złożowych będących jego składnikami. W tym celu określono podatność na wzbogacanie poszczególnych wydzieleń litologicznych obecnych w urobku, stanowiącym nadawę do procesu wzbogacania. Na przykładzie jednego z Rejonów O/ZWR wyznaczono zależność funkcyjną pomiędzy uzyskiem a jakością koncentratu [ε = f(β)], która obrazuje wpływ zawartości składników litologicznych na osiągane wskaźniki wzbogacania. Wykazano, że przemysłowe wzbogacanie jest bardzo czułe na zmiany jakości nadawy w aspekcie zawartości poszczególnych składników litologicznych, a także udziału głównych składników użytecznych i towarzyszących.
EN
The paper presents the performance of ore beneficiation process carried out on KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. run-of-mine ore relating to its physicochemical properties. The properties are strongly associated with the lithology of rock formations. The susceptibility of specific lithological fraction occurred in the ore for the beneficiation process is described. Functional relationship between recovery and concentrate grade [ε = f(β)] was developed as the example for one of the KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. concentrators plants. The variety of ore properties and its effect on process efficiency is discussed. It has been proved that industrial process efficiency is very sensitive to both the alteration of lithological fractions and the content of major valuable metals and accompanying compounds.
PL
Racjonalna gospodarka złożem rud miedzi oraz efektywne i bezpieczne prowadzenie robót górniczych opierają się na podejmowaniu decyzji, których podstawę stanowią dostępne dane geologiczne i doświadczenie zdobyte przez 50 lat działalności w dziedzinie górnictwa kruszcowego na monoklinie przedsudeckiej. W 2011 roku w KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. podjęto decyzję o budowie kompetencji w zakresie modelowania trójwymiarowego złoża rud miedzi. Zdecydowano, że model złoża będzie opracowany w dwóch wariantach, zarówno jako jakościowy na podstawie trzech głównych typów rud miedzi, tj. tradycyjnego podziału litologicznego na: węglany (W), łupki (L), piaskowce (P), jak i geologiczno-strukturalny na podstawie 16 szczegółowych typów litologicznych, wdrożonych do stosowania w latach 2009–2012. Charakterystyka szczegółowych typów litologicznych została opracowana na podstawie wieloletnich doświadczeń i wprowadzona w roku 2011 na podstawie instrukcji opróbowania złoża. Dane litologiczne W–L–P i szczegółowe, pochodzące z opróbowania wyrobisk górniczych, są przechowywane w Bazie Danych Geologicznych wdrożonej w roku 2010. Dane te są wykorzystywane w procesie strukturalnego modelowania złoża 3D, który składa się zarówno z modelu powierzchni stropowych wydzieleń poszczególnych typów litologicznych, jak i modelu blokowego 3D. Model W–L–P jest wykorzystywany w procesie komputerowego generowania trójwymiarowego modelu jakościowego złoża miedzi. Model geologiczno-strukturalny pozwala na wizualizację w przestrzeni 3D struktur geologicznych, jak również charakterystykę budowy litologicznej modelowanych obszarów, wspomagając tym samym proces interpretacji geologicznej. Dostarcza on wiele dodatkowych informacji, które z powodzeniem mogą znaleźć zastosowanie m.in. w procesie planowania produkcji górniczej.
EN
Available geological data and 50 years of mining experience on Fore-Sudetic Monocline is a base of decision making for reasonable geological resource management of copper deposit with effective and safe mining works development. In 2011 KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. decided to build competence in 3D geological modelling. It was decided that copper deposit model would be built in two variants: grade model based on three main copper ore types, traditional lithological types for copper deposit, that is: carbonates (W), shale (L), sandstone (P), and geological-structural model based on sixteen detail lithological types, introduced between 2009–2012. Characteristic of those detail lithological types was developed on the basis of many years experiences and introduced to use by sidewall logging best practices in 2011. Lithological data W–L–P as well as detail lithological types, that come from mining excavation sampling, are stored in Geological Data Base, that was implemented in 2010. This data is used to build 3D geological-structural model. The model consist of 3D wireframes that represent top of each lithological structures and 3D block model. W–L–P model is used in 3D grade modelling process. Geological-structure model, as more detailed, allow to visualize geological structures and lithological structure of copper deposit in 3D, supporting geological interpretation process. In addition geological-structural model allows to acquire additional information, that could be effectively used in mining production planning process.
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