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EN
Zirconium-hafnium rims were discovered and described for the first time within the Suwalki Anorthosite Massif (SAM). They are observed at boundaries of Fe-Ti oxides ilmenite, hematitoilmenite and titanomagnetite with plagioclases. The most frequent forms reach 80-250 μm in length and 4-30 μm in width. These are narrow rims covering even up to 70% ore mineral grains. The most spectacular forms were "blown candle flame” structures. Their average width ranges from 20 to 45 μm and the length exceeds 350 μm in . Chemical composition analysis was carried out on the largest clusters of zircon crystals/rims which show high local enrichment in Hf (0.5-0.8% by weight). The boundaries of these crystals are cracked and blurry. This may suggest their participation in later fluids inflow processes within the rocks. The enrichment in hafnium content in zircon grains, is related to significant reduction in the amount of Th, U and Pb and increased amount- sof Ti and Fe in zircon rims. A large variety of forms and variability of their chemical composition point to a complex physical chemical orgin process.
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Content available Katedra w Łowiczu i jej kamieniarskie zabytki
EN
Cathedral Basilica dedicated to the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary and Saint Nicholas in £owicz is a pearl among the monuments of Mazovia and the £owicz region. It has been one of the most important centers of worship in Poland since the 12th century. Synods and political meetings of great importance to the history of our country were held within its walls. Visiting the cathedral, one intimidates the richness of the temple interior. Monumental altars, chapels in the aisles, tombstones, epitaphs and liturgical vessels made of colourful rocks allow us to fully admire the artistry of sculpture and architecture masters. Among the other temples, it is distinguished by the fact that it also plays the role of a mausoleum of the Primate and Archbishop of Poland. The twelve of them were buried in the catacombs of the church. The treasury and museum also store the relics of St. Wojciech and St. Wiktoria, the patron of the city of£owicz and and £owicka Diocese from 1992. Thanks to the Cathedral history, beautiful stony craft monuments inside and relics of Polish Saints, the church is called the Primates Basilica or the Wawel of Mazovia.
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EN
The Sicily island is rich in high quality rock raw materials and has a long historical culture in natural stone production. The resources of limestone, marble, sandstone and basalt in Sicily are huge and exploited for many centuries. Its biggest city centers and historical monuments are adorned with locally quarried marble, limestone and lava stone from the Etna volcano. Exploring the raw materials potential was closely related to the development of first Sicily inhabitants who initially used available natural stones adapting them for their basic needs. The art of using stones - in the field of building structure improvement, and the use of impressive rock varieties in sculpture and art decoration were developed by ancient Greeks, Romans, and later Arabs and Normans who invaded this island. In many Sicilian cities it is possible to trace new objects growing on the older buildings, which are characterized by the invader cultures or new trends in construction. Material culture of stone applied in Sicilian construction and architecture was developed with the emerging styles. For the construction of these historical buildings, a local stone on the island has been used.
EN
Very intensive prospecting works for metallic ores have been conducted by the PGI since the 50. of the 20th century. Strong research-prospecting teams were organized and focused on the detailed and successive recognition of different and prospective metallogenic formations in Poland. The most important was the discovery of the enormous Cu-Ag Lubin–Sieroszowice deposit of the Zechstein formationon the Fore-Sudetic Monocline made by J. Wyżykowski’s team. Also, in the 50-70. the iron prospecting finalized with documentation of a few sedimentary type deposits in central Poland. Intensive drilling works carried out in the 60-70. on the Mazury–Suwałki Elevation allowed for discovery and documentation of the Fe-Ti-V deposit in Krzemianka and Udryn, which are related to Mesoproterozoic magmatic AMCG rock complexes. Besides, in the Tajno Massif REE mineralization, hosted by carbonatites, was recognized. Moreover, in the Triassic carbonate formation of the Zawiercie region a few Zn-Pb deposits of the Mississippi Valley Type were documented in the 70-80. The intensive prospecting drilling program carried by the PGI in the 90. within the contact zone of the Małopolska and Upper Silesia blocks documented the buried Myszków Cu-Mo(-W) deposit of porphyry type and a few very prospective areas for another porphyry-type deposits along the Kraków–Lubliniec Fault Zone. In addition, the REE and/or gold resources both in the primary (hydrothermal and contact-metasomatic) and the secondary (detrital) deposits have been discoveredanddocumentedintheSudetes.Theverysuccessfulprospectiveworkscarriedout by the PGI ore geologists allowed for a strong development of the base metal mining industry which has highly influenced the Polish economy during the last 50 years.
PL
Suwalski masyw anortozytowy (SAM) występuje w podłożu krystalicznym północno-wschodniej Polski w obrębie 200-kilometrowej długości magmowego terranu mezoproterozoicznych skał facji AMCG (anortozyty–mangeryty–charnockity–granity), zwanego kompleksem mazurskim. SAM odkryto w wyniku rozpoznania wiertniczego wyraźnych ujemnych anomalii magnetycznych i grawimetrycznych. Z masywem anortozytowym są związane rozległe ujemne anomalie obu pól potencjalnych. Anomalię grawimetryczną otaczają pasma anomalii dodatnich wywołanych przez skały o podwyższonych gęstościach, takie jak: granitoidy, monzodioryty i granodioryty. Ujemną anomalię magnetyczną okalają pasma dodatnich anomalii o znacznych amplitudach, szczególnie mocno zaznaczające się od południa, zachodu i północy. Dodatnie anomalie są związane z występowaniem skał o stwierdzonej, silnej podatności magnetycznej spowodowanej zawartością ferrolitów: skał ilmenitowo-magnetytowych z towarzyszącą im mineralizacją siarczków Fe-Cu-Ni-Co. Złoża rud Fe-Ti-(V) w SAM zostały odkryte przez Państwowy Instytut Geologiczny (PIG) we wczesnych latach 60. XX w., pod miąższym nadkładem fanerozoicznych skał osadowych, w obrębie małych dodatnich anomalii magnetycznych, w rejonie Krzemianki, Udryna, ¬Jeleniewa i Jeziora Okrągłego. Złoża te udokumentowano za pomocą ok. 100 głębokich otworów wiertniczych, do głębokości 2300 m, a zasoby oszacowano w kat. C1 + C2 na ok. 1,5 mld ton rudy tytanomagnetytowej z wanadem, głównie w polu rudnym Krzemianka i Udryn. Wiek modelowy uzyskany metodą Re-Os NTIMS dla rud Fe-Ti-V i siarczków ze złóż Krzemianka i Jeziora Okrągłego wyniósł 1559 ±37 mln lat ze stosunkiem początkowym 187Os / 188Os = 1,16 ±0,06. Uznano go za wiek całego masywu suwalskiego. Pomimo wieloletnich badań, wgłębna budowa i forma masywu nie są dokładnie rozpoznane. Obecnie są wykonywane geofizyczno-geologiczne modelowania 3D danych otworowych z wykorzystaniem pakietu oprogramowania OasisMontaj (Geosoft). Model 3D jest generowany w aplikacji GeoModeller 3D (Intrepid Geophysics) w celu rozpoznania prawidłowości geologicznych oraz interpretacji anomalii magnetyczno-grawimetrycznych na całym obszarze masywu, łącznie z osłoną.
EN
Suwałki Anortosite Massif (SAM) occurs in the crystalline basement of NE Poland within 200 km of the magmatic, Mesoproterozoic AMCG (anorthosite–mangerite–charnockite–granite) rock suite terrane called the Mazury Complex. SAM was discovered as a result of the drilling research of the prominent negative magnetic and gravimetric anomalies. There is an extensive negative anomaly of both potential fields related to the anorthosite massif. Gravimetric anomaly is surrounded by the bands of positive anomalies caused by rocks with elevated densities, such as granitoids, monzondiorites and granodiorites. A negative magnetic anomaly is surrounded by the bands of positive anomalies with significant amplitudes, particularly strongly marked from the south, west and north. Positive magnetic anomalies are associated with the presence of rocks with proven strong magnetic susceptibility due to the content of ferrolites (ilmenite-magnetite rocks) with accompanying Fe-Cu-Ni-Co sulphide mineralization. Fe-Ti-(V) ore deposits in the SAM were discovered in the early 1960s, in the region of Krzemianka and Udryn, but also Jeleniewo and Jezioro Okrągłe, under a thick overburden of Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks within small positive magnetic anomalies. These deposits were documented in about 100 deep boreholes to a depth of 2300 m, and the resources in C1 + C2 category were estimated for about 1.5 billion tons of titanium-magnetite ores with vanadium, mainly in the Krzemianka and Udryn ore fields. The model age obtained by the Re-Os NTIMS method for Fe-Ti-V ores and sulphides from the Krzemianka and Jezioro Okrągłe ore deposits was 1559 ±37 Ma with an initial ratio of 187Os/188Os = 1.16 ±0.06. This age was recognized as the age of the entire Suwałki Massif. Despite many years of research, the deep structure and the form of the massif has not been fully recognized. At present, geophysical and geological 3D modelling of borehole data is carried out using the OasisMontaj (Geosoft) software package. The 3D model is generated in the GeoModeller 3D application (Intrepid Geophysics) in order to recognize the geological correctness and interpretation of magnetic-gravity anomalies of the whole massif and its cover.
EN
Miocene aged heavy mineral (HMin) alluvial cones and regolith sands above ore-bearing gabbro and amphibolite/diabase rock zone were considered as a prospective metallotect in the area of Devonian ophiolite Ślęża Massif in the Sudets (SW Poland). The available research data from the Sobótka region indicated that the ultramafic gabbro intrusion has an interesting titanium ore enrichment with minerals such as ilmenite and titanomagnetite in the Strzegomiany-Kunów primary ultramafic rocks. The mean composition of ore gabbro samples taken from the surface contained eg; Fe -14.21%, TiO2 - 4.92%, V2O5 - 0,15. Conducted geophysical surveys in the vicinity of the presumed gabbroic rocks at thin Quaternary sediments cover, suggested the variable content ofa primary mineralization, which could be related to the increased content of heavy minerals fractions over the bed in the form of regolith or as a secondary deposit. Titanium minerals such as ilmenite, sphene, were enriched during the oxidation process and created secondary bed, where the concentrates of titanium oxides: rutile, leucoxene or oxidized ilmenite may have a high titanium content as high as 70-90%. Placer HMin sands are at present a major source of titanium deposits worldwide and the largest industrial value due to their large resources, simplicity and purity of exploitation and the ability to yield concentrates of HMin: ilmenite, rutile, pseudobrookite, anatase and leucoxene, sometimes in the company of valuable zircon, monazite or garnet. These deposits in the world are mainly used in metallurgical and chemical industries, eg; the production ofpaints and pigments used in the pharmacy, paper and paint industry. Similar observations have been reported from the region of Spain, Portugal, western Australia andfrom the south of India. Preliminary results of presented study indicate that the Strzegomiany-Kunów region can be considered as prospective not only because of the presence ofprimary titanium mineralization in gabbro, especially in diallage gabbro, amphibolite (diabase) and serpentinite, but also a presence of enriched titanium mineralization in regolith over gabbro and in clastic sediments on the foreland of Ślęża Massif.
EN
The evaluation of rock raw materials of the Volhynia Province in the Second Republic of Poland was performed at the PGI-NRI in 2013–2014 in order to create a museum collection of Volhynian igneous and metamorphic rocks, currently insufficiently recognized and preserved in many historical buildings in the Polish cities. The need to create this rock collection, with petrological descriptions, was of great importance to the knowledge of wider geology of rock raw materials, as well as for urban and historical research. Rocks from the Volhynia Province e.g. klesovite (also known as “leptite” or syenite from Volhynia), Old Korec granite, Osmaline granite, Volhynian gabbro and basalt etc. have been widely used in the interwar period as construction and road rock material. The Volhynia Provice in the Second Polish Republic had a similar importance for rock raw resources as the Lower Silesia Province (SW Poland) at present. However, our knowledge of the utilization of these materials in Polish architecture is so far limited because of the difficulties related to the recognition of these rocks, determination of the place of their origin and their ambiguous name nomenclature.
PL
Rudonośny suwalski masyw anortozytowy (SAM) razem z anortozytowym masywem Kętrzyna i norytową intruzją Sep, występują w obrębie 200 km długości magmowego terenu zwanego kompleksem mazurskim (NE Polska). Rozciągający się pasmowo w kierunku W-E proterozoiczny kompleks mazurski jest zbudowany z różnorodnych skał o składzie od kwaśnych przez pośrednie do zasadowych. Kwarcowe monzonity i granodioryty są najbardziej rozpowszechnionym typem skał w obrębie facji. Kompleks mazurski przecina kilka kompleksów metamorficznej facji granulitowej i amfibolitowej np. kompleks pomorski, dobrzyński, ciechanowski i mazowiecki. Złoża rud Fe-Ti-(V) w anortozytowym masywie suwalskim zostały odkryte we wczesnych latach 60-tych XX wieku, pod miąższym nadkładem fanerozoicznych skał osadowych w obrębie małych dodatnich anomalii magnetycznych, w rejonie Krzemionki, Udryna, Jeleniewa i Jeziora Okrągłego. Złoża te zostały udokumentowane przy pomocy ok. 100 głębokich otworom wiertniczych, do głębokości 2300 m, a zasoby oszacowane w kat. C1 i C2 na ok. 1,5 mld ton rudy tytanomagnetytowej z wanadem, głównie w polu rudnym Krzemionka i Udryn.
EN
The ore-bearing Suwałki Anorthosite Massif (SAM) together with the Kętrzyn Anorthosite Massif and Sejny norite intrusion are located within 200 km long magmatic terrane called Mazury Complex (NE Poland). The beltiform Proterozoic Mazury Complex is made up of a variety of rocks from felsic and intermidiate to the basic ones. The quartz monzonites and granodiorites are the most widespread rock type within the suite. The belt crosscuts several metamorphic granulite and amphibolite fades units, including Pomorian, Dobrzyń, Ciechanów and Mazovian. Large Fe-Ti-(V) ore deposits of Krzemionka, Udryń, Jeleniewo and Jezioro Okragle have been discovered in early 60-ties, within the small positive magnetic anomalies in the Suwałki Massif and evaluated down to the depth of 2300 m by over 100 boreholes yielding of about 1.5 bilion tons of economic reserves, mostly at Krzemionka and Udryn ore fields.
EN
The modern geochemical classification of granitic rocks is based upon diverse criteria such as: mineralogy, geochemistry, tectonic environment and their origin. The alphabetic classification of S, I, M and A-type granites have been used to facilitate recognition of the origin, chemical composition and geotectonic setting. Of these, the A-type term has generated worldwide discussions in petrological communities. The authors discuss the geochemical, mineralogical and geotectonic features as well as the question of source rocks and co-genetic rock complexes of A-type granites at the example of the Mazury granitoid complex. The Mesoproterozoic Mazury Complex from the crystalline basement of East European Craton represents A-type group of granitoids, plotting in WPG (Within Plate Granites) and A2 type fields. The obtained results confirm usability and at the same time practical diagnostic value of the term of A-type for defining a special type of granites, distinguishable from the other ones.
EN
The Pre cam brian base ment of Lith u a nia and NE Po land, much of which is metasedimentary paragneiss, can be ac cessed only by cores from deep bore holes. Ion microprobe dat ing of de tri tal zir cons from sam ples of these meta sedi ments and the geo chem i cal sig na tures of the rocks pro vide new in sights into their age and prov e nance. De tri tal zir cons from meta sedi ments from Jastrzebna and Monki have Pb iso to pic ages in the ranges 3.14–1.83 and 3.53–1.82 Ga, re spec tively. Sim i lar re sults have been ob tained from the Lith u a nian Lazdijai and Bliudziai paragneisses. About 30% of the ana lysed Pol ish de tri tal zir con cores are of Late Archaean age (2.90–2.60 Ga) and about 70% are Palaeoproterozoic (2.10–1.90 Ga), sim i lar to the age dis tri bu tions of de tri tal zir con from Svecofennian meta sedi ments ex posed in Cen tral Swe den and South ern Fin land. The youn gest de tri tal zir con sub-groups in di cate max i mum de po si tion ages of about 1.86 Ga, sim i lar to the ages of ex posed Svecofennian sed i men tary bas ins. Pos si ble source rocks of com pa ra ble ages and af fin i ties can be found within Fennoscandia, Green land and Sarmatia.
11
Content available remote Wczesnokarboński wiek intruzji platformowych w podłożu krystalicznym NE Polski
EN
Three mafic-alkaline intrusive bodies in NE Poland: Ełk, Pisz and Tajno, have been dated recently with U-Pb SHRIMP method. An earlier Rb-Sr whole rock isochron of Ełk syenites pointed to an age 355š4 Ma, while K-Ar age estimates suggested a Late Paleozoic age of Pisz and Tajno rocks, however, in a wide range between 349-291 Ma and 327-289 Ma, respectively. In the paper, we present new geochronological results and discuss the problem of the closure temperatures for different minerals and different isotopic systems used in previous age determinations. Much of the early dating works has been done using K-Ar method. Biotite and K-feldspar retain radiogenic Ar quantitatively below 280 -200şC. Only if magmatic bodies cooled quickly and remained unmetamorphosed, K-Ar and Rb-Sr ages estimate accurately the intrusion emplacement. Zircon used for U-Pb datings has a closure temperature over 800şC, that is comparable to the temperature of magma’s solidus. Therefore U-Pb magmatic zircons dates could be interpreted as an intrusion emplacement ages. The obtained U-Pb results of 347.7 š8 Ma (Ełk) and 345.5š5 Ma (Pisz) have shown very consistent Early Carboniferous age of platform mafic-alkaline magmatic activity. This new U-Pb SHRIMP dating indicates that Ełk and Pisz intrusions are coeval and together with the Tajno alkaline-carbonatite massif could be affined with the Late Devonian Kola Alkaline Carbonatite Province (KACP).
EN
The oldest geochronological results between 2.69–2.57 Ga was previously obtained by using K–Ar method on biotite from pegmatite from Jastrzębna IG–1 borehole. In consequence, in many published reports up to 1998, the Mazowsze (or Masovian) granitoid massif has been regarded as Archean age structure. Therewithal, other rocks in the area, e.g. Bargłów gneiss sequence traditionally were described as Archean in age. In the paper we present new U–Pb SHRIMP zircon and monazite results for above mentioned rocks which have been considered as Archean. Cathodoluminescence images and SHRIMP analysis were carried out for zircons and monazites from Jastrzebna IG–1 pegmatite of 514 m depth (a historical sample previously dated by K–Ar method) and for zircon magmatic cores from Bargłów IG–2 orthogneiss of the 708 m depth. The obtained U–Pb ages of 1826 š12 Ma (zircon) and 1789š34 Ma (monazite), and 1835š28 Ma (zircon) for two rock samples respectively have shown Paleoproterozoic origin. Only 4 of the 24 analysed zircons have clearly discordant results, which are all from the Jastrzebna pegmatite, where Pb–loss was possible (in partially metamict U–rich zircon grains). The new U–Pb SHRIMP dating indicates that Jastrzębna pegmatite and Bargłów magmatic protolith of the orthogneiss is only Late Paleoproterozoic in age and in general about 700 Ma younger than previously reported by K–Ar method. Therefore, there is no unequivocal evidence of the presence of Archean rocks in crystalline basement of NE Poland. This study has been undertaken as a part of a collaborative research agreement between the Polish Geological Institute and Geochronology and Isotope Geochemistry Research School of Earth Sciences of the Australian National University in Canberra.
EN
The detailed research studies of selected secondary polyphase carbonate-sulphate mineralisations infilling fissures and fractures has been carried out in the crystalline rocks of the Suwałki Anorthosite Massif (SAM). This massif, emplaced within the Mesoproterozoic rapakivi-type Mazury Complex (ca. 1.56 Ga), has been subjected to several tectono-hydrothermal events resulting in extensive mineralization in several stages. The deformation regime changed from the ductile compressional to brittle extentional. Both ductile and brittle shear zones enabled the mineralisation precipitation in the sequence C_1 (dolo-mite) or C_1 (calcite) + chlorite = pseudotachylyte C_2 (calcite) = C_3 (calcite) + smectite = Qtz_1 = C_3 (continued) = Brt = Qtz_2 = Anh. The results of mineralogical and stable isotope studies indicate that the vein mineralization originated from the mixed hydrothermal to hypergenic fluids with admixture of marine-type sulphate waters during the last stage of mineralization.
PL
Suwalski masyw anortozytowy wraz ze skałami osłony należy do powszechnie występującej na świecie facji skał magmowych typu AMCG (anortozyty-mangeryty-czarnokity-granity), związanych ze strefami głębokich rozłamów w skorupie proterozoicznej. W ostatnich latach, dzięki intensywnym badaniom w ramach międzynarodowych programów badawczych, np. IGCP-290, NATO, EUROBRIDGE-EUROPROBE, przeprowadzono w różnych ośrodkach na świecie (głównie w Kanadzie, USA i w Belgii) wiele nowych badań i eksperymentów laboratoryjnych, które poszerzyły wiedzę dotyczącą genezy i ewolucji anortozytów masywowych i skał z nimi związanych. Możliwość wykorzystania nowoczesnych, wyspecjalizowanych technik badawczych, geochemicznych (XRF, ICP MS i analiz w mikroobszarze), katodoluminescencji, metod geochronologicznych Re-Os i U-Pb oraz stosunków izotopowych 186Os/187Os, 143Nd/186144Nd i 86Sr/87Sr, pozwoliło również na weryfikację istniejących poglądów dotyczących genezy anortozytowej intruzji suwalskiej. Zastosowany do datowań siarczków i tlenków kruszcowych, rozproszonych w anortozytach i norytach, chronometr Re-Os pozwolił na określenie nie tylko wieku mineralizacji kruszcowej Fe-Ti-V, lecz pośrednio także wieku intruzji. Było to pierwsze w świecie zastosowanie metody Re-Os do datowań anortozytów masywowych. Wiek izochronowy dla rud z rejonu Krzemianka i Jezioro Okrągłe wynosi 1559-37 mln lat, a dla rud z Udrynia 1556-94 mln lat. Uzyskane stosunki izotopowe 186Os/187Os (1,16-0,06 mln lat dla złoża Krzemianka i 0,87-0,20 mln lat dla złoża Udryń) oraz Nd (-2,5 do -5,3) wskazują na dolnoskorupowe pochodzenie magmy macierzystej dla anortozytów. Prawdopodobnym protolitem dla anortozytów były skały o składzie gabronorytów przetapiane na głębokości odpowiadającej ciśnieniom 10-13 kbar oraz temperaturom ok. 1300 stopni Celsjusza. Badania geochemiczne i mikroskopowe jotunitów (monzodiorytów hiperstenowych) z masywów Suwałk i Sejn oraz obserwacje deformacji fenokryształów plagioklazów i piroksenów w anortozytach wskazują, że magma macierzysta przemieszczała się ku powierzchni w stanie zawiesiny plagioklazów i piroksenów. Umiejscowienie półplastycznego diapiru plagioklazowego odbywało się w warunkach ciśnień ok. 3-5 kbar. Mineralizacja rudna Fe-Ti-V została skoncentrowana w strefach brzeżnych masywu (złoże Krzemianka, Jezioro Okrągłe i Jeleniewo) w wyniku procesów granulacji i poligenizacji anortozytów z centralnych części masywu i wciskania plastycznej substancji rudnej w strefy spękań tektonicznych (złoże Udryń). Wyniki badań izotopów stabilnych rho34S i rho13C wskazują na magmową genezę siarczków: pirotynu, pentlandytu i chalkopirytu oraz grafitu. Piryt natomiast jest typowym minerałem wtórnym, pochodzenia hydrotermalnego. Wartości rho18O dla próbek całych skał oraz magnetytu i plagioklazu świadczą o braku wpływu procesów metamorficznych na skały i minerały z intruzji suwalskiej.
EN
Suwałki Anorthosite Massif (SAM) and associated rocks belong to the widespread, magmatic AMCG suite (anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite "rapakivi"), related to Proterozoic deep crustal structures. Due to intensive research work (mainly in Canada, Belgium and the USA), carried out within international scientific programs e.g. IGCP-290, NATO, EUROBRIDGE-EUROPROBE, a large number of the new laboratory experiments and investigations has been performed in the recent years. This research constrained the geological and petrological evolution model of massif-type anorthosites which occur in Proterozoic rocks worldwide. Availability of modern, sophisticated research techniques, such as geochemical ones (XRF, ICP MS, and microprobe analyses), cathodoluminescence, geochronological Re-Os, U-Pb methods and application of osmium, neodymium and strontium initial isotope ratios, let us better understand the origin and verify existing genetical concepts concerning the Suwałki Anorthosite Massif. Application of a new Re-Os chronometer for direct dating of sulphides and ore-oxides, dispersed in the Suwałki anorthosites and norites, resulted in precise age determination for the Fe-Ti-V ores and Fe-Cu-Co-Ni sulphide mineralisation, as well as dating indirectly the age of the SAM. It was the first use of the Re-Os radiogenic method to anorthosite dating in the world. The isochrone age of the Krzemianka and Jezioro Okrągłe ores is 1559-37 Ma and for Udryń ores yields 1556-94 Ma. The obtained initial isotope 186Os/187Os ratios (1.16-0.06 Ma for Krzemianka and 0.87-0.20 Ma for Udryń) and Nd (-2.5 to -5.3) indicate lower crustal source of the parental Suwałki anorthosite magma. The gabbro-norite composition of rocks, remelted at the depth interval corresponding to 10-13 kbars of pressure and ca. 1300 degrees of Celsius, are believed to be the most probable protholith for anorthosites. The geochemical and microscope investigations of jotunites (hyperstene monzodiorites) from the Suwałki and Sejny massifs and observed plagioclase and pyroxene phenocrysts deformations in medium-grained anorthosite matrix highlight that parental magma was channeled to the surface as a plagioclase crystal mush, lubricated by a minor amount of interstitial liquids. Diapiric emplacement of plagioclase mushes on the final level took place in pressure conditions of ca. 3-5 kbars. Fe-Ti-V ore mineralization was concentrated in the marginal parts of the massif (Krzemianka, Jezioro Okrągłe and Jeleniewo ore fields), as a result of granulation and polygenization processes of anorthosites from the central part of the massif, as well as filter-pressing and squeezing out the ore-minerals` mush into the tectonic cracks and faults. The stable isotope rho34S and rho13C results confirm magmatic origin of sulphides: pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite and graphite. On the contrary, pyrite is a typical secondary mineral of the hydrothermal provenance. The low rho18O value for the whole rock samples, magnetite and plagioclase provides an evidence for normal magmatic origin and lack of metamorphic overprints in the Suwałki intrusion.
EN
80 rock samples from drill-cores at 8 localities in the Mazury complex (Polish part of the crystalline East European Craton), representing rock types from monzodiorites to leucogranites, were studied for major, trace and REE elements by XRF and ICP-MS methods. The range in composition of the investigated rocks varies from 46 to 76% SiO2 contents. All of them show similar REE distributions, which suggests that they are genetically linked. They also plot along a major trend with many similarities to the jotunitic liquid line of descent defined in AMCG rocks from Rogaland (Norway). Each group of rocks has however its own specific pattern of elements.
EN
Melt inclusions were investigated in apatite from nelsonite from the Suwałki anor-thosite massif and in pyroxene from the Fe–Ti–P-rich monzodiorite (jotunite) from the Sejny massif, both of Proterozoic age and occurring within the ranges of the Mazury crystalline complex in NE Poland. The melt inclusions in apatite were filled by an agg-regate of pyroxene, apatite, calcite, plagioclase, biotite, halite, sylvite, ore mineral plus aqueous solution and gas bubble. At 880oC in the inclusions two melts: silicate and phosphate one, were observed which neither homogenized nor changed their propor-tions up to 1080oC. This indicated the formation of nelsonite from the melt composed of two immiscible phases. Inclusions in pyroxene from jotunite were filled by pyroxene, feldspar, apatite, carbonate and ore mineral with gas bubble. Their homogenization tem-peratures were from 1090 to 1180oC; at 1000 to 1030oC in silicate melt small droplets of carbonate and phosphate melt were visible, homogenizing subsequently in one melt phase. The behaviour of the two melts in the studied inclusions may indicate a genetic affinity of nelsonite with monzodioritic rocks.
EN
The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis Milne-Edwards, 1854 is a newcomer to the Baltic Sea. Previous studies have shown that since the 1940s single large specimens of this species have been caught annually in Polish waters. The invasion of the Chinese mitten crab has been reported from many European countries, including Poland, where it is especially abundant in the Odra Estuary. Of 186 specimens captured in Lake Dabie in August 1998, 45% were females and 55\% males. The carapace width of these crabs varied between 53 and 88 mm and the average wet weight was 169 š 45.3 g.
EN
Strontium isotope ratios for 14 samples of anorthositic rocks in the Suwałki Anorthosite Massif (SAM) range from 0.704875 to 0.705772. The same isotopic ratios calculated for 1.5 Ga (the U-Pb zircon age of the rapakivi-like granites from adjacent Mazury Complex) range from 0.704583 to 0.705483. The corresponding eSr1500 values for the same rocks range from 25.5 to 39.0. The pronounced Eu anomaly which characterises the REE distribution in the anorthosite plagioclase is consistent with early crystallization from basic magma.
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Content available remote Mineralogy of the Fe-Ti-V ores of the Suwałki Anorthosite Massif
EN
The paper presents the composition and evolution of ore-mineralization in ferrolites, host rocks, ore-apatite veins (nelsonites) and in hydrothermal veins from the Suwałki Anorthosite Massif. Twenty nine ore minerals, their formation and mineral parageneses are described. Two stages of mineralization - magmatic and post-magmatic - are determined. In the magmatic stages early and late phases have been distinguished. On the other hand, in the post-magmatic stages: oxyexsolution, exsolution, deuteric substitution, hydrothermal and supergene substitution phases have modified original mineralogies.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono skład i ewolucję mineralizacji kruszcowej w skałach tytanomagnetytowych (ferrolitach), w skałach macierzystych (norytach, gabronorytach i anortozytach), a także w żyłowych skałach apatytowo-kruszcowych (nelsonitach) i żyłach hydrotermalnych w masywie suwalskim. Wyróżniono i scharakteryzowano 29 minerałów kruszcowych oraz ich generacje i paragenezy mineralne. Wydzielono dwa etapy formowania minerałów rudnych: etap magmowy i pomagmowy. Ponadto zaobserwowano 7 faz mineralizacji: wczesnomagmową, późnomagmową, odmieszania z utlenienia, odmieszania, podstawienia deuterycznego, hydrotermalną i podstawienia hipergenicznego.
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