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EN
This study aims to analyze the lipid, carbohydrate and protein content of Chlorella pyrenoidosa after being treated with the tofu wastewater. The method used in this study was an experimental method with 4 treatments and 3 replications. The treatment was performed by administering different concentrations of the tofu wastewater to the C. pyrenoidosa. The concentrations used were 10%, 15% and 20%. Determination of these concentrations was based on the preliminary test. The main parameters observed were the lipid, carbohydrate and protein content of C. pyrenoidosa and the supporting parameters were the growth rate, doubling time and characteristics of the tofu wastewater. The study was conducted for 8 days using the batch culture method. In the exponential phase, the microalgae were harvested and then their contents were analyzed. The data obtained were analyzed using MS Office Excel 2016. The highest content of lipid, carbohydrate and protein of C. pyrenoidosa was in the treatment of 20% tofu wastewater, reaching 1.56%; 28.92%; and 28.92%, respectively. Meanwhile, the highest growth rate and the smallest doubling time in the treatment of 20% tofu wastewater accounted for 0.8264 day-1 and 0.0349 hours-1. Moreover, the rates of BOD and TSS of the tofu wastewater at the end of the study decreased. It can be concluded that administering different concentrations of the tofu wastewater can affect the lipid, carbohydrate and protein content of C. pyrenoidosa. It was suggested that further research is needed to conduct semi-continuous cultivation of C. pyrenoidosa using a higher density so that the results obtained can be optimized.
EN
Lipid-protein systems paly curtail roles in living systems [49]. Hence, a determination of their structure at different levels of organization is still one of the most important tasks in many research projects. A study of lipid-protein systems is based on many physicochemical techniques, such as spectroscopy of FTIR, Raman, fluorescence, NMR, EPR, as well as DLS, DSC and TEM methods. In the presented paper tow of the most frequently used methods, that is FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy, will be discussed in details. They are characterized by a relatively low cost of sample preparation, a short measuring time, and they give a huge number of structural and physicochemical information about lipid-protein systems. In the FTIR-ATR spectroscopy many of vibrational bands are commonly used as very precise vibrational indicators of structural changes in lipids and proteins (Fig. 1) [1–6]. They allows to characterize lipid and protein components separately in mixed systems. Additionally, structural changes in lipid membranes can be monitored in one FTIR-ATR experiment simultaneously in a region of hydrophilic lipid head-groups (Fig. 5) [17, 18], in a hydrophobic part composed of hydrocarbon lipid chains (see Figures 2 and 3) [7–9], and in a lipid membrane interface represented by ester lipid groups (Fig. 4) [4, 6, 11, 12]. A secondary structure of proteins and peptides in different experimental conditions can be defined in the FTIR-ATR spectroscopy on the base of amide I bands (Fig. 6 and Tabs 1, 2 and 3) [20–22]. A fluorescence spectroscopy is a complementary methods to FTIR spectroscopy in a study of lipid-protein systems. It competes information about time-dependent and very fast (in a scale of femtoseconds) structural processes in both lipids [41–45] and proteins [23, 27, 48]. The folding, denaturation, and aggregation of proteins and lipid membranes accompanied by changes in an order, packing and hydration of the system under study [23, 27, 41–45, 48].
PL
Hodowla i wykorzystanie mikroglonów jest obecnie intensywnie rozwijającym się obszarem badawczym. Niektóre gatunki mikroalg, w odpowiednich warunkach, gromadzą duże ilości tłuszczu w komórkach, który ma odpowiedni profil kwasów tłuszczowych do produkcji biodiesela. Etapem kierunkującym mikroglony na akumulację lipidów jest hodowla w określonych warunkach fizykochemicznych. Celem badań było określenie wpływu zmiennego stężenia fosofru w medium hodowlanym na olejogenność mikroglonów Chlorella vulgaris oraz wyznaczenie parametrów hodowli w trybie szoku. Przeprowadzone badania potwierdziły możliwość stosowania szoku fosforowego w celu makasymalizacji syntezy lipidów przez mikroglony Chlorella vulgaris. W trakcie badań uzyskano 45,23% oleju z biomasy z hodowli z szokiem fosforowym, natomiast z biomasy pochodzącej z hodowli standardowej uzyskano o 18% oleju mniej niż z biomasy pochodzącej z hodowli z deficytem fosforu.
EN
The cultivation and utilization of microalgae is now a intensively developing area of research. Some species of microalgae, under appropriate conditions, accumulate large amounts of lipids in the cells. This lipids have a suitable profile of fatty acids for biodiesel production. The culture of microalgae for lipids accumulation should be performed in certain physicochemical conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of variable ortophophates concentrations in the culture medium for lipids accumulation of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and to determine of parameters of the phosphoric shock in the medium. The study confirmed the possibility of the use of the phosphoric shock in the medium to maximize lipids accumulation by the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. In the study, 45.23% of the oil was obtained from the biomass from the culture with phosphoric shock in the medium and 18% less of the oil was obtained from the biomass from the standard culture.
EN
Prions of the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae allow for the inheritance of complex traits based solely on the acquisition of cytoplasmic protein aggregates and confer distinctive phenotypes to the cells which harbor them, creating heterogeneity within an otherwise clonal cell population. These phenotypes typically arise from a loss-of-function of the prion-forming protein that is unable to perform its normal cellular function( s) while sequestered in prion amyloid aggregates, but the specific biochemical consequences of prion infection are poorly understood. To begin to address this issue, we initiated a direct investigation into the potential control that yeast prions exert over fungal lipid content by utilizing the prions [URE3] and [PSI+], the first two prions discovered in yeast. We utilized silica gel high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC)—densitometry to conduct pair-wise quantifications of the relative levels of free sterols, free fatty acids, and triacylglycerols [petroleum ether—diethyl ether—acetic acid (80:20:1) mobile phase, phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) detection reagent]; steryl esters and squalene (hexane—petroleum ether—diethyl ether—acetic acid (50:20;5:1), PMA]; and phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylinositol (chloroform– diethyl ether—acetic acid (65:25:4.5), cupric sulfate—phosphoric acid) in otherwise clonal prion-infected ([PSI+] or [URE3]) and prion-free ([psi−] or [ure-o]) cells in two growth phases: log-phase and stationary phase. Our analysis revealed multiple statistically significant differences (p < 0.00625) between prion-infected and prion-free cells. Interestingly, prion-induced changes varied dramatically by growth phase, indicating that prions exert differential influences on cell physiology between log and stationary growth. Further experimental replication and extension of the analysis to other prions is expected to resolve additional physiological effects of prion infection. This investigation demonstrates that HPTLC—densitometry is an effective method for studying prion-induced alterations in lipid content in yeast.
PL
Z uwagi na fakt, że lipidy stanowią bezpieczne składniki kosmetyków, w części opisowej artykułu na wstępie scharakteryzowano lipidy. W dalszym ciągu omówiono kwasy tłuszczowe, oraz lipidy proste, złożone izoprenowe. Następnie podano przegląd kosmetyków zastosowujących lipidy. W części badawczej artykułu przedstawiono wyniki ankiety przeprowadzonej z udziałem 48 respondentek w wieku 20 do 50 lat. Ankieta zawierająca 12 pytań dotyczyła stosowania kosmetyków głównie zawierających lipidy.
EN
Consideration the fact, that lipids are safety ingredients of the cosmetics, the lipids, o on the begining of the article, in the descriptive section, were described. On the next step the fatty acids, the ordinary lipids, the complex and isoprene lipids were discused. After wards there are show the cosmetics, in which lipids were used. The results of the executed questionnaire, in which 48 participants in age from 20 to 50 years took part, are presented in the article. The questionaire contained 12 questions respecting adaptation of the cosmetics included lipids.
PL
Prażenie jest jedną z ważniejszych operacji technologicznych w procesie przerobu ziarna kakaowego, a warunki prażenia mają ogromny wpływ na jakość ziarna. Celem pracy było dobranie takiej temperatury i wilgotności względnej powietrza w procesie konwekcyjnego prażenia, aby zminimalizować migrację tłuszczu z jądra ziarna kakaowego do łuski i dzięki temu uzyskać korzystniejsze parametry ziarna kierowanego do dalszego przetwarzania. Ziarno kakaowe gatunku Ivory Coast prażono metodą konwekcyjną w stałej temperaturze (110, 135 i 150 [stopni]C); utrzymywano stałą prędkością przepływu powietrza (1,0 m/s) oraz wilgotność względną 0,30-0,97 i 5,0%.
EN
Roasting is one of the most important technological unit operations in processing of cocoa beans; its conditions essentially determine the quality of the product. The aim of this research was to optimize the temperature and relative humidity of air used for convective roasting of cocoa beans in order to minimize migration of lipids from the kernel toward the husk and thus to improve properties of roasted material with respect to further steps of processing. Three temperatures (110, 135 and 150 [degrees]C) and two distinct values of relative air humidity (0.30-0.97 and 5.0%) were chosen at a constant air flow rate of 1.0 m/s for convective roasting of cocoa beans of Ivory Coast variety.
EN
A cationic oleic acid reversed micellar system was used to simplify and enhance the purification of bovine lactoferrin (Lfn) from whey. The rate of Lfn extraction by the application of 30 kHz supersonic treatment to the organic solvent phase (P < 0.01) was by 1.5 time higher compared to non-supersonic treatment. An increase in water content and the light scatter were observed in the organic phase when the supersonic treatment was applied. An increase in the efficiency of Lfn extraction by supersonic treatment of an organic phase was attributable to increased water dispersion in the organic solvent phase and an increase in the orientation of the cationic oleic acid towards microparticles of water in organic solvent phase.
EN
In the study effect on phosphocholine bilayers of cholesterol additive and of 7-DHC additive was compared depending on the lenght of phosphocholine acyl chain. Ultrasound absorption measurements were the basis of invastigations. They have shown that structurally similar cholesterol and 7-DHC molecue, by being more flat and elastic than a cholesterol molecule, more strongly binds with lipid molecules.
PL
Diament jest jednym z niezwykłych materiałów biorących udział w wytwarzaniu warstw na implantach medycznych. Prawdopodobnie nanokrystaliczny diament nie powoduje istotnych uszkodzeń komórek ciała ludzkiego. Ważnym problemem jest wpływ nanokrystalicznego diamentu na peroksydację lipidów w surowicy krwi. Nadtlenek wodoru wytwarzany w organiźmie ludzkim przez różne enzymy jest przyczyną peroksydacji lipidów wielonienasyconych kwasów tłuszczowych - substancji toksycznych dla komórek organizmu człowieka. Powstające w procesie peroksydacji lipidów nadtlenki lipidów jako wynik kaskady reakcji wolnorodnikowych powodują istotne uszkadzanie błon komórkowych, a co za tym idzie całego materiału genetycznego komórki. Tę właściwość obok nadtlenku wodoru posiadają wszystkie reaktywne postaci tlenu. Inhibitory peroksydacji lipidów skutecznie ochraniają komórki przed toksycznym działaniem nadtlenku wodoru. Istotnego znaczenia zaczyna nabierać pytanie czy nanokrystaliczny diament wpływa na procesy peroksydacji lipidów w surowicy krwi i czy jest to pożądane przez nas działanie protekcyjne. Jako jeden z najnowszych osiągnięć inżynierii biomedycznej nanokrystaliczny diaqment, wykorzystywany coraz powszechniej do pokrywania implantów medycznych ze względu na doskonałe parametry fizyczne (twardość w skali Mohsa - 10) powinien również wykazywać pewne cechy na poziomie molekularnym w oddziaływaniu z organizmem ludzkim.
EN
The nanocrystalline diamond is a perfect biomaterial which is used to cover medical implants. Biological properties of the nanocrystalline diamond indicate, that this material inhibits prooxidant processes in human body. Lipid peroxidation is one of the oxidative free radical mechanisms which takes part in essential damages of human cells. Free radical damage is an important factor in many pathological and toxicological processes. That's why nanocrystalline diamond is very interesting biomaterial and its chemical and physical properties indulge it for safe application in medicine. hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is generated by different enzymes and it may cause serum polyunsaturated fatty acids (called also lipid peroxidation). The inhibitors of lipid peroxidation can protect cells against H2O2 toxicity. Diamond is important substance used in medical technology. There is an interesting question. May diamond inhibit or augment lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2? Our results indicate, that diamond has prooxidant and antioxidant properties. The trace amount of the diamond induces lipid peroxidation but the presence of larger amount protects serum liquids against hydrogen peroxide damage.
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