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EN
The paper presents the influence of coatings applied with the use of PVD method on cutting tools on the wear of the tool and compares it with an uncoated P25 cemented carbide plate. During the experiment, two types of TiAlN coatings were used, applied in various proportions, as well as TiN coating. During the tests, the average width of the wear band on the flank face in B VBBzone and the width of KBcrater were monitored. Moreover, the scanning analysis of the tool was conducted in order to determine the intensity of adhesive wear. The lowest values of selected tool wear indicators were found out with the use of TiAlN coating applied in eight layers in the proportions 33/67% -TiN/TiAlN. The scanning analysis proved the highest adhesive wear of the uncoated P25 cemented carbide plate, as well as increased abrasive wear of the flank face and the formation of a crater in comparison with coated plates.
2
Content available remote Wpływ warunków chłodzenia na siłę skrawania podczas toczenia stali C45
PL
W pracy zaprezentowano wyniki badań wpływu warunków chłodzenia na składowe siły skrawania podczas toczenia stali niestopowej C45. Rozpatrywano trzy sposoby chłodzenia: obróbkę na sucho, metodę MQCL oraz MQCL + EP/AW. Badania wykonano zarówno dla zmiennych parametrów skrawania, jak i dla zmiennych parametrów tworzenia mgły emulsyjnej. Zastosowanie metody MQCL + EP/AW pozwala zmniejszyć wartość siły skrawania w porównaniu do obróbki na sucho od 2,1% do 25%. W trakcie eksperymentu wykorzystano metodę parameter space investigation (PSI).
EN
The paper presents results of the influence of cooling conditions on the cutting force components during the turning of C45 steel. Three cooling methods were considered: dry cutting, MQCL method and MQCL + EP/AW. Experiments were performed for variable cutting parameters and for variable emulsion mist parameters. MQCL + EP/AW method reduces the cutting force compared to dry cutting from 2,1% to 25%. During the experiment Parameter Space Investigation (PSI) method was applied.
3
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań wpływu metody chłodzenia na moc skrawania podczas toczenia stali austenitycznej 316L. Proces toczenia przeprowadzono dla trzech sposobów chłodzenia: obróbki na sucho, metody MQCL oraz metody MQCL z dodatkiem EP/AW. Ze względu na dużą liczbę zmiennych zastosowano metodę planowania badań zwaną metodą dowolnych kolejności (PSI). W całym zakresie zmiennych parametrów skrawania i tworzenia mgły emulsyjnej uzyskano najniższe wartości mocy czynnej i biernej w warunkach chłodzenia mgłą emulsyjną z dodatkiem EP/AW, a pobór mocy obrabiarki zmniejszył się od 6 do 65% w porównaniu z obróbką na sucho.
EN
In this paper, the research results related to the influence of cooling method on cutting power during turning of 316L austenitic steel was presented. Turning tests were carried out for the three distinct cooling methods, namely: dry turning, MQCL method and MQCL method with the addition of EP/AW. Because of large number of variables, the design of experiment, based on the arbitrary order method (PSI) has been applied. In the whole investigated range of cutting conditions and formation of emulsion mist, the lowest values of active and passive power were obtained during turning with the application of MQCL method with the addition of EP/AW. The MQCL + EP/AW method affects the reduction of machine’s power from 6% to 65% in comparison to dry turning.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań morfologii powierzchni stali nierdzewnej 316L po toczeniu. Dla zmiennych parametrów skrawania przeprowadzono analizę parametru Sa, krzywej udziału materiałowego oraz gęstości widmowej mocy w zmiennych warunkach chłodzenia: obróbka na sucho, MQCL oraz MQCL + EP/AW. Wykorzystano metodę parameter space investigation (PSI).
EN
The paper presents the results of investigation of the surface morphology 316L stainless steel after turning. For variable cutting parameters Sa parameter, Abbott-Firestone curve and power spectral density were analyzed. The analysis was conducted for variables cooling conditions: dry cutting, MQCL and MQCL + EP/AW. In the research Parameter Space Investigation (PSI) method has been used.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań chropowatości powierzchni stali austenitycznej 316L po procesie toczenia. W trakcie eksperymentu porównywano obróbkę na sucho oraz z chłodzeniem metodą MQCL. Badania przeprowadzono dla zmiennych parametrów skrawania i tworzenia mgły emulsyjnej. W związku z dużą liczbą zmiennych do planowania eksperymentu zastosowano metodę parameter space investigation (PSI).
EN
Presented are the results of the surface roughness investigation of austenitic stainless steel 316L after the turning process. During the experiment, different cutting conditions have been compared: dry and MQCL cooling method machining. Research was carried out for the variable cutting parameters and different parameters of emulsion mist generation. Due to the large number of variables Parameter Space Investigation (PSI) method have been applied in this investigation.
EN
The article presents research results on the effect of cooling and lubrication on the cutting force in cutting off process of A11and C45 steel rods using different rake face shapes and cutting parameters. The aim of the investigation was to determine outcomes of elimination (dry cutting) or reduction (minimum quantity lubrication – MQL) of a cooling and lubricating fluid in the cutting off process. It has been concluded that the minimum quantity lubrication allowed decreasing the cutting force compared to dry cutting. The impact of eliminating or reducing the quantity of the cooling and lubricating medium on the cutting force in the cutting off process of both types of steel depend on the applied feed rate and cutting speed. Taking into account environmental reasons, the dry and MQL cutting off is advisable and highly justifiable.
7
Content available Surface layer properties in dry turning of C45 steel
EN
In machining operations cooling and lubrication liquids perform significant technological functions such as reducing temperature of the cutting area and determine machined surface layer characteristics. However their negative ecological effects force the industrial and scientific community to find an alternative means of cooling and lubrication of the cutting zone. The article shows the results of performed experiments of the influence of cooling and lubrication methods on the machined surface layer roughness and bearing ratio after turning C45 steel. The experimental results indicate that in correct chosen cutting parameters, the elimination of cutting liquids does not have to decrease the machined surface quality and makes it possible to reduce ecological burdens imposed by wet machining processes.
EN
The article presents research results on the influence of cooling and lubrication of the cutting zone as well as an impact of cutting parameters on the surface roughness and material bearing ratio of the roughness profile of a turned 18G2A steel surface. The goal of the research was to determine effects of elimination or reduction of a cooling and lubricating fluid in the process of high speed turning. It has been concluded that in high speed machining conditions, the influence of the used modes of cooling and lubrication in the cutting zone is limited. Eliminating or reducing the quantity of the cooling and lubricating medium in the process of turning does not cause worsening of the geometrical characteristics of a machined surface which, together with environmental reasons, makes dry/MQL machining highly justifiable.
EN
The paper presents the structure and selected results of the BW 13/2007 research conducted in the Production Engineering Department. It describes the conditions and application range of dry and MQL cutting, as well as the results of an analysis into the machined surface geometrical structure, cutting forces and residual stresses in the surface layer.
EN
The paper presents an investigation into the influence of cutting area cooling and lubrication on surface roughness, waviness, bearing ratio and the depth of surface layer changes in turning C45 steel. Cutting forces and their components together with chip formation and shape were put under examination too. The experimental results indicate that in the correctly selected cutting parameters elimination of cutting liquids does not have to decrease the machined surface quality and deteriorate process cutting indicators and makes it possible to reduce ecological burdens imposed by wet machining processes.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań wpływu chłodzenia i smarowania strefy skrawania za pomocą emulsji, oleju i sprężonego powietrza, a także skrawania na sucho na chropowatość, falistość i udział materiałowy profilu chropowatości oraz grubość warstwy wierzchniej powstałej po toczeniu stali C45. Ponadto badaniami objęto siły skrawania i kształt tworzącego się wióra. Stwierdzono, że w warunkach prawidłowo dobranych warunków skrawania, wyeliminowanie cieczy chłodząco-smarującej z procesu toczenia nie powoduje pogorszenia parametrów obrobionej powierzchni i jednocześnie sprzyja poprawie ekologicznych warunków wytwarzania.
11
Content available remote Ograniczenie oddziaływań cieczy obróbkowych
EN
Tasks of cutting fluids used in machining are discussed and their chemical composition and harmful influence on servicing personnel and surrounding environment are presented. A need to supervise the condition of cutting fluids, necessary to extend their durability, is underlined. A threat may be decreased through scant lubrication in machining or dry cutting.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono główne strategie chłodzenia i smarowania strefy skrawania oraz charakterystykę i zakres zastosowania skrawania na sucho i z minimalnym chłodzeniem i smarowaniem.
EN
The negative influence of applying cutting fluids in cutting machining together with high costs of their exploitation, disposal and storing has caused the undertaking of workings restricting or liquidating the range of their usage. The effective ways of reducing the usage of cutting fluids in machining constitute dry or near dry cutting. These techniques have been employed in industry more frequently and are the subjects of many research projects seeking technological solutions for allowing effective substitution of cutting fluids functions. The paper presents main cooling and lubricating strategies of cutting area and characteristics and range of usage of dry and near dry cutting.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań struktury i własności tlenkowej ceramiki narzędziowej typu Al2O3+TiC niepokrytej i pokrytej jedno-, wielowarstwowymi, wieloskładnikowymi oraz gradientowymi powłokami przeciwzużyciowymi PVD i CVD. Zaprezentowano wyniki badań morfologii powierchni, struktury, składu chemicznego, składu fazowego, a także wyniki badań własności mechanicznych i użytkowych materiału pokrytego oraz materiały bez powłok.
EN
Presented are results of the tests carried out on structure and properties of the Al2O3+TiC oxide ceramic tools either non coated or coated with multi-layer, multi-component and gradient type hard wearing coatings types TiN, TiAlN, TiN+TiAlSiN+TiN, TiN+ multi TiAlSiN+TiN and TiN+TiAlSiN+AlSiTiN applied in CAE PVD cathodic arc vaporation process and also those coated with two layer TiCN+TiN and TiN+Al2O3 coatings applied in CVD process of chemical deposition of gas phase.
15
Content available remote Dry cutting gear hobbing in modul range m≥4 mm with HSS tools
EN
In line with the project the high work potential of dry cutting and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) with coated HSS-gear hobs will be shown in order to realize an economical and reliable method for gear hobbing of toothed systems with bigger modules, which works completely without or nearly without cooling fluids respectively. For the investigations was used common material for gears in a module range from 4 mm to 7 mm and progressive cutting values similar to industrial applications. It was demonstrated that industrial produced gear hobs from powder metallurgical HSS with TiAlN coatings by using methods of dry cutting and MQL can resist the occurring process charges due to the bigger modules and gear width. In comparison to the state of technical knowledge which is wet cutting was ascertained an enormous increase of tool life by using this method of dry cutting and MQL.
EN
The growing importance of environmental aspects cannot be denied by manufacturing business. An important factor to be considered is the use of cutting fluids in machining processes. This paper presents concepts, which need to be considered in companies that extensively use cutting fluids and not only for environmental reasons. Based on these concepts, the environment and practical realization of Minimum Cutting Fluid Application and Dry Cutting are shown. In this paper experimental results and effects on tool life and part quality are presented and discussed particulary for drilling, counterboring and reaming processes.
PL
Przemysł wytwórczy musi uwzględnić rosnącą rolę ekologicznych aspektów wytwarzania. Ważnym czynnikiem do rozpatrzenia jest rola cieczy chłodząco-smarującej w procesie obróbki. W pracy przedstawiono koncepcję, która może być wzięta pod uwagę w zakładach szeroko stosujących ciecze chłodząco-smarujące. Na podstawie tej koncepcji przedstawiono praktyczną realizację minimalnego chłodzenia podczas skrawania. W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań zależności trwałości narzędzi i jakości obrobionych przedmiotów dla wiercenia, pogłębiania i rozwiercania.
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