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EN
The mineralogy and thermal properties of two kaolin clay samples from Agua Blanca (Hidalgo-México) were determined by XRD, SEM-EDS, TGA-DSC techniques. Kaolin clay A contains a higher Al2O3 and lower impurities (K2O, TiO2, Fe2O3) amount than kaolin clay B, while the SiO2 amount is similar for both kaolin clays. A theoretical approach was carried out by a thermodynamic analysis considering the chemical composition of both kaolin clay samples with the FactSage 7.3 software. Stability phase diagrams were obtained to different K2O content from 0.1 to 3 wt % and temperatures in the range from 600 to 1600°C based on the chemical composition of the kaolin clay samples. The main mineralogical compounds predicted are andalusite (Al2O3•SiO2), K-Potash feldspar (K2O•Al2O3•6SiO2), and the SiO2 polymorphs (quartz, tridymite, and cristobalite) with small amounts of ferric-pseudobrookite (Fe2O5Ti), and rutile (TiO2). As K2O content is increased, the amounts of mullite and tridymite decrease meanwhile the potash feldspar is increased at high temperatures. A liquid phase is formed at around 1350 and 1400°C for the kaolin clay samples A and B, respectively. The viscosity of the melt is increased for the evaluated K2O additions to 1400, 1500, and 1600°C.
EN
The presented work investigates a method for developing hard-to-recover hydrocarbon reserves based on a downhole electrothermal steam generator, which is distinguished by energy efficiency, resource conservation and environmental safety. The paper presents an overview of downhole electro-thermal equipment that improves the quality of thermal treatment of the bottom-hole zone of high-viscous oil formations by separating steam in an electric steam generator and increasing its dryness, wherein thermal energy in the oil-formation medium affects all its components and completely changes ties and filtration conditions. This is expressed in a decrease in the viscosity of oil, its increased mobility, weakening of structural-mechanical properties, improvement of the conditions for capillary imbibition, and, as a result, an increase in the displacement factor and the final oil recovery. A simulation of the reservoir temperature field was performed by setting the heat flow in the ANSYS software package to understand the thermal processes in the steam generator and to more accurately determine the necessary heating parameters for a given water flow rate. The temperature field of the reservoir simulation after the heat treatment of the bottom-hole zone was conducted in the software package Femlab 3.5. The proposed simulation models can help in the development of the physical model and further research. This technology is environmentally friendly and does not emit emissions into the atmosphere.
PL
Badania przeprowadzono w celu określenia zmian zachodzących w zawartości błonnika pokarmowego w warzywach kapustnych pod wpływem obróbki cieplnej. Analizom poddano brokuł i kalafior gotowane na parze oraz konwencjonalnie - w wodzie. Na podstawie otrzymanych wyników stwierdzono, że zarówno metoda gotowania, jak i rodzaj warzywa istotnie wpływają na zawartość błonnika pokarmowego ogółem oraz jego poszczególnych frakcji w badanych warzywach. Brokuł poddany gotowaniu w wodzie charakteryzował się większą redukcją zawartości błonnika pokarmowego ogółem w porównaniu do kalafiora, tj. z poziomu 4,96 g/100 g świeżego produktu do 4,32 g/100 g produktu gotowanego. Surowe warzywa zawierały przede wszystkim rozpuszczalną frakcję błonnika (SDF), z zachowaniem niewielkiego udziału frakcji nierozpuszczalnej (IDF). Podczas obróbki cieplnej udział SDF obniżał się przy jednoczesnym wzroście zawartości IDF. Największe różnice zaobserwowano pomiędzy brokułem surowym a ugotowanym na parze. Zawartość frakcji IDF w brokule surowym wynosiła 0,32 g/100 g, natomiast po procesie gotowania na parze wartość ta wzrosła do 1,55 g/100 g.
EN
The research was carried out to illustrate the changes in the content of dietary fiber in cruciferous vegetables under thermal treatment. The research material was steamed or conventionally boiled broccoli and cauliflower. On the basis of the obtained results, it was found that both method of thermal treatment as well as kind of vegetable, significantly influence on the content of total dietary fiber and its fractions in the tested vegetables. Boiled broccoli was characterized by a greater reduction in the content of total dietary fiber compared to cauliflower, i.e. from 4.96 g/100 g of fresh product to 4.32 g/100 g of boiled product. Raw vegetables contained mainly the soluble dietary fiber (SDF), with a small share of the insoluble dietary fiber (IDF). During the thermal treatment, the amount of SDF decreased, while IDF increased. The greatest differences were observed between raw and steamed broccoli. The content of the IDF fraction in the raw broccoli was 0.32 g/100 g, while after the steaming process this value increased to 1.55 g /100 g.
EN
In the recycling of WEEE, two approaches are common: a pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical treatment, preceded by a mechanical and/or physical separation. In this study, twostep processing of unmodified waste samples of LCD screen inverters was investigated: hightemperature processing followed by acidic leaching under fixed conditions (1M H2SO4, 90 ℃, 1 bar). The analysis carried out concerned a correlation between the type of HT treatment (pyrolysis, incineration, or gasification) and the dynamics of metals’ leaching from samples pretreated this way. It was found that HT method can act as “thermal disintegration”, since it affects, to a varying degree, the structure of the samples and cause elimination of organics and carbonaceous residue (incineration/gasification). The greatest mass loss (~18%) and the most loosened structure was observed for the gasified sample. Varying oxygen potential in HT-processes correlates well with the leachability of thermally treated inverters. The incineration was found to be the most favorable for copper extraction (>95%) by acidic leaching due to oxidized form of Cu, whereas Cu leaching from pyrolyzed and gasified samples needed oxygen and was controlled by the oxygen supply achieving only 36/43% after 6 h. The course of Pd leaching was similar to copper, although with lower efficiencies; 47% of palladium was extracted from the incinerated sample, and only 4 or 7% from gasified and pyrolyzed samples, respectively. Au was leached immediately but only to a slight extent. Contrary to Pb, leaching of Zn, Sn, Sb, and Ni was gradual, probably due to the formation of alloys with copper.
5
Content available W pułapce GOZ-u
PL
Dla nikogo chyba nie jest odkryciem, że zasoby surowcowe Ziemi, w tym zasoby surowców energetycznych, nie są niewyczerpywalne. Stąd koniecznością staje się oszczędzanie surowców, powtórne wykorzystanie produktów i recykling używanych materiałów. Dotychczasowy model gospodarki linearnej dający się opisać prostym schematem: pozyskaj surowce - wyprodukuj wyrób - używaj go - pozbądź się odpadu - musi być zastąpiony innym modelem, w którym pozyskane surowce będą wykorzystywane najdłużej jak to jest możliwe - poprzez wielokrotne użycie wyprodukowanych wyrobów, a strumień powstającego odpadu będzie jak najmniejszy.
6
Content available PPP w sektorze gospodarki odpadami
PL
Dotychczas w sektorze gospodarki odpadami podpisano 9 umów o partnerstwie publiczno-prywatnym na kwotę stanowiącą 31% wartości wszystkich umów o PPP zawartych w Polsce. Poza wartością realizowanych projektów, sektor ten wyróżnia również wysoki poziom innowacyjności i wielopłaszczyznowy charakter przedsięwzięć.
PL
Nowoczesna spalarnia odpadów to ostatni element niedokończonej układanki „odpadowej” w Gdańsku, jak i pozostałych gmin w regionie. Po jej uruchomieniu staniemy się doskonale zorganizowaną metropolią w tym zakresie. Doskonale zorganizowaną, czyli bezpieczną i przewidywalną, a to w gospodarce, bez względu na jej profil jest najważniejsze.
8
Content available Najnowsze oraz planowane zmiany w prawie odpadowym
PL
Z Ministerstwa Klimatu coraz częściej płyną oficjalne i nieoficjalne sygnały o planowanych zmianach w prawie odpadowym, które mogą mieć istotny wpływ na termiczne przekształcanie odpadów.
PL
Projektując i budując zakład Termicznego Przekształcania Odpadów Komunalnych każdy właściciel stoi przed ogromnym wyzwaniem: jak efektywnie zarządzać nim nie tylko w obszarze podstawowego procesu jakim najczęściej jest spalanie, ale również jak skoordynować wszystkie informacje pojawiające się nie tylko na linii technologicznej, ale również pochodzące z wielu powiązanych z tym procesem źródeł? Tylko doświadczony zespół wie jakie to wyzwanie i potrafi odpowiednio mu sprostać. Zaprezentowane w artykule podejście do kompleksowego zarządzania informacją w takim zakładzie, pozwoli na podjęcie efektywnych działań usprawniających pracę własnych linii technologicznych.
10
Content available Heating value of thermally treated wood
EN
Common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) wood was heat treated in an oven at the temperatures of 180°C, and 200°C under atmospheric pressure in the presence of air for 3, 6, 9, 12 hours, and the changes in higher heating value (HHV) of wood were studied. For untreated ash wood the value 19.51 MJ·kg-1 was determined. Thermal treatment considerably increased the HHV of wood. The highest value was measured in sample that was thermally treated for 6 h at the temperature of 200°C. In this sample the value 20.78 MJ·kg-1 was determined. Changes in HHV are a consequence of chemical changes in wood during treatment. Strong positive correlation between HHV and the ratio of the sum of lignin and extractives content to holocellulose content was observed.
EN
Production processes of hot forging most often look similar [1-3]. Forging in several operations, usually in three or four. Most often the first operation is upsetting or flattening (sometimes rolling). The last operation is finishing forging. This applies to the production of steel forgings for the automotive, agricultural and other similar industries. Typical production proceeds as follows: the forgings are cleaned (shot-blasted) and then heat treatment is performed. It can be normalization, hardening and tempering, etc. After the heat treatment, forgings are checked and subjected to strength and microscopic tests, hardness tests, impact tests. The type of tests depends on the recipient. The process described in the work takes place in three operations. The heat treatment used so far is hardening and tempering. An attempt was made to change the heat treatment technology for a selected product made of 42CrMo4 steel (1.7225) (4140). An isothermal annealing test was carried out at different temperatures and for different times. The possibility of using heat from the forging process in heat treatment processes for the described product has been confirmed.
EN
Purpose: In this paper, the impact of hardening temperature on the quenching distortions which occur during low-pressure carburizing with gas quenching - using the individual quenching method - was analysed. Design/methodology/approach: The reference elements were subjected to carburizing at 980°C, followed by gas quenching at temperatures of 860°C, 920°C and 980°C. The geometrical measurements of the elements were made before and after the chemical treatment and the size of the quenching distortions of their geometrical parameters was determined. Findings: It was demonstrated that a high temperature of quenching has an unfavourable effect on changes in cylindricity and roundness parameters but, at the same time, reduces the size of distortion of outer parameters. Low temperature quenching reduces quenching distortions of cylindricity and roundness parameters while increasing the distortion of outer dimensions. Research limitations/implications: Based on the research and analysis carried out in this work, it was found that the use of lower quenching temperature is justified in economic and quality terms. Practical implications: In the case of the aviation or automotive industry, very high quality of manufactured elements along with a simultaneous reduction of their production costs is extremely important. Maintaining the dimensions of the elements during heat treatment is extremely difficult. The tests allowed to determine the optimal hardening temperature, which brings with it acceptable deformations. Since it is easier to “repair” the outer geometrical dimensions (diameter, thickness), it seems that quenching from lower temperatures is a more favourable process. Originality/value: The conducted tests allowed to determine the most favourable conditions for hardening elements from the automotive industry, taking into account the occurring deformations and their subsequent processing
13
Content available remote Research of mechanical and electrical properties of Cu–Sc and Cu–Zr alloys
EN
The research paper presents the impact of the scandium additive and various conditions of the heat treatment on copper mechanical, electrical and heat resistance properties. The performed research works included manufacturing of CuSc0.15 and CuSc0.3 alloys through metallurgical synthesis with the use of induction furnace and following crystallization in graphite crucibles at ambient temperature. Additionally, a CuZr0.15 alloy was produced as a reference material for previously syn-thesized Cu–Sc alloys. During research, the selection of heat treatment for the produced materials was conducted in order to obtain the highest mechanical–electrical properties ratio. Materials obtained in such a way were next subjected to thermal resistance tests. Parameters of thermal resistance test included temperatures from the range of 200–700 °C and 1 h of anneal-ing time. The research has shown that CuSc0.15 and CuSc0.3 alloys have higher heat resistance after their precipitation hardening compared to the Cu–Zr alloy. The paper also presents microstructural research of the produced materials, which showed that alloying elements precipitates are mainly localized at the grain boundaries of the material structure.
14
Content available remote Termiczne usuwanie rtęci z węgla kamiennego i biomasy
PL
Porównano usuwanie rtęci z węgla kamiennego i biomasy w procesie wstępnej obróbki termicznej. Badania przeprowadzono w temp. 200-400°C. Zauważono istotne różnice w dynamice uwalania rtęci z węgla i biomasy, wynikające z odmiennych form jej występowania. Do temp. 350°C usunięto z biomasy 92–95% rtęci, a z węgla kamiennego tylko 41–73%. Wyjściowa zawartość rtęci wynosiła w próbkach węgla 56–196 μg/kg, a w biomasie 3–7 μg/kg.
EN
Six bituminous coal samples and 3 biomass samples were heated up to 400°C and 350°C, resp., to remove Hg as volatile compds. The Hg content in coals was 56–196 μg/kg and in biomass 3–7 μg/kg. The Hg removal effectivenes (up to 350°C) from coal samples was 41–73% and from biomass 92–95%.
PL
W pracy zaprezentowanej w artykule przeprowadzono pilotażową ocenę wybranych cech jakościowych przykładowych mrożonych filetów rybnych zakupionych na podlaskim rynku. Filety te po rozmrożeniu poddano różnym rodzajom obróbki termicznej. Równolegle dokonano oceny analogicznych cech jakościowych przykładowych ryb świeżych oraz zamrożonych w warunkach laboratoryjnych, poddając je obróbce termicznej w tych samych warunkach. Panga zakupiona na lokalnym rynku w stanie zamrożonym, a następnie rozmrożona w warunkach laboratoryjnych, zmieniała się w stosunku do surowca, po poddaniu obróbce termicznej, w inny sposób niż pstrąg zamrożony w warunkach laboratoryjnych i poddany tym samym metodom obróbki. Wydajność pangi zamrożonej przemysłowo była istotnie niższa po obróbce niż pstrąga świeżego i zamrożonego. Pstrąg świeży był najlepszy opiekany, natomiast najgorszy – po pieczeniu w folii. Analogicznie został oceniony pstrąg mrożony. Panga mrożona była najatrakcyjniejsza po smażeniu, natomiast najniżej oceniono ją po pieczeniu bez folii. Należałoby przeprowadzić na szeroką skalę analizę cech jakościowych ryb zamrożonych oferowanych na polskim rynku. Mogłoby to zwrócić uwagę producentom, dystrybutorom i sprzedawcom ryb na monitorowanie historii łańcucha chłodniczego. Polepszenie cech jakościowych ryb mrożonych w dalszej perspektywie mogłoby się przyczynić do zwiększenia sprzedaży i konsumpcji ryb w Polsce.
EN
In the work presented in the article, a pilot assessment of selected quality features of examples of frozen fish fillets, purchased on the local market in Podlasie, was conducted. The filets after defrosting were heated in various types of thermal treatment. Simultaneously the analogue evaluation of quality features was carried out in the raw fish as well as frozen in laboratory conditions, which were the same in both cases. The fish was heated at the same conditions as market’s filets. Basa fish, having been bought as a frozen filet on a local market and then defrosted in a laboratory, was changing after cooking in comparison with raw material in a different way than a trout that was frozen and defrosted in laboratory and that underwent the same type of heat treatement. Efficiency of the basa fish, frozen in industrial process, was significantly lower after heating than the efficiency of a raw trout as well as frozen in a laboratory. The unfrozen trout was after heat treatment the best as roasted, and the worst – after baking wrapped in an aluminium foil. Analogously was evaluated after cooking the trout, frozen in the laboratory. The basa fish was the most attractive after frying, though, obtained the lowest quality after baking without foil. It would be necessary to conduct investigations of frozen fish on the Polish market on a wide scale. It could pay attention of the producers, distributors and fish salers to monitoring of the history of frozen chain. The improvement of the quality of frozen fish, could increase in the long run selling and consumption of fish in Poland.
PL
W roku 70-lecia RAFAKO, należy z dumą podkreślić fakt, iż ostatnie ćwierć wieku istnienia firmy związane jest z obecnością firmy na europejskim rynku termicznego przekształcania odpadów (TPO). Funkcjonując jako dostawca kotłów odzyskowych, bądź też elementów ciśnieniowych kotłów do instalacji TPO, RAFAKO uczestniczyło w tym okresie w ponad 80 różnych projektach spalarniowych.
EN
Disposal of wastes containing metal ions such as Cu(II) ions is serious problem nowadays. Various materials are utilized for the purpose of immobilization of Cu(II) ions. Attractive type of material is represented by slags – waste from the metallurgical industry. Raw and alkali-activated blast furnace slag were studied for the purpose of immobilization of Cu(II) ions from the aqueous solution and for disposal of Cu(II) containing wastes. Slags were saturated by Cu(II) ions. Amount of Cu(II) deposited on the raw slag was 6.35 ± 0.12 mg/g and amount deposited on the alkali-activated slag was 151.37 ± 0.95 mg/g. The saturated materials were thermally treated at 100, 500, and 1000°C. The thermal treatment leads to the slight structural changes in the case of raw slag and to the significant structural changes in the case of alkali-activated slag. Cu(II) ions probably incorporate to the matrix of materials. The materials based on alkali-activated slag exhibit higher stability to the leaching of Cu(II) ions compared to raw slag based materials when only 0.13% of the total immobilized amount of Cu(II) ions was released to the solutions during the leaching experiment in the case of alkali activated slag compared to 12% in the case of raw slag. The higher temperature of treatment leads to more stable material in the case of both initial slags. The studied materials are less stable under the acidic conditions in comparison with the neutral and alkaline conditions. Alkali-activated blast furnace slag could be promising material for the Cu(II) ions immobilization and for the safe disposal of Cu(II) containing wastes.
PL
Utylizacja odpadów zawierających jony metali, takich jak jony Cu (II), stanowi obecnie poważny problem. W celu immobilizacji jonów Cu (II) stosuje się różne materiały. Atrakcyjny rodzaj materiału reprezentują żużle – odpady z przemysłu metalurgicznego. Surowe i aktywowane alkalicznie żużle wielkopiecowe badano pod katem immobilizacji jonów Cu (II) z roztworu wodnego i możliwości składowania odpadów zawierających Cu (II). Żużle były nasycone jonami Cu (II). Ilość Cu (II) osadzonego na surowym żużlu wynosiła 6,35 ± 0,12 mg/g, a ilość osadzona na żużlu aktywowanym alkaliami wynosiła 151,37 ± 0,95 mg/g. Nasycone materiały poddano obróbce termicznej w 100, 500 i 1000°C. Obróbka termiczna prowadzi do niewielkich zmian strukturalnych w przypadku surowego żużla i znacznych zmian strukturalnych w przypadku żużla aktywowanego alkaliami. Jony Cu (II) prawdopodobnie wypełniają matrycę materiałów. Materiały na bazie żużla aktywowanego alkaliami wykazują wyższą stabilność wymywania jonów Cu (II) w porównaniu z żużlami surowymi. Uzyskano immobilizację wynoszącą 0,13% całkowitej unieruchomionej ilości jonów Cu (II)dla żużla aktywowanego i 12% w przypadku żużla surowego. Obróbka w wyższej temperaturze prowadzi do uzyskania bardziej stabilnego materiału w przypadku obu rodzajów żużla. Badane materiały są mniej stabilne w warunkach kwasowych niż w warunkach obojętnych i alkalicznych. Żużel wielkopiecowy aktywowany alkaliami może być obiecującym materiałem do immobilizacji Cu (II) i do bezpiecznego usuwania odpadów zawierających Cu (II).
EN
The oil containing drilling waste is a worldwide environmental problem associated with oil and gas exploration. In Poland, the problem of the drilling waste has become important since starting of shale gas exploration. The results of thermal treatment of drilling waste from shale gas exploration are presented. It has been shown that organic content vaporized completely at temperature up to 500 °C. The main problem is high content of chloride, sulfate, sodium, potassium, magnesium in the waste and its water leachate. Toxicity tests confirmed that high salinity of the samples pose important risk for environment. Due to the high content of barium, the drilling waste may be utilized in production of cement with high chemical and heat resistance and opaque to X-ray. Thermal treatment process is a viable option for remediation of the drilling waste; however, the product of the process needs further treatment in order to remove its high salinity.
EN
The aim of the paper is to assess the range and the mechanisms of transformations of the molecular structure and the physical microstructure of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers produced by various manufacturers under the influence of thermal treatment in different conditions. The thermal treatments were carried out in different media (such as air, water, and steam), at various temperatures, and using different periods of treatment. Changes in the molecular structure were assessed using infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy and evaluation of the differences in molecular cohesion energy of the fiber material during the dissolution processes. Changes in the fibers’ physical microstructure were investigated using densitometric, IR spectrophotometric, and X-ray diffraction methods; for assessment of both the reconstruction process of the paracrystalline matter of the fibers and the changes in the fibers’ total orientation, interferential polarization microscopy was used.
EN
The nanocomposites of polyamide 6 (PA6) with halloysite nanotubes (HNT) were prepared by extrusion using co-rotating twin-screw extruder and then the standard test specimens were injected using a screw injection moulding machine. The content of HNT in the nanocomposites was 5 or 10 weight percent. The heat treatment of unmodified PA6 and nanocomposites was carried out in silicone oil in temp. 150±2°C. The samples were annealed for 3 hours and then cooled at a rate of 4 K/min. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) causes annealing to increase the crystallinity of the polyamide matrix. After an annealing treatment a nanocomposite with better mechanical properties was obtained. Halloysite nanotubes in polyamide matrix play the role of a nucleating agent.
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