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1
Content available remote Wpływ cyklicznych obciążeń mechanicznych na odporność korozyjną aluminium
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano wpływ zmęczeniowych obciążeń mechanicznych na odporność korozyjną profili okiennych i drzwiowych wykonanych ze stopu aluminium EN AW-6063 z powłoką poliestrową. W badaniach zastosowano własną metodę oceny, polegającą na cyklicznych obciążeniach skupionych działających na próbkę metodą trójpunktowego zginania. Efektem tych obciążeń było powstanie w obrębie struktury aluminium trwałego odkształcenia plastycznego, podczas gdy w przypadku powłoki pokrywającej profile aluminiowe nastąpiło niewielkie zmniejszenie odporności korozyjnej, niepowodujące jednak utraty właściwości barierowych. Stwierdzono również, że gdy obciążeniom mechanicznym towarzyszy działanie kwaśnej mgły solnej, pojawiają się mikrouszkodzenia w strukturze powłok, w istotny sposób zmniejszając ich właściwości barierowe, co potwierdzono wynikami badań spektroskopii impedancyjnej.
EN
The article presents the effect of mechanical load fatigue on corrosion resistance of profiles made of EN AW-6063 aluminium alloy with polyester coating. In test, own research methodology was used, consisting in cyclical application of concentrated load to the tested sample with the three-point bending method. The effect of these loads was the formation of a permanent plastic deformation within the aluminium structure, while in the case of the coating covering aluminium profiles, there is a slight reduction in corrosion resistance, without the loss of barrier properties, however. It was also found that when in addition to mechanical load, salt spray test was applied, microdamage in the coatings’ structure appeared, significantly reducing their barrier properties, which was confirmed by the results of impedance spectroscopy.
EN
In this study, the compressive deformation of crushed sandstone was tested using a crushed rock deformation-seepage test system, and the effects of various factors, including crushed rock grade, grade combination, water saturation status, and stress loading method (i.e., continuous loading or cyclic loading and unloading), on the compressive deformation of crushed sandstone was analyzed from four perspectives including stress-strain, bulking coefficient, deformation mechanism and energy dissipation. The results indicate that the stress-strain relations of crushed sandstone are closely associated with all factors considered, and are well represented by exponential functions. The strain observed for a given applied stress increased with increasing crushed rock grade throughout the loading period. Crushed sandstone grades were combined according to a grading index (n), where the proportion of large-grade rocks in the sample increased with increasing n. The bearing capacity of a water-saturated crushed sandstone sample with n = 0.2 was less than that of an equivalent dry sample for a given applied stress. The stress-strain curve of a water-saturated crushed sandstone sample with n = 0.2 under cyclic loading and unloading was similar to that obtained under continuous loading. Observation and discovery, the deformation mechanism of crushed sandstone was mainly divided into four stages, including crushing, rupture, corner detachment and corner wear. And 20% of the work done by testing machine is used for friction between the crushed sandstone with the inner wall of the test chamber, and 80% is used for the closing of the void between the crushed sandstone, friction sliding, crushing damage.
EN
In this research, nonlinear analysis of composite shear walls (CSWs) with a gap between reinforced concrete wall and steel frame is investigated under cyclic loading by the use of the finite element method (FEM) software ABAQUS. For the purpose of the verification, an experimental test is modelled and comparison of its obtained result with that of the experimental test demonstrates an inconsiderable difference between them; therefore, the reasonable accuracy of the modelling is revealed. Then, effects of different parameters on the behaviour of the CSWs are examined. Gap size between reinforced concrete wall and steel frame, reinforcement percentage, steel sections of beams and columns, and existence of reinforced concrete wall are considered as parameters. It is concluded that change of the parameters affects the ultimate strength, ductility, and energy dissipation of the system. A steel shear wall (SSW) is also modelled and compared with the CSWs. Buckling of the walls is presented as well.
EN
This article deals with determining of fatigue lifetime of aluminum alloy 6063-T66 during by multiaxial cyclic loading. The experiments deal with the testing of specimens for identification of the strain-life behavior of material, the modeling of combined loading and determining the number of cycles to fracture in the region of low-cycle fatigue. Fatigue tests under constant amplitude loading were performed in a standard electromechanical machine with a suitable gripping system. Based on the experimental results the fatigue design curves are compared to the fatigue data from the base material and the welded material and also multiaxial fatigue models, which are able to predict fatigue life at different loads.
EN
In a railway track structure system, trackbed layers are designed to compensate for insufficient bearing capacity and/or water or frost resistance of natural soil. These, so called, ‘capping layers’ can be constructed from raw materials like sand or gravel or from industrial materials like asphalt or concrete. However, more environmentally and cost friendly alternatives have been studied in recent years. Fly-ash represents one such promising material and a trial section of a main line track with the capping layer made from a fly-ash-based mixture was constructed in Czech Republic in 2005. The performance of the capping layer in the section has been measured since. In this paper, results of the laboratory estimation of the elastic modulus under cyclic traffic-like induced loading are presented for the most recent group of samples. The results show that the elastic limit of the fly-ash-based material lies well above the stresses induced by railway traffic and that its behaviour is stable under the cyclic loading. This suggests that the mechanical properties of the material may not be determinative for the design of the layer and that the feasibility factors may take precedent. This in turn suggests that either the design strength of the material or the designed thickness of the layer may be possibly reduced.
PL
W systemie konstrukcji torów kolejowych warstwy nośne są zaprojektowane tak, aby kompensować niedostateczną nośność i/lub odporność na wodę lub mróz naturalnej gleby. Te tzw. warstwy zamykające mogą być zbudowane z surowców takich jak piasek lub żwir lub z materiałów przemysłowych, takich jak asfalt lub beton. W ostatnich latach badano alternatywy bardziej przyjazne dla środowiska i kosztów. Popiół lotny stanowi jeden z takich obiecujących materiałów, badania w Czechach prowadzono od 2005 r. Wykonano próbny odcinek głównego toru linii kolejowej z warstwą przykrywającą wykonaną z mieszanki na bazie popiołu lotnego. Wydajność warstwy przykrywającej w przekroju została zmierzona. W niniejszej pracy przedstawiono wyniki laboratoryjnej oceny modułu sprężystości przy obciążeniu indukowanym podobnym do ruchu cyklicznego dla najnowszej grupy próbek. Wyniki pokazują, że granica sprężystości materiału na bazie popiołu lotnego leży znacznie powyżej naprężeń wywołanych ruchem kolejowym i że jego zachowanie jest stabilne pod obciążeniem cyklicznym. Sugeruje to, że właściwości mechaniczne materiału mogą nie być decydujące dla konstrukcji warstwy i że materiał może być zastosowany. To z kolei sugeruje, że można albo zmniejszyć wytrzymałość projektową materiału, albo zaprojektowaną grubość warstwy.
EN
Iron production’s waste materials include significant quantities of blast furnace slag (BFS) which could potentially be used as a substitute for natural aggregates in hot mix asphalt (HMA) used in highway projects. Although many of properties of slag are interesting, its porosity and absorption rate would lead to greater consumption of asphalt. For this study, a Portland cement (PC) paste was used to reduce the porosity of a BFS. This PC treated BFS (called BFS-C) was then used in an HMA to replace the coarse fraction of a natural aggregate. Marshall, Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS), resilient modulus and Cantabro tests were then carried out on different HMA mixtures that included BFS-C. Using BFS-C, HMA’s resistance under monotonic loading, stiffness under cyclic loading, and resistance to moisture damage increased remarkably. In addition, the Cantabro abrasion resistance of BFS-C improved was better than that of the HMA mixture produced with untreated BFS.
PL
W pracy zaprezentowano wyniki badań trwałościowych końcówki drążka kierowniczego pojazdu o dmc powyżej 3.5 tony. W badaniach wykorzystywano wielkogabarytową platformę wibroizolowaną, serwohydrauliczny siłownik mobilny oraz cyfrowy kontroler sygnałów IST Instron. Próby prowadzono w warunkach działania obciążenia zmiennego cyklicznie do uzyskania 2×106 cykli. Ze względu na kompleksową ocenę zachowania końcówki drążka kierowniczego testy przerywano, by wykonywać oględziny obiektu badań. Wyznaczono zmiany kąta wychylenia oraz momentu siły w funkcji liczby cykli oraz przedstawiono ich prognozę. Omówiono procedurę badawczą służącą ocenie trwałości przegubu kulistego.
EN
The paper reports results from test of steering rod tip used in car having permissible total mass above 3.5 t. Anti-vibration platform, servo-hydraulic actuator and digital controller IST Instron were used to execute the tests. The experiments were carried out under cyclic loading up to 2×106 cycles. The tests were interrupted for inspecting the examined object. Variations of angle and force moment and prediction of their values versus number of cycles are presented. Details of experimental procedure for evaluation of steering rod tip are provided.
8
Content available remote Numerical modelling of innovative DST steel joint under cyclic loading
EN
This paper addresses the numerical simulation of an innovative double split Tee beam-to-column joint fitted with a dissipative friction damper, recently proposed at the University of Salerno. The innovative connection prevents damage to all other structural components with the exception of one component of the connection that is specially designed to dissipate the input energy of a seismic hazard by means of the slippage of a friction material. The main topics herein presented are the development of a strategy for the numerical modelling of complex friction problems and a detailed numerical model of the overall beam-to-column joint equipped with the friction device. The joint is subjected to both monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. The numerical modelling was developed using the Finite Elements Method (FEM) with Abaqus Software. Sliding force–displacement curves are obtained for two damper materials and an estimation of their wearing is presented. To evaluate the accuracy of the numerical model, moment–rotation curves of the joint are compared with the experimental curves. The FE results show good correlations and confirm the potential interest of this novel joint typology to achieve easily replaceable details in case of a seismic event.
9
Content available remote Cyclic testing of steel frames infilled with concrete sandwich panels
EN
In-plane seismic behaviour of concrete sandwich panel-infilled steel frame (CSP-ISF) was experimentally and numerically investigated. Four large-scale, single bay and single story steel frame specimens were tested under reversed cyclic lateral loading. Three infilled frames with different aspect ratios along with one bare frame were considered. It was found that addition of sandwich panels leads to considerable increase in the lateral stiffness and strength, ductility, energy dissipation capacity as well as equivalent viscous damping ratio of the steel frames. Furthermore, the maximum shear capacity of CSP-ISF specimens was validated by analytical approaches which showed good agreement with experimental results. Based on the present experiments, structural performance levels required for Performance-based Analysis are also proposed for concrete sandwich panel used as infill walls. Finally, a numerical model is presented to analyze the nonlinear behaviour of CSP-ISFs.
EN
The paper reports the results of tests carried out for kinematic properties determination of components under cyclic loading. DIC system called 5M PONTOS was employed to follow variations of displacement versus time. It was conducted by the use of markers stuck on selected sections of components tested. The results are presented in 2D and 3D coordinate systems expressing behaviour of such elements as: mechanical coupling device, boat frame and car engine. These data enabled to capture weak and strong sections of the component examined at various loading conditions.
EN
The article focuses on the analysis of the internal damping changes depending on the amplitude of the magnesium alloy AZ31. Internal damping reflects the ability of the material irreversibly dissipating mechanical energy oscillations. It means that the material of high internal damping ability is able to significantly reduce the vibration amplitude. Internal damping is, generally, dependent on many factors (temperature, material purity, grain size, mechanical and thermal processing, etc.) and its value is determined by interactions between various mechanisms dissipation of mechanical energy. Ultrasonic resonance method was used in experimental measurements, which is based on continuous excitation of oscillations of the specimen, and the entire apparatus vibrates at a frequency which is near to the resonance. Starting resonance frequency for all measurements was about f = 20470 Hz.
EN
In this paper the original results of uniaxial cyclic compression test on cohesive soil are presented. The shakedown phenomena in cohesive soil are described. Energy-based method highlights the change of soil material behaviour from plastic shakedown through plastic creep shakedown to incremental collapse. The samples were cyclically loaded under undrained conditions with the constant amplitude of stress in one-way test procedure. In this study the energy-based method was presented as a proper method to categorise response of cohesive soil to cyclic loading in uniaxial conditions. A shakedown criterion factor, SE, was introduced to help understand the shakedown phenomena in cohesive soil. In cohesive soils the absence of a limit between plastic shakedown and plastic creep shakedown was pointed out.
13
Content available remote Mechanical Behavior of Titanium Alloy Under Tension and Torsion Loading
EN
Material selection for cyclically loaded structures is one of the most important design decisions. In order to properly analyze the stress-strain or load-deflection response of monotonic and cyclically loaded structures, the mechanical behavior of the material must be known. In the paper mechanical properties of a titanium alloy Ti-6Al-3Mo-2Cr for monotonic tension, torsion and cyclic tension-compression and reversed torsion are analyzed. The tests have been conducted at room temperature on standard specimens using MTS servohydraulic system. The cyclic hysteresis loops were analyzed. Under cyclic loading for both loading conditions (tension-compression and reversed torsion) the material softened. The obtained experimental data for monotonic and cyclic loading under tension and torsion have been presented.
EN
Condition of bridges with defects can lead to destruction and at the same time adverse effects on the environment, causing discomfort to society. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the durability of existing bridges, including resistance to increasing number of fatigue cracks, which can lead to the destruction of the steel elements. The article presents the results of theoretical and experimental research, which can be used to assess the durability of steel structures. The method of calculation of fatigue cracks growth in anisotropic elements, occurring at different angles to the stiffeners, was presented in the paper. Developed calculation allows estimating time of growth of cracks to some (safe) sizes and determining a value of stress intensity factors, based on which major repairs of the damaged areas can be planned.
PL
Zawansowany stan rozwoju pęknięć w mostach stalowych może skutkować zniszczeniem konstrukcji. Wyłączenie mostu z ruchu i jego remont to złożona społecznie i środowiskowo sytuacja dyskomfortu dla ludzi i środowiska. Mając to na uwadze należy już na etapie projektowania mostu stosować rozwiązania trwałe odpowiadające założonemu czasowi eksploatacji, w tym w szczególności zapobiegającymi powstawania i rozwoju rys zmęczeniowych. W artykule zamieszczono wyniki analiz teoretycznych i badań eksperymentalnych, które mogą być wykorzystane do oceny trwałości konstrukcji stalowych. Przedstawiono metodę obliczania rozwoju pęknięć zmęczeniowych w anizotropowych elementach płytowych, w sąsiedztwie sztywnych żeber. Zastosowano złożoną analizę procesu rozwoju rys, która umożliwia wyznaczenie stanu granicznego w kategoriach użytkowalności konstrukcji oraz powiązanych z nim wartości współczynników intensywności wytężeń. Uzyskane rozwiązania są równoważne wyznaczeniu czasu, w którym jest konieczne przeprowadzenie naprawy konstrukcji. W analizach zawarto wpływ naprężeń residualnych wynikających ze stosowanych technologii, proponując jednocześnie postępowania minimalizujące ich efekty.
EN
This paper presents and discusses the results of numerical modelling of pore water pressure build-up in post-flotation saturated tailings deposited at the Tailings Storage Facility “Żelazny Most”, caused by seismic-induced dynamic loading. Numerical simulations were based on the compaction/liquefaction model proposed by A. Sawicki. The model parameters were determined in the laboratory for tailings sampled at the TSF “Żelazny Most”. The sensitivity of the numerical model was verified in a series of numerical tests for various horizontal acceleration amplitudes. In the main calculations, an accelerogram recorded during a real paraseimic event was assumed. The results obtained show that, with the current seismic activity near the TSF “Żelazny Most”, some pore water pressure is generated within the saturated tailings layer, but it does not trigger the liquefaction phenomenon.
EN
The paper presents the results of fatigue loading simulation applied to bimetallic model using the Chaboche kinematic hardening rule. Three cases of simulations were performed: (i) without residual stresses; (ii) considering residual stresses and (iii) considering asymmetrical geometry of bimetal, i.e. cross area reducing under tension period of loading. Experimental results exhibit the ratcheting phenomenon in titanium-steel bimetallic specimens. The observed ratcheting phenomenon could be explained by the third case of simulation which is supported by detection of microcracks in the vicinity of welded area.
EN
This paper presents original results of triaxial experiments performed at a cyclically changed pore pressure (intrinsic cyclic loading). The results display unusual behaviour of saturated sand subjected to such atypical loading. Some features of this behaviour are shown, including the following effects: static liquefaction of initially contractive sand, apparent creep of initially dilative sand, initial anisotropy, etc. Some differences between the classical geotechnical understanding of the effects of external cyclic loadings (such as earthquakes) and those caused by intrinsic cyclic loadings (such as wave-induced pressures) are discussed.
18
Content available remote Preload retention performance of bolted connections locked with adhesive
EN
Purpose: The cyclic performance of bolted assemblies locked with adhesive are affected by various parameters, such as pitch type, diameter, surface finish, coating type, pre-torque, and loading type. The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of bolt diameter, coating type and pitch type on the preload retention performance of threaded components under cyclic loading conditions. Design/methodology/approach: In this experimental research, the effects of various bolt diameters, coating materials (base material, zinc and zinc phosphate) and pitch type on the preload retention performance of bolted joints were tested. The tests were carried out under cyclic loading conditions. Findings: The highest load cycle was measured at bolts coated with zinc phosphate and the lowest cycle number was measured at zinc coated joints. The fine pitch bolts showed higher retention performance than the coarse pitch ones. To obtain high retention performance, zinc phosphate coated and fine pitch bolts should be used. They offer important economic and technical advantages in cyclic loading conditions. They are resistant to self-loosening under vibration and impact loading. Research limitations/implications: A pneumatic vibration test machine was designed. This machine can be operated only at 25 Hz. Also, this study contains only experimental results. So, the numerical methods can be used in the future research processes. Practical implications: The findings of the experimental study are valid for the specific case of the bolted joint designing. The study helps designers to understand the behaviour of bolted joints with locked adhesive. Originality/value: The main contribution of the study is mostly on the practical side. To the authors’ best knowledge, this paper is one of few studies investigating the design of adhesively bonded threaded joint.
19
Content available remote Stress–strain characteristics of brick masonry under compressive cyclic loading
EN
This paper presents the results of laboratory experiments carried out on twelve clay brick masonry wallettes of two types under cyclic compressive loading. In the paper, the procedure adapted for testing is described and the results are discussed. The failure models and cracking patterns of the tested specimens are presented. The effects of the repeated load on the behaviour and mechanical properties of the wall are observed and discussed. Based on the results, the analytical formula for the determination of the failure envelope curve is also proposed.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano rezultaty badań laboratoryjnych dwóch serii (łącznie 12) murów poddanych cyklicznej sile ściskającej. Przedstawiono procedury badań i obrazy zniszczenia, a wyniki poddano dyskusji. Obserwowano wpływ powtarzającego sie obciążenia ściskającego na zachowanie i parametry materiałowe muru. Podjęto próbę analitycznego opisu krzywej charakterystycznej: obwiedni.
EN
The paper presents the exact solution of the antiplane problem for an inhomogeneous bimaterial with the interface crack exposed to the normal load and cyclic loading by a concentrated force in the longitudinal direction. Using discontinuity function method the problem is reduced to the solution of singular integral equations for the displacement and stress discontinuities at the domains with sliding friction. The paper provides the analysis of the effect of friction and loading parameters on the size of these zones. Hysteretic behaviour of the stress and displacement discontinuities in these domains is observed.
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