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PL
Przed pojawieniem się kos spalinowych problem uszkadzania drzew w trakcie koszenia terenów zieleni w zasadzie nie istniał. W sposób umiejętny ogrodnik podjeżdżał kosiarką pod drzewo, dokonując usunięcia trawy. Reszta roślin pielona była ręcznie. Rozwiązanie sprawdzone, proste i skuteczne, jednak powodowało konieczność uciążliwego schylania się przy każdym drzewie.
2
Content available Optimalisation of the blade movement of the mower
EN
This article presents the correct adjustment of the mower’s blade movement relative to the forward movement of the mower. Everywhere around us are gardens, parks and meadow, which gives us reason to solve issues with mowing. The first part of this article shows agricultural machines, which are used today and the principle of correct cut of grass stalks. The next part shows the method of adjusting the mower’s blade speed. Design of a simple model was done with the use of Solid Edge Premium CAD. For computation, MSC Adams was used and post-processing was done with the use of Matlab. The connection between MSC Adams and Matlab was created by co-simulation.
PL
Na polskim rynku funkcjonują tysiące firm zajmujących się zarobkowym koszeniem trawy. Każda z nich stara się pozyskać klientów i wygenerować jak najwyższe zyski, a wiadomo, że im więcej konkurentów, tym niższą cenę osiąga usługa.
EN
The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of different ways of mineral fertilisation (0, K, PK, NPK) on yielding, botanical composition and utility value of sward and biological values of twice mown meadows on peat-muck soil. The paper contains final results of 50-year-long cycle of studies in experiment established in 1957 in Experimental Station in Biebrza. Water conditions of soil underwent marked changes during the experiment, periods with deep soil drainage prevailed. In the years 1997-2001 capillary irrigation was applied and in the years 2001-2010 drainage was moderate. A lack of fertilisation in many years caused very strong meadow degradation leading to the disappearance of the turf. Hay yields were only about 1.0 t·ha-1. Fertilisation with potassium only slightly increased yields to 3.0 t·ha-1 at poor quality of the sward, facilitating the development of floristically rich communities with biologically valuable species characteristic for semi-natural wet, fresh and some bog meadows. Fertilisation with phosphorus and potassium (PK) increased the productive potential and good utility value of the sward. At deep soil drainage Bromus inermis Leyss was the dominant. Capillary irrigation increased the share of Poa pratensis L. s. str., Phalaris arundinacea L., Phleum pratense L. and Alopecurus pratensis L. NPK fertilisation did not significantly increase yields compared with PK fertilisation that enhanced mineralisation of organic matter.
PL
Badano wpływ różnych sposobów nawożenia mineralnego (0, K, PK, NPK) na plonowanie, skład botaniczny i wartość użytkową runi oraz walory przyrodnicze łąk 2-kośnych na glebie torfowe-murszowej. Praca zawiera wyniki kończące 50-letni cykl badań na doświadczeniu agrotechnicznym, założonym w 1957 roku w Zakładzie Doświadczalnym w Biebrzy. Warunki wodne gleb w trakcie realizacji doświadczenia ulegały znacznym zmianom, przeważały okresy z głębokim odwodnieniem gleb, w latach 1997-2001 stosowano nawodnienia podsiąkowe poprzez piętrzenie wody w pobliskim kanale, a w latach 2002-2010 odwodnienie było umiarkowane. Brak nawożenia w ciągu wielu lat powodował bardzo silną degradację łąki, prowadzącą aż do zanikania darni. Plony siana wynosiły zaledwie około 1,0 t·ha-1. Nawożenie potasem (K) w niewielkim stopniu zwiększało wydajność użytku (3,0 t·ha-1) przy miernej wartości użytkowej runi. Sprzyjało natomiast kształtowaniu bogatych florystycznie zbiorowisk, z udziałem cenniejszych przyrodniczo gatunków, charakterystycznych dla półnaturalnych łąk zmienno wilgotnych i świeżych oraz niektórych bagiennych. Natomiast fosforem i potasem (PK) decydowało o dużym potencjale produkcyjnym łąk (plony siana wynosiły 6-9 t·ha-1) oraz dobrej wartości użytkowej runi. Nawożenie to sprzyjało też bogactwu gatunkowemu i dominacji w runi wartościowych gospodarczo traw. Przy głębokim odwodnieniu gleb dominowała stokłosa bezostna (Bromus inermis Leyss.), a w latach po wprowadzeniu nawodnień podsiąkowych zwiększył się udział wiechliny łąkowej (Poa pratensis L.), mozgi trzcinowatej (Phalaris arundinacea L.), tymotki łąkowej (Phleum pratense L.) i wyczyńca łąkowego (Alopecurus pratensis L.). Dodatek azotu nawozowego (NPK) nie powodował istotnych zwyżek plonów w porównaniu do obiektu PK w większości sezonów, ze względu na wzmożoną mineralizację substancji organicznej gleb. Nawożenie azotem sprzyjało jednak zachwaszczaniu runi nitrofilnymi gatunkami zielnymi, co nieznacznie zmniejszało walory przyrodnicze takich łąk.
EN
Due to decrease in the area of extensively managed, semi-natural grasslands, that contribute to high biodiversity level preservation, the conversion of highly productive meadows to extensively managed, species-rich grasslands is now regarded as an important task for nature conservation. The aim of this long-term study was to assess the significance of restoration measures for diversity and trophic structure of above-ground insect community. That study challenges some weaknesses of previous studies as it was conducted with the use of suction trap enabling quantitative analyses of the changes in most insect taxa, and in a long time-span (1992–2005) in a set of permanent plots. The study area was located in a subalpine zone in Bavaria, near Laufen (Germany). The restoration process was initiated in 1996 by a cessation of fertilization and reduction of number of mowing to 1–2 per year. The changes in insect density and diversity (number of families) were monitored in ten restored and two reference plots with the aid of a suction trap. The changes in the insect community recorded during 14 years support findings from other studies that response of insect community to restoration process is usually slow on average. The short-term comparison in 2004–2005 between the restored and reference plots show that the first ones were characterized by more diverse (in term of family number) insect communities (as a whole as well as in guilds of predatory and parasitic species). From the other side, the long-term trend analysis shows that since 1998–2000 insect diversity and abundance was declining. Also trophic structure is fluctuating without clearly defined trend. These findings are in line with the results of the analyses of taxonomic composition similarity. They did not support the expectations neither that difference between initial and current taxonomical composition in a restored plot increases in time (mainly because of incoming new species), nor that spatial heterogeneity of insect assemblages should increase. However, spatio-temporal insect interactions between sample plots (located close to each other), linked to high movement ability of many insect taxa, could mask the changes in insect community caused by restoration.
EN
The paper concerns the subject of vibrations influence on driver body, generated by high efficient disc mowers while mowing and during transport on public roads and dirt roads. Information about accelerations of the head and the seat of machine operator were collected. Then these data were converted to the characteristics, which were compared with the limit values specified in ISO 2631. Allowable exposure times of the human body to the vibrations were defined and assessment of the risk of loss of control over the machine by vibration was performed.
PL
W artykule podjęto tematykę wpływu wibracji na organizm kierowcy, generowanych przez wysokowydajne kosiarki dyskowe, podczas realizacji procesu technologicznego koszenia oraz podczas przejazdów transportowych po drogach publicznych i polnych. Zgromadzono informacje o przebiegach przyspieszeń głowy oraz siedziska operatora agregatu. Dane te poddano następnie przekształceniom i uzyskano charakterystyki, które skonfrontowano z wartośćiami dopuszczalnymi określonymi w normie ISO 2631. Zdefiniowano dopuszczalne czasy ekspozycji na drgania dla organizmu człowieka i dokonano oceny narażenia na niebezpieczeństwo utraty kontroli nad prowadzonym zespołem w wyniku wibracji.
PL
Badania prowadzono w latach 2010-2012 na łąkach trwałych użytkowanych dotychczas dwukośnie, położonych w siedlisku pobagiennym właściwym (B1) i łęgowiejącym (B2). Badano następujące obiekty: koszenie i zbieranie plonu (biomasy), koszenie i pozostawianie biomasy na pokosach, koszenie z rozdrobnieniem i pozostawianie na łące oraz obiekt łąka nieużytkowana. Wykazano, że pozostawianie skoszonej runi na łące, niezależnie w jakiej postaci, w siedlisku pobagiennym właściwym nie miało negatywnego wpływu na jakość zbiorowisk roślinnych w pierwszych dwóch latach i dopiero w trzecim roku wystąpiło zjawisko ich degradacji, skutkiem ustępowania z runi traw, a rozwoju Urtica dioica L. W siedlisku pobagiennym łęgowiejącym, nie stwierdzono zjawiska degradacji runi w trzyletnim okresie, na co wskazuje coroczne zwiększanie się udziału w runi wartościowych traw, w tym zwłaszcza Phalaris arundinacea L. Wartość użytkowa runi, zarówno między obiektami, latami badań i siedliskami, układała się na dolnym poziomie wartości dobrej.
EN
During the years 2010-2012 the study was conducted on permanent meadows previously cut two times per season, located in proper moorshed habitat (B1) and re-flooded moorshed habitat (B2). The following treatments were investigated: mowing and harvesting of biomass, mowing and leaving biomass, mowing with cutting and leaving the biomass on surface of meadow and not utilised meadow. It was shown that leaving the mown biomass on meadow sward, regardless of the form, in proper moorshed habitat had no negative impact on the quality of plant communities in the first two years. Only in the third year, the degradation process occurred, resulting in the disappearance of valuable grasses and the development of Urtica dioica L . In the re-flooded moorshed habitat in three years period of study the degradation process of the sward was not observed. The annual increase of valuable grasses, especially Phalaris arundinacea L. was observed. The fodder value of sward, irrespective of the objects, years of study and habitats, was on the lower level of the good quality.
EN
Mowing may lead to substantial modification of the spatial structure of phytocenoses and plant populations. An important factor contributing to such modification may be the vicinity of a forest. The aim of this work is to explain how the patterns of the spatial structure of sedge meadows patches change under the influence of annual mowing and how the proximity of a forest affects these changes. The research was conducted in the years 1985-2000 in the south-west part of the Białowieża National Park (NE Poland) Study fields were located in Caricetum acutiformis community, neighbouring ash-alder floodplain forest Fraxino-Alnetum. Three experimental plots and three respective control ones (5 x 5m) were established at the forest boundary (0 m), at a distance of 50 m and 100 m from the forest. Annual mowing conducted for 15 years caused an increase in meadow plants coverage in all mown plots. The spreading of two rush species was also observed - Calamagrostis canescens in patches lying inthe distance of 100 m from the forest edge, and Phragmites australis in the ecotonal zone. The most important changes in a spatial distribution of floristic richness were noticed in mown patches located at the greatest distance from the boundary of the forest. Mowing caused strengthening of the mosaic pattern naturally occurring within patches and changed their structure from "coarsegrained" to "fine-grained" one. Permanent management of sedge meadows caused an increase in a spatial diversity in the first 10 years in all patches, irrespective of their location. After 15 years of management a simplification of the spatial structure occurred. The spatial structure of the clonal species population (Lythrum salicaria, Lysimachia vulgaris) was characterized by relative stability only in the first 5 years of mowing and only in the quadrates located far from the forest. Response of plants of unitary type of growth to management was different - annual mowing caused substantial changes in the distribution of Cirsium palustre individuals in the plots located far from the forest while individuals of Cirsium rivulare in the ecotone remained constantly in their locations. It was found that it can be caused by the presence of clump sedges which may have a greater impact on population structure of that species than mowing.
EN
This research dealt to two grasslands potentially developing the same vegetation type because sited in the same environmental contest (bioclimate, substratum, soil, slope, altitude) but under diverse management regimes (grazing and mowing) for many decades. The evidenced differentiation between the two pastoral vegetations can be attributed to disturbance type and the statistical functional analysis performed through seven plant traits (prostrate form, early flowering, storage organs, clonal ability, basal meristems, chemical defences and hairs), revealed the distinguishing patterns. Discriminant analysis pointed out typical biological attributes for each disturbance conditions, while from correlation analysis emerged different possible traits combinations which do not follow the previous traits separation. Such outcomes are explainable because both grazing and mowing provoke aboveground phytomass removal, although grazing is a selective pressure, while mowing gives to all the species the same development chances. It is reasonable to conclude that convergent strategies within the two systems are possible and frequent.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono model kinematyczny przekładni napędowej z listwą tnącą maszyny do koszenia i wiązkowania wikliny. Analizowany model dotyczy zachowania się zespołu (przekładnia, listwa tnąca) maszyny podczas ścinania wikliny z pnia. W rezultacie symulacji komputerowej otrzymano zestaw wyników dla różnych przypadków. Wyniki te pozwolą określić optymalne parametry pracy koła zamachowego maszyny.
EN
In the article a cinematic model of the driving transmission gear was described with the slat slashing machines for mowing and binding of wicker. The analyzed model concerns a behavior of a machine unit (transmission gear, cutting slat) while cutting of the wicker from the trunk. As a result of a computer simulation data were obtained from the simulation for different solution sets. These resuts will allow to estimate optimal parameters of the flywheel of the machine.
EN
The effect of mowing on nextyear nest predation was studied in grassland areas on the outskirts of Cracow (south Poland). In 2004 and 2005, nesting success at three sites with two plots each - one unmowed for 2.3 years and one mowed every year - was assessed experimentally with artificial nests baited with two Japanese Quail Coturnix japonica L. eggs. Biomass samples were collected for estimations of the standing crop of vegetation. Mowing was found to be correlated with nest predation pressure on the unmowed plots in two meadows that had greater vegetation cover. At the third site, nest predation and vegetation cover did not differ between the mowed and unmowed plots. All selected sites were classified as Arrhenatherum elatius grassland. Also birds communities of study sites were similar in regard to occurrence of small ground-nesting passerine species: Grasshopper Warbler Locustella naevia Bodd., Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus L., Whinchat Saxicola rubetra L., Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava L. Artificial nests were destroyed mainly by corvids and only few percent were recognized as destroyed by mammals. The intensity of nest destruction differed greatly between years, probably because Magpies Pica pica L. were less active in 2005.
PL
Praca obejmuje analizę czterech sposobów koszenia runi łąkowej przy zastosowaniu trzech różnych kosiarek. Porównano pomiędzy sobą koszenie kosiarką wrzecionową na wysokość 3 cm, rotacyjną na wysokość 6 cm i 9 cm oraz kosiarką listwową na 12 cm. Punktem odniesienia był wariant kontrolny, na którym nie prowadzono koszenia. W wyniku przeprowadzonych badań określono liczbę gatunków roślin naczyniowych oraz wartość użytkową runi z poszczególnych wariantów.
EN
The work analyzes four methods of mowing pasture using three different types of mowers. A comparison was made for mowing using spindle mower to a cutting height of 3 cm, rotary mower to 6 cm and 9 cm and scythe mower to 12 cm. The point of reference was a control variant, for which mowing was not done. Based on the result of the performed tests a number of vascular plant species and value of use of pasture for individual variants were determined.
EN
Results of the survey into expansive growth of the common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) carried out in the upper Narew River valley (NE Poland) within the whole area of Narew National Park (6810 ha) (NNP) are presented in the paper. The Narew River is an anastomosing river in the part subjected to the analysis and an open swampy bog ecosystem has formed within its valley. Sedge communities and to a lesser degree meadow communities are typical plant communities in the study area. Till the end of the 1970's, the area was agriculturally used. Since the beginning of the 1980's when grassland mowing was discontinued, expansion of reed communities has been recorded. The analysis of reed expansion has been based upon data on its range originating from interpretation of aerial NIR photos made in 1987 and 1997. The field survey and analysis of the air photos have shown that the reed expansion rate differs depending on the location in the study area. Assessment showed that in 1987 the total area of the common reed stands equalled 1214.75 ha (18% of the NNP area), and in 1997 - 2300.6 ha (34%). Due to considerable homogeneity of habitat features within the valley and habitat requirements of reed, a basic hypothesis has been put forward that the rate of reed expansion in terms of the increase of reed community area is related to bankline density and length. The material obtained and statistical analysis have confirmed that assumption. Besides, it was mentioned that cessation of mowing sedge grasslands along with a change in character of spring surface flooding also contributed to reed expansion.
PL
Podczas badań empirycznych porównano trzy techniki koszenia kosiarkami rotacyjnymi zawieszanymi: 5-tarczową, 2-bębnową i 2-bębnową ze spulchniaczem pokosów. Badania przeprowadzono w naturalnych warunkach podczas koszenia trawy. Do wielkości dynamicznych uwzględnionych w badaniach zaliczono: moment siły na WOM, składowe siły poziome występujące w punktach układu zawieszenia na ciągniku, prędkość kątową WOM i prędkość roboczą ciągnika. Mierzono także inne wielkości charakteryzujące proces koszenia, m. in. czas i drogę, masę plonu, poślizg kół. Energochłonność badanych technik procesu koszenia, opisaną wielkościami rzeczywistymi i jednostkowymi, porównano w trzech charakterystycznych etapach procesu: rozruchu, pracy jałowej i pracy efektywnej.
EN
In empirical tests three techniques of green crop mowing with different tractor - mounted rotary mowers (5-disc mower, 2-drum mower and 2-drum mower with an attachment for swath fluffing) were investigated. Tests were conducted at mowing grass under field conditions. The following dynamic parameters were measured: moment of force at the p.t.o., horizontal component forces occuring at the points of tractor linkage, angular p.t.o. velocity and the tractor running speed. Some other quantities characterizing mowing process, such as the time and path, weight of crop and aheel slip, were also measured. Energy consumptions for investigated mowing techniques, described by actual and unitary parameters, were compared at three characteristic stages of mowing process: at starting, idling and load running.
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