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EN
Artificial intelligence (AI) is changing many areas of technology in the public and private spheres, including the economy. This report reviews issues related to machine modelling and simulations concerning further development of mechanical devices and their control systems as part of novel projects under the Industry 4.0 paradigm. The challenges faced by the industry have generated novel technologies used in the construction of dynamic, intelligent, flexible and open applications, capable of working in real time environments. Thus, in an Industry 4.0 environment, the data generated by sensor networks requires AI/CI to apply close-to-real-time data analysis techniques. In this way industry can face both fresh opportunities and challenges, including predictive analysis using computer tools capable of detecting patterns in the data based on the same rules that can be used to formulate the prediction.
EN
The paper considers developed and offered an effective algorithm for solving the block-symmetrical tasks of polynomial computational complexity of data processing modular block-schemes designing. Currently, there are a large number of technologies and tools that allow you to create information systems of any class and purpose. To solve the problems of designing effective information systems, various models and methods are used, in particular, mathematical discrete programming methods. At the same time, it is known that such tasks have exponential computational complexity and can not always be used to solve practical problems. In this regard, there is a need to develop models and methods of the new class, which provide the solution of applied problems of discrete programming, aimed at solving problems of large dimensions. The work has developed and proposed block-symmetric models and methods as a new class of discrete programming problems that allow us to set and solve applied problems from various spheres of human activity. The issues of using the developed models are considered. and methods for computer-aided design of information systems (IS).
EN
Solar radiation (Rs) is an essential input for estimating reference crop evapotranspiration, ETo. An accurate estimate of ETo is the first step involved in determining water demand of field crops. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of fifteen empirical solar radiations (Rs) models and determine its effects on ETo estimates for three sites in humid tropical environment (Abakaliki, Nsukka, and Awka). Meteorological data from the archives of NASA (from 1983 to 2005) was used to derive empirical constants (calibration) for the different models at each location while data from 2006 to 2015 was used for validation. The results showed an overall improvement when comparing measured Rs with Rs determined using original constants and Rs using the new constants. After calibration, the Swartman–Ogunlade (R2 = 0.97) and Chen 2 models (RMSE = 0.665 MJ∙m–2∙day–1) performed best while Chen 1 (R2 = 0.66) and Bristow–Campbell models (RMSE = 1.58 MJ∙m–2∙day–1) performed least in estimating Rs in Abakaliki. At the Nsukka station, Swartman–Ogunlade (R2 = 0.96) and Adeala models (RMSE = 0.785 MJ∙m–2∙day–1) performed best while Hargreaves–Samani (R2 = 0.64) and Chen 1 models (RMSE = 1.96 MJ∙m–2∙day–1) performed least in estimating Rs. Chen 2 (R2 = 0.98) and Swartman–Ogunlade models (RMSE = 0.43 MJ∙m–2∙day–1) performed best while Hargreaves–Samani (R2 = 0.68) and Chen 1 models (RMSE = 1.64 MJ∙m–2∙day–1) performed least in estimating Rs in Awka. For estimating ETo, Adeala (R2 =0.98) and Swartman–Ogunlade models (RMSE = 0.064 MJ∙m–2∙day–12 = 0.98) and Chen 2 models (RMSE = 0.43 MJ∙m–2∙day–1) performed best at Abakaliki while Angstrom–Prescott–Page (R2 = 0.96) and El-Sebaii models (RMSE = 0.0908 mm∙day–1) performed best at the Nsukka station.
PL
Promieniowanie słoneczne (Rs) stanowi istotny czynnik w trakcie określania ewapotranspiracji potencjalnej (ETo) terenów uprawnych. Dokładne oszacowanie ETo jest pierwszym etapem ustalania zapotrzebowania na wodę pól uprawnych. Celem tego badania była ocena dokładności piętnastu empirycznych modeli Rs i oznaczenie wpływu tego parametru na szacunki ewapotranspiracji w trzech stanowiskach wilgotnego środowiska tropikalnego (Abakaliki, Nsukka i Awka). Wykorzystano archiwalne dane meteorologiczne NASA z lat 1983 do 2003 do wyprowadzenia empirycznych stałych (kalibracja) dla różnych modeli w każdej z trzech lokalizacji, a dane z lat 2006 do 2015 posłużyło do oceny. Wyniki wskazują na większą zgodność mierzonego Rs i oszacowanych wartości promieniowania wyznaczonego z zastosowaniem nowych stałych. Po kalibracji modele Swartmana–Ogunladego (R2 = 0,97) i Chena 2 (RMSE = 0,665 MJ∙m–2∙d–1) dawały najlepsze wyniki, podczas gdy modele Chena 1 (R2 = 0,66) i Bristowa–Campbella (RMSE = 1,58 MJ∙m–2∙d–1) były najmniej dokładne w wyznaczaniu Rs w Akabaliki. W stacji Nsukka modele Swartmana–Ogunladego (R2 = 0,96) i Adeali (RMSE = 0,785 MJ∙m–2∙d–1) dawały najlepiej dostosowane wyniki oszacowania Rs, natomiast modele Hargreavesa–Samaniego (R2 = 0,64) i Chena 1 (RMSE = 1,96 MJ∙m–2∙d–1) najmniej. Modele Chena 2 (R2 = 0,98) i Swartmana–Ogunladego (RMSE = 0,43 MJ∙m–2∙d–1) okazały się najlepsze, a modele Hargreavesa–Samaniego (R2 = 0,68) i Chena 1 (RMSE = 1,64 MJ∙m–2∙d–1) – najgorsze w ustalaniu promieniowania w stanowisku Awka. W oszacowaniach ETo modele Adeali (R2 = 0,98) i Swartmana– Ogunladego (RMSE = 0.064 MJ∙m–2∙d–1) dawały najlepsze wyniki w przypadku danych ze stanowiska Awka, a modele Swartmana–Ogunladego (R2 = 0,98) i Chena 2 (RMSE = 0,43 MJ∙m–2∙d–1) okazały się najlepsze w przypadku danych ze stanowiska Abakaliki. W odniesieniu do stanowiska Nsukka najlepsze wyniki uzyskano, stosując modele Angstroma– Prescotta–Page’a (R2 = 0,96) i El-Sebaii (RMSE = 0,0908 mm∙d–1).
EN
The article identifies the optimal location of the warehouse distribution centre for Slovenian companies in the international environment. The process of location selection takes into account a series of interconnected factors, including flows of goods between countries; the level of development of the transport system and transport infrastructure; the number of transport companies; labour costs and labour productivity; and the tax benefits existing in each country. Scientific literature mentions various methods for choosing a warehouse location, which differ in complexity and in the use of different qualitative and quantitative factors. However, the methods discussed have a disadvantage in that they use the current input variables when defining the optimal location. Choosing the optimal warehouse location is an important long-term logistics process, which should consider the fact that the environment in which companies operate is constantly changing. Using the proposed approach, future trends in the international environment are presented, which enables a better choice of warehouse location in the long run. Through this approach, companies can save on logistic costs, while also providing better quality logistics services. The analysis represents a starting point for deciding the location of a warehouse, but does not constitute a complete set of guidelines for companies to follow, as the choice of a particular location is dependent upon the complexity of the international environment in which a company operates.
PL
Since over a decade we observe intensive effort of research institutions and industrial consortia on extending flexibility and automation of the transport network control also known under the term network programmability. Key aspect of each programming interface is ability to evolve but also sensitivity to future modifications. As indicated in the past work [4] in the specific context of optical transport networks an important criterion becomes also complexity and granularity of maintained objects. The objective of this paper is to share the results of a proof of concept of optical transport network control conducted on highly flexible and easy to modify YANG-based RESTCONF protocol. Deriving configuration objects and protocol messages fields from standardized YANG models makes the programming interface easy to understand and modify. In addition, the models were selected to reflect network level control typical for carrier class deployments in the opposite to more common for data centre device level control.
EN
Od ponad dekady obserwuje się wzmożone wysiłki instytutów badawczych i konsorcjów przemysłowych zmierzające w kierunku uelastycznienia i zautomatyzowania sterowania sieciami transportowymi, szeroko znanego również pod pojęciem programowalności sieci. Podstawową cechą każdego interfejsu programowego jest jego zdolność ewoluowania oraz podatność na przyszłe modyfikacje. Jak wykazano w poprzednich pracach [4], dla szczególnego przypadku optycznych sieci transportowych ważnym kryterium staje się również złożoność i szczegółowość zarządzanych obiektów. Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie praktycznych rezultatów studium wykonalności sterowania optyczną siecią transportową za pomocą protokołu RESTCONF opatego na języku specyfikacji YANG. Otrzymywanie obiektów konfiguracyjnych i pól wiadomości protokołu z ustandaryzowanych modeli YANG czyni interfejs programowy łatwym do przyswojenia i ewentualnej modyfikacji. Co ważne, modele zostały dobrane tak, aby odzwierciedlić typową dla klasycznych instalacji operatorskich kontrolę na poziomie sieci w odróżnieniu od bardziej popularnej dla segmentu data center kontroli na poziomie urządzeń.
EN
The intelligent decision making requires the consideration of current contextual information. The article is devoted to construction of formal models for the presentation and usage of contextual information for decision-making in the field of employment. The paper analyses existing approaches to the definition of the concept of context at the conceptual level. The results of comparison of formal context models taking into consideration the requirements for employment business processes are presented. The ontological approach is selected as a basis for contextual models specification. The paper presents the formal representation of the context models for business operations of the employment sector. The model of contextual graphs for the solution of the problem of employment business operations context refinement was developed.
7
Content available Wielokryterialna analiza zdarzeń drogowych
PL
W pracy zaprezentowano problematykę bezpieczeństwa ruchu drogowego ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem ujęcia antropotechnicznego, czyli w opisie: użytkownik – pojazd – droga, a więc elementów występujących w większości prowadzonych analiz związanych z problematyką bezpieczeństwa ruchu drogowego. Podjęto próbę utworzenia opisu i zbadania systemu bezpieczeństwa ruchu drogowego w ujęciu antropotechnicznym; przypisano do poszczególnych elementów tego systemu (człowiek – pojazd ‒ droga) wyróżniki jakościowe opisujące stan składowych tego systemu i nadano wyselekcjonowanym i ważnym wyróżnikom wartości liczbowe, które następnie z wykorzystaniem metod analizy statystycznej umożliwiły zbudowanie modelu bezpieczeństwa ruchu (BRD). Przytoczono dane statystyczne z wypadków drogowych w poprzednich latach z wyróżnieniem poszczególnych elementów systemu antropotechnicznego.
EN
The article presents the issues of road safety with particular emphasis on the anthropotechnical approach, in the description: user ‒ vehicle ‒ road, and therefore the elements occurring in most analyzes related to road safety issues. An attempt was made to create a description and study of the traffic safety system in an anthropotechnical sense, assigning individual elements of this system (human ‒ vehicle ‒ road) to qualitative characteristics describing the state of components of this system and assigning selected and important numerical values. Model of traffic safety (BRD). Statistical data on traffic accidents are presented in previous years, the distinction of particular elements of the anthropotechnical system was highlighted.
8
EN
Results from a series of five surveys among five groups of international climate scientists about their evaluation of elements of climate models and of climate change are presented. The first survey was done in 1996, the latest in 2015/16. Thus, our snapshots of the opinions of climate scientists cover 20 years. The results describe a strong increase in agreement concerning issues of manifestation of climate change, i.e., that the warming is real and not influenced by changing measuring and reporting practices, and concerning attribution of this ongoing climate change to ongoing anthropogenic causes. On the other hand, the evaluation of the climate models has changed little in the past 20 years. There are still significant reservations with the models ability to incorporate clouds and to describe rainfall. Obviously the growing conviction of ongoing man-made climate change is based on a variety of explanations, with modelling not being the predominant line of evidence. We suggest that it may be the repeated assessments by the IPCC, based on paleoclimatic evidence and stringent statistical analysis of the instrumental record which have led to the growing consensus of the warming and its causation. We stress that the presented results concern the opinion of climate scientists with a rather broad background. Our results do not assess if the opinions of the surveyed scientists are “valid” or “right”, but they recognize the character of science being a social process.
9
Content available Modeling of gas consumption in the city
EN
Based on the data collected over a two year time period, which included temperature, wind speed and gas consumption during the day, the effects of weather factors on gas consumption in the city have been established with the use of multiple regression. The impact of a particular month, day (dummy variable) or holiday of a year on the gas consumption has also been determined. The models of linear regression and artificial neural networks have been constructed for determining the gas consumption. An attempt has been made to find the best regression models and compare them to the neural network models with the use of mean absolute percentage error (MAPE).
EN
This paper reports the application of poly(azomethinethioamide) (PATA) resin having the pendent chlorobenzylidine ring for the removal of heavy metal ions such as Zn(II) and Ni(II) ions from the aqueous solutions by adsorption technology. Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic models for Zn(II) and Ni(II) ions adsorption were applied by considering the effect of contact time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature data, respectively. The adsorption influencing parameters for the maximum removal of metal ions were optimized. Adsorption kinetic results followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model based on the correlation coefficient (R2) values and closed approach of experimental and calculated equilibrium adsorption capacity values. The removal mechanism of metal ions by PATA was explained with the Boyd kinetic model, Weber and Morris intraparticle diffusion model and Shrinking Core Model (SCM). Adsorption equilibrium results followed the Freundlich model based on the R2 values and error functions. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of PATA for Zn(II) and Ni(II) ions removal were found to be 105.4 mg/g and 97.3 mg/g, respectively. Thermodynamic study showed the adsorption process was feasible, spontaneous, and exothermic in nature.
Logistyka
|
2015
|
nr 4
7677--7681, CD2
PL
W prace przyprowadzono analizę możliwości wykorzystania modeli obliczenia ryzyka, które użytkuje się w zadaniach ubezpieczenia, dla oceny możliwości powstania nadzwyczajnych zdarzeń w środowisku fizycznym. Dzięki określeniu wielkości ryzyka powstania nadzwyczajnych zdarzeń, są możliwe efektywnie rozwiązanie zadań, które powstaję, łącznie zadań logistyki, przy organizacji prac ratowniczych.
EN
This work analyzes the possibility of using models of risk value evaluation to estimate the possibility of an emergency. Thanks to evaluation of such risk value it is possible to effectively solve problems related to organization of rescue operations when emergencies occur. Taking these estimations into account allows to effectively solve logistic problems related to providing necessary supplies during rescue operations.
PL
Efektywność kształcenia jest zagadnieniem interdyscyplinarnym i wieloparametrycznym. Integruje ono w sobie podejścia: pedagogiczne, społeczne, ekonomiczne. Uwzględnia społeczne potrzeby, rozwój indywidualny jednostki, odnosi się do skuteczności procesu dydaktycznego Potrzeba badania efektywności kształcenia wynika z istoty edukacji. Proces dydaktyczny jest działalnością planową, polegającą na świadomym realizowaniu wyznaczonych celów kształcenia, przy odpowiednio zaplanowanych treściach, metodach i środkach W artykule przedstawiono wybrane ujęcia i modele teoretyczne wykorzystywane w ewaluacji procesów kształcenia. Badanie oceny efektywności kształcenia służy stwierdzeniu, w jakim stopniu cele kształcenia zostały osiągnięte, czyli, jakie zmiany zaszły w zakresie wiedzy, umiejętności i postaw osób uczących się. Wyniki uzyskane w procesach ewaluacyjnych służą udoskonaleniu procesu kształcenia.
EN
Effectiveness of education is an interdisciplinary and a multilayered problem. It consists of several approaches: pedagogical, social and economic. It takes into account social needs, individual progress of entities, also refers to the effectiveness of the learning process. The need to research such effectiveness comes directly from the concept of education itself .As it is, that process requires a plan which means a conscious realization of selected goals of education along with the properly plan red content, methods and means of teaching. The article presents chosen approaches and theoretical models used to evaluate educational processes. Such evaluation is a means to establishing the level of achieved goals, by which one should understand the measure of changes that happened in the scope of knowledge. skills and attitudes of persons undertaking the education. The results coming from the evaluation can be used to improve the educational processes.
EN
This publication presents the ongoing development of visual teaching technology in IT systems, which can be used for e-learning for the “Millennial Generation”. The analysis of different models of teaching making use of visual messages, leads to the conclusion that systems more advanced in VPN technologies possess substantial educational qualities. These systems include TightVPN, UltraVNC, OpenVPN, RealVNC or Radmin and ComodoUNITE as well as TeamViewer.
EN
Finite Element Method (FEM) called Finite Element Analysis is a tool for computer-aided engineering and analysis. It is used to solve problems related to changes in the geometry of the structure as a result of external factors. FEM is used to model engineering processes where real objects are converted to discrete models. Finite Element Method uses a method of obtaining approximate solutions by approximation of partial differential equations. The process of testing and mathematical computation model is described by the equations function of the position and time for the nodes. The development of individual models and their groups and definitions of boundary conditions are carried out using computer programs for FEM.
PL
Celem części pierwszej artykułu jest charakterystyka i analiza porównawcza istniejących systemów zarządzania opakowaniami zwrotnymi. W badaniach dokonano wyróżnienia i opisu czterech występujących w praktyce modeli zarządzania opakowaniami zwrotnymi. Przedmiot badań stanowiły systemy niestandardowe dla niestandardowych opakowań, systemy poolingowe opierające się na outsourcingu usług, systemy własne sieci handlowych oraz systemy idealnej kooperacji. Zwrócono uwagę na uwarunkowania zewnętrze i efektywność stosowania poszczególnych rozwiązań oraz podano przykłady systemów zarządzania opakowaniami.
EN
The article characterises and makes a comparative analysis of reusable packaging management systems. Four types of the models of such systems that are used today are identified and described. These are non-standard systems for handling non-standard packaging, pallet pooling systems, retail chains’ own systems and perfect cooperation systems. The article highlights factors determining the efficacy of particular solutions and provides examples of packaging management systems.
PL
Artykuł stanowi podsumowanie prac realizowanych w ramach projektu badawczego CHEMSEA: Chemical Munitions Search and Assessment, współfinansowanego ze środków Europejskiego Funduszu Rozwoju Regionalnego, wspierającego Program Regionalny Morza Bałtyckiego, w zakresie oceny procedur reagowania kryzowego na zagrożenie generowane przez bojowe środki trujące obecne w Morzu Bałtyckim.
EN
The paper constitutes the report of analyses carried out in the framework of the research project CHEMSEA: the Chemical Munitions Search and Assessment, cofinanced by the European Regional Development Fund to support the Baltic Sea Regional Program, in the area of assessment of national crisis management procedures in case of contact with chemical warfare agents dumped in the Baltic Sea.
PL
Coraz częściej wskazuje się na znaczenie zjawiska dominacji w łańcuchach dostaw. Trzeba szukać podstaw teoretycznych do badania tego problemu. Dla analizy europejskich żywnościowych łańcuchów dostaw zdominowanych przez sieci detaliczne można wykorzystać dorobek industrial economics. Analiza wskazuje, iż zdominowanie dostawców w tych łańcuchach umożliwia budowę cenowych barier wejścia. Tworzony jest więc rynek kontestowany. Rozpoznanie rodzaju rynku może być podstawą do działań ograniczających dominację.
EN
There is a tendency to emphasize the importance of the phenomenon of domination in supply chains. The problem need to be discussed and there is also a need for us to look for the theoretical basis of the problem. The output of industrial economics may be helpful for the analysis of the European food supply chains, which are dominated by retail networks. The analysis indicates, that the fact, that the suppliers in this chains are dominated enables to build the prices barriers to entry. So there is created a contestable market. The identification of the type of market may be the basis for actions to limit the domination.
18
Content available remote Analysis of logistics for construction site supply with reinforcing steel
EN
Owing to the numerous advantages of this technology, the continuous development of monolithic constructions have been made possible. The complexity of structures using this technology have been made possible thanks to the use of modern shuttering, the production of high quality concrete mixes carried out by professional concrete-mixing plants and efficient logistics supporting investment projects. The weakest element in organisation of these works is the supply of reinforcing steel, an expensive resource which is consumed in large quantities thus requiring extensive logistical planning. On the basis of their professional experience, the authors of this paper present their analysis of logistical models for supplying construction sites with reinforcing steel. Using the AHP method, they carry out a multi criteria evaluation of possible supply systems. Then, applying decision inventory theory models, they determine control quantities leading to logistic system optimisation according to the selected criteria.
PL
Obserwowany jest ciągły rozwój budownictwa monolitycznego, dzięki licznym zaletom tej technologii. Poziom wykonawstwa obiektów w tej technologii jest wysoki dzięki dostępności nowoczesnych deskowań, wytwarzaniu mieszanek betonowych wysokiej jakości przez profesjonalne betonownie i sprawnej logistyce obsługującej inwestycje. Najsłabszym ogniwem organizacji tych robót jest zaopatrzenie w stal zbrojeniową, którą zużywa się w dużych ilościach i jest strategicznym oraz drogim zasobem. Autorzy na bazie swoich doświadczeń zawodowych prezentują w artykule analizę modeli logistyki zaopatrzenia budowy w stal zbrojeniową. Za pomocą metody AHP przeprowadzają ocenę wielokryterialną możliwych systemów zaopatrzenia. Następnie, wykorzystując modele decyzyjne teorii zapasów, określą wielkości sterujące, prowadzące do optymalizacji systemu logistycznego wg wybranych kryteriów.
19
Content available Synthesis of text models with information streams
EN
The methods of synthesis of text models with information streams are researched. In the process of functioning of system of text models, which model systems of social objects the following are implemented: analysis of models of monitoring of information means, used by social objects, control of adequacy of models to objects and objects management. The synthesis of text models with information streams is implemented basing on use of semantic parameters. In process of text forms synthesis of models description and information streams appears necessity to output new text fragments, reflecting synthesis result. Such output processes are procedures based on use of logical schemas and grammar rules.
EN
Methods of extension of abilities of semantic analysis of text models by introduction of additional semantic parameters, which come out of basic semantic parameters are researched. The structural components of models are reviewed and they are a base on which methods of extension of abilities of of text models analysis are researched. Basing on use of structural components of text models external semantic parameters are introduced, which also extend abilities of analysis of those models.
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