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EN
Multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental analyses on the two loess-palaeosol sequences of Šarengrad II and Zmajevac (Croatia) provided the opportunity to obtain various data on climatic and environmental events that occurred in the southern part of the Carpathian Basin during the past 350,000 years. Palaeoecological horizons were reconstructed using sedimentological data (organic matter and carbonate content, grain-size distribution and magnetic susceptibility) and the dominance-based malacological results (MZs) supported by habitat and richness charts, moreover multi-variate statistics (cluster analysis). The correlation of the reconstructed palaeoecological horizons with global climatic trends (Marine Isotope Stages) determined the main accumulation processes in the examined areas. The palaeoecological analyses revealed specific accumulation conditions at both sequences, fluvial and aeolian environments at Šarengrad and a possible forest refuge at Zmajevac.
EN
OpracCalcareous nannofossils are described from 4 sections of the Lower Cretaceous Dalichai Formation from the Eastern (Tepal, Talu and Lavan sections) and central Alborz Mountains (Yonjezar section), Iran. Forty-two species belonging to 18 genera have been identified from the 4 sections studied, including 13 species belonging to 8 genera of ascidian didemnids only from the Tepal section. These taxa indicate the CC1-CC5 biozones of Sissingh's (1977) biozonation and an age of Berriasian to Early Barremian. The nannofossils recorded from the Dalichai Formation are generally Tethyan and cosmopolitan, while the presence of some Boreal taxa (Nannoconus abundans and N. borealis) may reflect connection between the Boreal and Tethyan realms in the Early Barremian. The sedimentary basin of the Dalichai Formation of the Tepal, Talu, and Yonjezar sections was located at low latitudes of the Tethyan realm with warm surface water. Also, trends of increasing depth and productivity, of a shift from r-selected to k-selected strategies and of a change from low-to-high mesotrophic to oligotrophic conditions, were deduced. A change from unstable to stable conditions towards the tops of sections is inferred for these localities. Laterally in the Dalichai Basin from the eastern to central Alborz, there was an increase in depth and productivity, and also a trend towards oligotrophic conditions and a dominance of low-stress conditions.owanie rekordu ze środków MNiSW, umowa Nr 461252 w ramach programu "Społeczna odpowiedzialność nauki" - moduł: Popularyzacja nauki i promocja sportu (2021).
EN
The Kota Formation of the Pranhita-Godavari Basin is well known for its fossil fauna and flora especially for its silicified woods. However, the palaeoflora and its palaeoclimatic significance within the formation are poorly known. In spite of the fact that the formation yields a rich fauna and flora chronostratigraphic problems still exist. The present study aims to analyze the palaeofloras from the Kota Formation to understand their diversity and palaeoecological significance. We also describe a new species Agathoxylon kotaense belonging to the conifer family Araucariaceae. Our study shows that the flora was dominated by conifers and that it is comparable to that of the ?Late Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous Gangapur Formation, Pranhita-Godavari Basin and that of the Rajmahal Formation of the Rajmahal hills. The growth ring pattern and leaf fossil assemblage suggest that the growth conditions were seasonal, but mostly stressed.
EN
Palynological investigation of the Vrabchov dol locality (Western Bulgaria) which recently yielded fragmentary dinosaur bones attributed to the clade Titanosauria, reveals well-preserved sporomorph assemblages dominated by angiosperm pollen from the Normapolles group, spores and rare gymnosperms. The age assessment of the studied sequence is based on the diagnostic Normapolles species, such as Oculopollis orbicularis Góczán, 1964, Oculopollis zaklinskaiae Góczán, 1964, Krutzschipollis spatiosus Góczán in Góczán et al., 1967 and Krutzschipollis crassus (Góczán, 1964) Góczán in Góczán et al., 1967. The concurrent presence of these pollen species suggests a late Santonian–early Campanian age for the succession. The sporomorph association is encountered in a palynofacies dominated by continental elements, including translucent phytoclasts (tissues, wood remains and plant cuticles). The sedimentary succession shows no evidence of marine elements and a very low proportion of AOM that attests to deposition within a lagoonal to foreshore marine environment, with high continental input and short transportation. The vegetation in the studied area was primarily composed of a range of Normapolles-producing angiosperms and secondarily of pteridophyte spore-producing plants. Gymnosperms were rare. Such a vegetation pattern reflects a warm, seasonally dry climate during the late Santonian–earliest Campanian in the studied area. The dinosaurs inhabited a wet lowland area, probably rich in herbaceous plants.
EN
The Miocene sedimentation history of the Brus denudation relict (the western part of the Carpathian Foredeep, Czech Republic) has been inferred from 20 m of silt/siltstones, sand/sandstones and limestones penetrated by the Brus-1 borehole. Detailed multiproxy lithofacies and biofacies analyses have allowed facies and palaeoenvironment interpretations. The presence of molluscs, brachiopods and fish fauna, as well as large benthic and epiphytic foraminifera indicates a generally shallow, subtropical, marine environment. Despite the scarcity of biostratigraphical markers, the section can be correlated with the lowermost Badenian (~15-16 Ma). In the siltstones in the lower part of the borehole, there are abundant low-salinity foraminifera, which may indicate increased rainfall. Linked to this is the nutrient enrichment of the sea bottom water inferred from the presence of the high-nutrient taxa accompanied by abundant calcareous nannoplankton eutrophic taxa such as Coccolithus pelagicus and eutrophic planktonic foraminifera of the Globigerina bulloides/praebulloides group. The main Planostegina bloom was recorded in a sandstone in the interval 12.5-7 m, and was not influenced by a shift from high-organic content Valvulineria assemblage of small foraminifera to an epiphytic one. The boundary between siliciclastic and carbonate sedimentation (-7.5 m) shows a drop in K and Th concentrations, and in the Th/U ratio, but a rise in the Th/K ratio. This change in radioactive element content may generally indicate a significant decrease in terrestrial sediment input which is further supported by the onset of limestone deposition. Reversal of the deposition regime and a decrease of clastic input into the basin may be related to the changing of the precipitation regime, probably triggered by orbitally-forced cyclicity.
EN
The Sarcheshmeh and Sanganeh formations are the Lower Cretaceous deep marine sequences of the Koppeh-Dagh sedimentary basin, which revealed a diverse assemblage of dinoflagellates. The paper discusses palynostratigraphy, palynofacies and palaeoenvironment of these rock units in a borehole drilled in the eastern part of this basin. Ninety-five ditch-cutting samples were prepared and studied palynologically, which resulted in recognition of 76 species of dinoflagellate cysts belonging to 29 genera. The recorded assemblages are in accordance with the Odontochitina operculata Zone suggesting a Barremian?–Aptian age for the formations. Palynological data extracted led to identification of five palynofacies types based on the categories of Tyson (1995). These indicate a marginal, proximal and distal shelf environment of deposition. The obtained data from calculated palaeoecological factors revealed a gradual sea level rise during the deposition of these rock units, resulting in replacement of the oxic/dysoxic Sarcheshmeh Formation by the dysoxic/anoxic Sanganeh Formation.
EN
Middle Miocene siltstones of the Skawina Formation that crop out at Wiślica, within the axial part of the Carpathian Foredeep in Poland, were analysed. The deposits studied contain numerous benthic and planktonic foraminifera, ostracods, echinoid spines, bryozoans, bivalves and otoliths. The fossils recognised document an early ‘Badenian’ (= Langhian in the Mediterranean area), or, more precisely, ‘Moravian’ age of the deposit. Palaeoecological analysis suggests normal-marine conditions with full salinity. The studied siltstones were deposited from middle–lower shoreface to lower–offshore, warm surface water and locally suboxic to dysoxic conditions in the sediment.
EN
Dramatic tectonic and sea level changes of the Central Paratethys realm during the Middle Miocene resulted in changes of the coastal and seabed morphology affecting the composition of the marine association and the distribution of the facies along the coast. Three different episodes (marine-terrestrial-marine) in the environmental evolution are interpreted. A lower marine unit (Badenian; Lower Serravallian) reflects organodetrital sedimentation on and around an algal bioherm. Low terrigenous input maërl facies of typical rhodalgal carbonate factory type characterise the top of the algal mound. On the slopes, a rim of rhodechfor facies separated the bioherm from the rest of the bottom which had a seagrass cover. This high-energy rhodechfor carbonate factory is described from the Central Paratethys realm for the first time. It is composed mostly of coralline algae (Mesophyllum, Lithothamnion, Spongites and Lithophyllum), benthic foraminifers (Elphidium crispum, Neoconorbina terquemi, Miniacina sp., Borelis melo), echinoids (cidaroid, spatangoid and diadematoid groups) and bryozoans. Uplift of the Malé Karpaty Mts. resulted in tectonic activity in the vicinity, documented by the presence of clastic dikes and normal faults in the profile studied. Subsequent fluvial and terrestrial sedimentation is represented by regolith, palaeosoil and channel body deposits set discordantly on the top of lagoonal deposits. Finally, the third episode is represented by the Sarmatian transgressive marine sequence, which is characterized by coarse pebbly deposit eroded from an uplifted pre-Neogene basement. The strata studied originated in a warm temperate climate around the Badenian–Sarmatian transition.
EN
Calcareous dinocysts and calcitarchs have been investigated for the first time within the Upper Albian limestone and marl succession of the Zabijak Formation from the High-Tatric Unit in the Tatra Mountains (Central Western Carpathians), related to the Oceanic Anoxic Event 1d (OAE 1d). Four groups of morphotaxa of calcareous dinocysts have been distinguished. They totally dominate the assemblages, and belong to the pithonellids. They are represented by Pithonella sphaerica (Kaufmann in Heer) and P. ovalis (Kaufmann in Heer), which dominate, as well as P. trejoi Bonet and P. lamellata Keupp in Keupp and Kienel, which are less abundant. Two other morphotaxa, Colomisphaera gigantea (Borza) and Cadosina oraviensis Borza, occur sporadically in the assemblages. Both forms represent the calcitarch group, which assembled calcispheres of unknown taxonomic affinity. The calcareous dinocyst and calcitarch diversity is low to moderate, compared to the general species richness known from Late Albian assemblages in other Western Tethyan sections. This is interpreted as a result of nutrient input fluctuations due to changes in the circulation pattern of surface and intermediate waters. The changes in the P. sphaerica/P. ovalis ratio along the Upper Albian section are here correlated with short-term (third-order) sea level fluctuations including transgressive and regressive events and a highstand. Pelletization processes might have influenced cyst abundance on the sea floor, especially during periods with oligotrophic surface waters.
EN
Tunethyris blodgetti sp. nov. from the Triassic Saharonim Formation, Makhtesh Ramon, an erosional cirque in southern Israel, is erected on the basis of a suite of 39 articulated specimens. The shells are very strongly sulciplicated, a feature that seems to be more prevalent in the Mesozoic than the Palaeozoic. The Saharonim Formation was deposited under quasi-normal, calm, relatively shallow marine conditions. Faunal constituents of the Saharonim Formation include conodonts, ostracods, foraminiferans, bivalves, cephalopods, gastropods, echinoderms and vertebrate remains that belong to the Sephardic Province and are diagnostic of the Middle Triassic series of Israel. The faunal composition and shallow depositional environment of the strata may help differentiate the Sephardic Province from the Germanic Muschelkalk and the Alpine Tethyan faunas to the north.
EN
Five brachiopod species are reported from two middle to upper Oxfordian (Late Jurassic) outcrops, situated in the Saïda and Frenda mountains (Tlemcenian Domain, north-western Algeria) and belonging to the heterochronous (Callovian to Oxfordian, locally to the Kimmeridgian) Argiles de Saïda Formation (Saïda Clay Formation). The upper Oxfordian (probably Dichotomoceras bifurcatus Zone) outcrop A yielded Dictyothyris kurri and Loboidothyridoidea indet. The middle Oxfordian (Liosphinctes plicatilis Zone, Cardioceras vertebrale Subzone) outcrop B yielded Monticlarella rollieri, Karadagithyris boullierae sp. n., and Zittelina sp.; this is the first report of the last-mentioned genus from Africa. Karadagithyris boullierae sp. n. is a link between previously known Bajocian to Bathonian (Callovian?) Karadagithyris s.s. and Tithonian to Lower Cretaceous species, formerly segregated as Svaljavithyris; the latter is considered herein as synonym of Karadagithyris. It is characterised by a plano-uniplicate anterior commissure and a suberect beak. The adult loop of Zittelina is confirmed as bilacunar (kingeniform) and not diploform (campagiform). The bulk of the assemblages comprises small and either smooth or finely ornamented species and thus represents a low-energy environment. The lack of modern revisions of the reported species in their type areas is the reason why only Dictyothyris kurri may be used as an index species for the middle to late Oxfordian.
EN
Stromatoporoids of the family Actinostromatidae are common constituents of Givetian to Frasnian (Devonian) organic buildups. The species-level structure of actinostromatid assemblages from the Devonian of southern Poland is described in the present paper, with special emphasis on ecological factors that influenced species composition of the communities. Nine species of the genera Actinostroma and Bifariostroma are distinguished. Members of the family Actinostromatidae predominated in stromatoporoid assemblages within lower Frasnian carbonate buildup margins. The most diverse actinostromatid faunas were found within the middle Givetian Stringocephalus Bank, in the upper Givetian–lower Frasnian biostromal complex and in the lower Frasnian organic buildups. Species-level biodiversity was lowest within detrital facies which surrounded the Frasnian carbonate buildups. Species of Actinostroma with well-developed colliculi are commonest within the middle Givetian to early Frasnian coral-stromatoporoid biostromal complexes, whereas species with strongly reduced colliculi predominate early-middle Frasnian organic buildups. The skeletal structure of actinostromatids reflects environmental changes, documenting a transition from species with thin, close-set pillars and widely spaced laminae (common in the middle Givetian) to those with long, thick pillars and megapillars (in Bifariostroma), which were predominant during the early and middle Frasnian. The distribution of growth forms among species reveals a significant intraspecific variation. Species of Actinostroma can be either tabular or low domical, depending on the palaeoenvironmental setting. Thus, the present study confirms that stromatoporoid morphology was influenced by environmental conditions.
EN
The benthic macroinvertebrates of the Lower Maastrichtian chalk of Saturn quarry at Kronsmoor (northern Germany)been studied taxonomically based on more than 1,000 specimens. Two successive benthic macrofossil assemblages were recognised: the lower interval in the upper part of the Kronsmoor Formation (Belemnella obtusa Zone) is characterized by low abundances of macroinvertebrates while the upper interval in the uppermost Kronsmoor and lowermost Hemmoor formations (lower to middle Belemnella sumensis Zone) shows a high macroinvertebrate abundance (eight times more than in the B. obtusa Zone) and a conspicuous dominance of brachiopods. The palaeoecological analysis of these two assemblages indicates the presence of eight different guilds, of which epifaunal suspension feeders (fixo-sessile and libero-sessile guilds), comprising approximately half of the trophic nucleus of the lower interval, increased to a dominant 86% in the upper interval, including a considerable proportion of rhynchonelliform brachiopods. It is tempting to relate this shift from the lower to the upper interval to an increase in nutrient supply and/or a shallowing of the depositional environment but further data including geochemical proxies are needed to fully understand the macrofossil distribution patterns in the Lower Maastrichtian of Kronsmoor.
PL
Skład i zmiany zespołów otwornic pochodzących z najwyższej części utworów podewaporatowych w otworze wiertniczym Busko (Młyny) PIG-1 (głęb. 188–192 m), zlokalizowanym w północnej części zbiornika przedkarpackiego (Paratetyda Środkowa), wskazują, że zbiornik, w którym powstawały osady margliste, był słabo wentylowany, z dużym deficytem tlenowym w wodach przydennych oraz ze środowiskiem eutroficznym w wodach powierzchniowych. Zbiornik ten, o głębokości 50–70 m, wypełniały wody chłodne o zasoleniu typowym dla zbiornika morskiego. Obserwowane w najwyższej części profilu prawie całkowite wyeliminowanie otwornic Uvigerina i zajęcie na krótko zwolnionej niszy przez Fursenkoina acuta (zespół D4c) oraz zdominowanie składu najmłodszego zespołu (D4d) przez tolerującą podwyższone zasolenie Bulimina elongata może jednak wskazywać na znaczne podwyższenie zasolenia w trakcie depozycji najwyższej części utworów poprzedzających depozycję gipsów. Profil gipsów badeńskich w badanym otworze wiertniczym w porównaniu z bardziej brzeżną strefą platformy gipsowej cechuje się redukcją dolnej, autochtonicznej części gipsów oraz specyficznym wykształceniem najniższej jednostki gipsów. W matriksie ilastym występują tam gruzły gipsu bardzo przypominające małe, chaotycznie ułożone blokowe zrosty krystaliczne, określane jako facja szkieletowa gipsów szklicowych, związana w niecce Nidy oraz na Morawach z obniżeniami dna. Wykształcenie profilu gipsów wskazuje na głębsze środowisko sedymentacji niż to stwierdzono w rejonie niecki Nidy.
EN
Composition and changes in foraminiferal assemblages recorded in the uppermost part of the sub-evaporite deposits of the Busko (Młyny) PIG-1 borehole (depth 188–192 m) in the northernmost part of the Fore-Carpathian Basin (Central Paratethys) indicate that the basin, in which marly deposits have originated, was poorly ventilated with a great oxygen deficit in the bottom waters, and was characterised by mainly eutrophic conditions in surface waters. The basin was 50–70 m deep. The waters were cool and of normal seawater salinity, although the recorded (in the uppermost part of the section) almost complete disappearance of Uvigerina foraminifers, occupation (for a short time) of the vacant niche by Fursenkoina acuta (assemblage D4c), and the dominance of Bulimina elongata (tolerant to increased salinity) in the youngest assemblage (D4d) may indicate a considerable increase of seawater salinity during the deposition of the uppermost part of the sub-evaporite strata. The gypsum section is characterised, when compared to the more marginal gypsum sections of the Nida Trough, by a reduction of the lower, autochthonous part of the gypsum section and a specific development of the lowermost gypsum unit. It contains gypsum nodules resembling small, chaotically arranged gypsum intergrowths in the clayey matrix. Such facies is regarded as the skeletal facies of the giant gypsum intergrowth facies of the Nida Trough and Moravia, and is related to depositional lows at the beginning of the gypsum deposition. The gypsum sequence in this borehole indicates a deeper sedimentary environment than inferred for the Nida Trough.
EN
Latest Eocene plant macrofossils and trace fossils collected a century ago by Wiktor Kuźniar are revised and their stratigraphical and palaeoecological meaning is re-considered. They derive from marine limestones and marls cropping out on the northern slope of the Hruby Regiel mountain in the Western Tatra Mountains. Leaves belonging to the families Fagaceae and Lauraceae and fruits of the palm Nypa are recognized. The co-occurrence of the planktonic foraminifer taxa Chiloguembelina cf. gracillima and Globigerinatheca cf. index and fruits of Nypa suggests a latest Eocene age of the fossil flora. The plant assemblage is typical of paratropical or subtropical evergreen forests in a warm and humid subtropical climate, recent counterparts of which occur in southeast Asia. The presence of Nypa is characteristic of mangroves. The good state of preservation of the leaves suggests coastline proximity during sedimentation of the plant-bearing deposits.
16
Content available remote Palaeoecological analysis of Berriasian ostracods of the central Crimea
EN
The author has completed a palaeoecological analysis of assemblages of ostracods, collected from the sections of the Berriasian deposits of central Crimea. The strata belonging to this stage are divided into four formations, and these into stratigraphic subdivisions of member rank, numbered 1–29. The members accumulated in deeper and shallower environments in a shallow marine basin, and are distinguished on the basis of the characteristic features of the composition of the ostracod complexes. Changes of temperature conditions and water mobility were identified.
EN
The Berriasian deposits of the central Crimea have been studied in order to compose a composite sequence of the stage with detailed palaeontological characterization. The Berriasian includes the Bedenekyrskaya Formation (packstones), Bechku Formation (siltstones, sandstones) and Kuchkinskaya Formation (sponge packstones, clays, siltstones, and coral-algal bioherm framestones). The Jacobi, Occitanica and Boissieri zones were identified based on ammonites found in the sections. A micropalaeontological analysis determined the following: 6 foraminiferal assemblages, the Costacythere khiamii – Hechticythere belbekensis and Costacythere drushchitzi – Reticythere marfenini ostracod assemblages, and a Phoberocysta neocomica dinocyst assemblage. Palaeoecological analysis of the ostracod and foraminiferal associations indicates a moderately warm marine basin with normal salinity and shallow depths (tens of meters). Only the sponge horizon was probably deposited in a deeper-water environment.
EN
The malacofauna of the palaeolake deposits at Szymanowo (eastern Poland) was investigated. It represents the younger part of the climatic optimum of the Mazovian (Holsteinian) Interglacial (~MIS 11) and possibly the postoptimal period. The mollusc assemblage is composed of both standing and running water species, mostly connected with temperate climate. The presence of biostratigraphical indicators of the Mazovian, Viviparus diluvianus (Kunth, 1865), Lithoglyphus jahni Urbański, 1975 and Pisidium clessini Neumayr, 1875, is noteworthy. Variability in the structure and composition of the assemblage enables palaeoecological reconstruction. Changes in the water-level, vegetation and energy conditions are inferred from the malacological succession. Three stages of the lake development were distinguished. The first one is connected with deeper conditions and predominance of V. diluvianus and L. jahni. The second one, dominated by Bithynia tentaculata (Linnaeus, 1758), records a fall of the water-level and the growth of aquatic plants, evidenced by high frequencies of Valvata cristata Müller, 1774 and Acroloxus lacustris (Linnaeus, 1758). The third stage corresponds to another rise of the water-level and an increase in V. diluvianus, L. jahni, Valvata piscinalis Müller, 1774 and Pisidium henslowanum (Sheppard, 1823), which evidence some higher energy conditions.
EN
Malacological studies of two profiles of the Holsteinian (Mazovian) Interglacial from eastern Poland – Roskosz and Wilczyn 1/12 – are presented. They are connected with the northern part of the Wilczyn palaeolake and seems to document palaeoecological changes in the part of the climatic optimum and the post-optimal period. Mollusc communities are typical of lake environs. The latter is supported by biometry of Pisidium moitessierianum. Higher energy conditions are evidenced by rheophile species P. henslowanum and P. nitidum in the lowermost part of the Roskosz section. Mollusc assemblages with Lithoglyphus jahni, with Valvata piscinalis and Bithynia tentaculata as well as with Valvata piscinalis are distinguished at Roskosz. They record changes in aquatic vegetation and depth conditions. Malacofauna from Wilczyn 1/12 is dominated by V. piscinalis, V. piscinalis f. antiqua and B. tentaculata. Limited contribution of temperate gastropods Viviparus diluvianus and L. jahni as well as the occurrence of some cold-loving forms indicate a deterioration of thermal conditions. Shallow-water habitats and expansion of reed zones are inferred from proportions of Bithynia shells and opercula.
EN
While the marine molluscs from Sarmatian deposits of the Carpathian Foredeep Basin are known in general, there is a paucity of data on the terrestrial gastropods. Recently, a rich assemblage of terrestrial snails, accompanied by freshwater species, was found in Zwierzyniec, in the north-western, marginal part of the Carpathian Foredeep. Among the 38 taxa recognised, there are 22 species found in Poland for the first time; a new clausiliid species Triloba magurkai Stworzewicz sp. nov. is described. Freshwater gastropods (nine Lymnaeidae species and two Planorbidae species) were presented elsewhere. The malacofauna comprises aquatic and typical hygrophilous elements from coastal wetland habitats, some xerophilous species from dry, open environments, and gastropods from an adjacent subtropical woodland.
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