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EN
With the emergence of social networks and micro-blogs, a huge amount of short textual documents are generated on a daily basis, for which effective tools for organization and classification are needed. These short text documents have extremely sparse representation, which is the main cause for the poor classification performance. We propose a new approach, where we identify relevant concepts in short text documents with the use of the DBpedia Spotlight framework and enrich the text with information derived from DBpedia ontology, which reduces the sparseness. We have developed six variants of text enrichment methods and tested them on four short text datasets using seven classification algorithms. The obtained results were compared to those of the baseline approach, among themselves, and also to some state-of-the-art text classification methods. Beside classification performance, the influence of the concepts similarity threshold and the size of the training data were also evaluated. The results show that the proposed text enrichment approach significantly improves classification of short texts and is robust with respect to different input sources, domains, and sizes of available training data. The proposed text enrichment methods proved to be beneficial for classification of short text documents, especially when only a small amount of documents are available for training.
EN
The article proposes an approach to the specialized transdisciplinary system development that allows ensuring access to modern achievements in the field of education, science, and technology. Such an approach involves an information-analytical system designing for supporting the educational and research activities of the student youth using the software platform “Trans-disciplinary Educational Dialogues of Applications’ Ontology Systems” (TEDAOS). The TEDAOS software tools provide the formation of ontological models in the form of knowledge prism, that are proposed to be used to present the results of student youth activities, the results of scientific and technical researches held in fundamental and applied research institutions, as well as curriculum, educational and methodological materials. The information-analytical system being developed allow to aggregate and integrate information resources and systems, created in various formats according to different standards and technologies, by using the ontological approach to knowledge representation to support the youth educational and research activities.
EN
This paper deals with a methodology for the implementation of cloud manufacturing (CM) architecture. CM is a current paradigm in which dynamically scalable and virtualized resources are provided to users as services over the Internet. CM is based on the concept of coud computing, which is essential in the Industry 4.0 trend. A CM architecture is employed to map users and providers of manufacturing resources. It reduces costs and development time during a product lifecycle. Some providers use different descriptions of their services, so we propose taking advantage of semantic web technologies such as ontologies to tackle this issue. Indeed, robust tools are proposed for mapping providers’ descriptions and user requests to find the most appropriate service. The ontology defines the stages of the product lifecycle as services. It also takes into account the features of coud computing (storage, computing capacity, etc.). The CM ontology will contribute to intelligent and automated service discovery. The proposed methodology is inspired by the ASDI framework (analysis–specification–design–implementation), which has already been used in the supply chain, healthcare and manufacturing domains. The aim of the new methodology is to propose an easy method of designing a library of components for a CM architecture. An example of the application of this methodology with a simulation model, based on the CloudSim software, is presented. The result can be used to help the industrial decision-makers who want to design CM architectures.
EN
E-learning has fast become an active field of research with a lot of investments towards web-based delivery of personalized learning contents to learners. Some issues of e-learning arise from the heterogeneity and interoperability of learning content adapting to learner's styles and preferences. This has brought about the development of an ontology-based personalized learning system to solve this problem. This research developed an ontology-based personalized e-learning system that presents suitable learning contents to learners based on their learning style, preferences, background knowledge, and personal profile.
EN
The paper proposes the use of semantic modeling to describe the organizational knowledge resources. Key concepts related to semantic representation of knowledge in the form of ontology were also presented. The study indicated opportunities for creating new business models based on the organizational knowledge resources formalized in ontologies (ontology providers, organizations that certify knowledge available in the form of ontologies and clients using paid knowledge resources in ontology in order to automate certain areas of their activity. The investigations were presented in light of safety mechanisms whose implementation is necessary when using a semantic approach in describing the organizational knowledge resources and creating new business models based on this approach, including mechanisms for protecting information and knowledge from unauthorized access, certificates that describe the level of trust and the design of a secure user interface. The focus was also on the fact that the formalization of organizational knowledge resources and its representation in an electronic form (ontologies) poses a major challenge for knowledge engineers and leads to the necessity to cooperate in research on the borderline of management and IT sciences.
6
Content available Introducing narratives in Europeana: A case study
EN
We present a preliminary study to introduce narratives as a first-class functionality in digital libraries. The general idea is to enrich those libraries with semantic networks of events providing a meaningful contextualisation of the digital libraries’ objects. More specific motivations are presented through a set of use cases by different actors who would benefit from using narratives for different purposes. Then, we consider a specific digital library, Europeana, the largest European digital library in the cultural heritage domain. We discuss how the Europeana Data Model could be extended for representing narratives, and we introduce an ontology for narratives. We also present a semi-automatic tool, which, on the basis of the ontology, supports the creation and visualisation of narratives, and we show how the tool has been employed to create a narrative of the life of the painter Gustav Klimt as a case study. In particular, we focus our attention on the functionality of the tool that allows extracting and proposing to the user specific digital objects for each event of the narrative.
EN
The article presents the results of research related to the use of ontological and design competence approaches for the development of knowledge components and their subsequent use for designing individual trajectories of engineering education. The methodology of engineering education is considered, which, together with the initiative CDIO, the project-competence model and the knowledge display in the form of ontology, can be used as the main tool for modelling the propositional presentation of thought. Within the framework of the ontological approach, a knowledge specification language has been developed, which allows modelling the ontologies of supporting concepts of the semantic context of educational resources and specifying them in the form of knowledge expressions. The introduced formalisms and rules of the language of knowledge specification give the expressions of knowledge the properties of adaptability, extensibility, easement of processing and maintenance, which is important in designing engineering education level programs. This technique was tested on the material of the famous monograph by Hassan Goma “UML. Designing real-time systems, parallel and distributed applications" for the project "Banking system of client-server type" and is used on classes. Expressions of knowledge, together with their interfaces, are knowledge components from which individual learning trajectories are constructed.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań związanych z wykorzystaniem podejść kompetencyjnych ontologicznych i projektowych do opracowania komponentów wiedzy i ich późniejszego wykorzystania do projektowania indywidualnych ścieżek edukacji inżynierskiej. Rozważana jest metodologia edukacji inżynierskiej, która wraz z inicjatywą CDIO, modelem kompetencji projektowych i prezentacją wiedzy w formie ontologii, może być wykorzystana jako główne narzędzie do modelowania propozycji prezentacji myśli. W ramach podejścia ontologicznego opracowano język specyfikacji wiedzy, który pozwala modelować ontologie wspierające koncepcje semantycznego kontekstu zasobów edukacyjnych i określać je w formie wyrażeń wiedzy. Wprowadzone formalizacje i reguły języka specyfikacji wiedzy nadają wyrażeniom wiedzy właściwości adaptowalności, rozszerzalności, łatwości przetwarzania i konserwacji, co jest ważne przy projektowaniu programów inżynieryjnych. Technika ta została sprawdzona na materiale słynnej monografii Hassana Gomy “UML. Designing real-time systems, parallel and distributed applications" w projekcie "Banking system of client-server type" („System bankowy typu klient-serwer ”) i jest wykorzystywana na zajęciach. Wyrażenia wiedzy, wraz z ich interfejsami, są składnikami wiedzy, z których budowane są indywidualne ścieżki uczenia się.
EN
The paper deals with university knowledge transfer. The adjustment of relations between universities and enterprises makes knowledge transfer a necessary requirement for university development to ensure the implementation of market-oriented educational programs. The paper proposes use of modular competency-based and ontological approaches to ensure the university knowledge transfer. The initial data is presented in the databases of the university, authorized bodies of education and science, enterprises, business structures and professional standards. This data is processed and scanned for knowledge to be put into the knowledge database with technological (informational) and modular competency-based approaches. As part of a market-oriented innovation university concept the task is to improve the education system in relation to skills development. To solve this problem it is necessary to build a distributed information system of university knowledge transfer. It is necessary to create a unified educational space – an educational portal – to ensure the university knowledge transfer between all participants - teachers, students and employers. The study offers an architectural solution for a distributed information system.
PL
Artykuł dotyczy transferu wiedzy uniwersyteckiej. Dostosowanie relacji między uniwersytetami a przedsiębiorstwami sprawia, że transfer wiedzy jest niezbędnym warunkiem rozwoju uniwersytetów, aby zapewnić realizację programów edukacyjnych zorientowanych na rynek. W artykule zaproponowano zastosowanie modułowego podejścia opartego na kompetencjach i ontologii, aby zapewnić transfer wiedzy uniwersyteckiej. Wstępne dane są prezentowane w bazach danych uniwersytetu, upoważnionych organów oświaty i nauki, przedsiębiorstw, struktur biznesowych i standardów zawodowych. Dane te są przetwarzane i skanowane w celu umieszczenia wiedzy w bazie wiedzy za pomocą technologicznych (informacyjnych) i modułowych podejść opartych na kompetencjach. W ramach zorientowanej rynkowo koncepcji uniwersytetów innowacyjnych zadaniem jest ulepszenie systemu edukacji w odniesieniu do rozwoju umiejętności. Aby rozwiązać ten problem, konieczne jest zbudowanie rozproszonego systemu informacji o transferze wiedzy uniwersyteckiej. Konieczne jest stworzenie jednolitej przestrzeni edukacyjnej – portalu edukacyjnego – aby zapewnić transfer wiedzy uniwersyteckiej między wszystkimi uczestnikami – nauczycielami, studentami i pracodawcami. Badanie oferuje rozwiązanie architektoniczne dla rozproszonego systemu informatycznego.
9
Content available remote Smart urban design space
EN
The irreversible process of demographic change, especially in Germany, leads to numerous challenges. According to this, research has to face the task to integrate the constantly ageing population into the urban and public space in such a way that there are as few barriers as possible. With the support of digitalization, so-called smart urban objects are being designed in order to do make integration, so that people and the available technology can be used most efficiently. A special ontology has been developed to meet this demand.
EN
The research deals with improvement of methods and systems of controlling integrated power systems (IPSs) on the basis of intellectualization of decision-making support. Complex analysis of large-scale accidents at power facilities is performed, and their causes and damages are determined. There is substantiated topicality of building condition knowledge-bases as the foundation for developing decision-support systems in power engineering. The top priorities of the research include developing methods of building a knowledge base based on intensity models of control actions influencing the parameters of power system conditions and introducing the smart system into information contours of the automated dispatch control system (ADCS), as well as assessing practical results of the research. To achieve these goals, the authors apply methods of experiment planning, artificial intelligence, knowledge presentation, mathematical simulation, and mathematical statistics as well as methods of power systems studying. The basic research results include regression models of a power system sensitivity to control actions, methods of building a knowledge base based on the models of sensitivity matrices, a structure of the smart decision-support system, a scheme of introducing the decision-support system into the operating ADCS environment. The problem of building a knowledge base of the dispatch decision-support system on the basis of empirical data resulted from calculating experiments on the system diagram has been solved. The research specifies practical efficiency of the suggested approaches and developed models.
EN
Student engagement and retention are major concerns for universities around the world. It is vital to improve student retention by delivering quality education and engaging students in their studies, leading to student success and graduation and integration in the workforce. This study examines a degree of engagement in two Polish universities. The aim of this research was to evaluate and compare student engagement between two respondent groups. Data for this study were collected from 394 university students through selfevaluation using internet-based survey instrument. The differences between the universities were compared according to the current state, target state and, creative tension, describing the gap between a person’s feeling of current reality and target for future. The analysis of the test results clearly demonstrated the possibility to use such an application to evaluate the students’ engagement and, the comparison clearly identified considerable differences between the two university cases.
PL
Zaangażowanie i utrzymywanie studentów to ważna kwestia uniwersytetów na całym świecie. Konieczne jest poprawienie retencji studentów przez ich angażowanie i zapewnianie wysokiej jakości edukacji. Badanie dotyczy oceny i porównania stopnia zaangażowania studentów w dwóch polskich uczelniach. W badaniu zebrano dane dotyczące 394 studentów w ramach samooceny przeprowadzonej za pomocą internetowego narzędzia ankietowego. Różnice między uniwersytetami zostały porównane zgodnie z stanem aktualnym i docelowym, opisując lukę między odczuwaniem obecnej rzeczywistości a celami na przyszłość. Analiza wyników testów wyraźnie pokazała możliwość wykorzystania aplikacji do oceny zaangażowania uczniów, a porównanie wyraźnie wskazało znaczne różnice między dwoma przypadkami uniwersyteckimi.
12
Content available Uwagi o ontologii życia ludzkiego
PL
Życie ludzkie rozumiane jako kompleks różnorodnych procesów (biologicznych, psychicznych, społecznych itp.) wymaga analizy wykraczającej poza obszar biologii i innych nauk szczegółowych; wymaga –analizy filozoficznej. Ponieważ także dział filozofii zajmujący się człowiekiem (antropologia filozoficzna/filozofia człowieka) stosunkowo niewiele uwagi poświęca indywidualnemu życiu ludzkiemu, uznano za właściwe wprowadzenie terminu „ontologia życia ludzkiego” jako nazwy obszaru zamierzonych analiz. Zasadniczym ich celem (wyznaczającym sposób ich przeprowadzania) jest dostarczenie analitycznych podstaw dla aksjologicznych (w szczególności: etycznych), ale także – empirycznych (np. socjologicznych) badań nad jakością życia.
EN
Human life construed as a complex of various processes (biological, psychological, social etc.) calls for analysis going beyond domains of biology and other sciences; it calls for philosophical analysis. For the branch of philosophy studying man (philosophical anthropology/philosophy of man) pays little attention to individual human life, the author has decided that it will be proper to introduce the term “ontology of human life” as the name of the domain of the planned here analyses. Their main goal is to deliver analytical foundations for both the axiological (in particular: ethical) and empirical (in particular: sociological) investigations on quality of life.
EN
The paper presents a new technology for commercial information leak detection. The technology based on an analysis of knowledge and skills that demonstrate the company's employees in the professional consultations and discussions in social networks. The company's subject domain and activities are modeled using ontologies.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono nową technologię wykrywania faktów wycieku poufnych informacji biznesowych. Technologia ta jest oparta na analizie wiedzy i umiejętności, które demonstrują pracownicy firmy w profesjonalnych konsultacjach i dyskusjach w sieciach społecznościowych. Dziedzina i działania firmy są modelowane za pomocą ontologii.
EN
Agility is a concept and practice with significant importance in managing and leading added value in products, services, projects, and organizations, although it’s usage can also be very risky due to its degree of fuzziness, if not properly understood and defined. This research re-defines agility, emphasizes the need for ontologies for its management and leadership applications and uses a new type of fuzzy logic-based software to measure the degree of agility inside a technology company. In our agility research, various definitions of agility were first gathered and presented for the creation of an agility ontology through a mind map, revealing the main characteristics of agility. Then as part of the Co-Evolute theory and methodology, the first agility ontology was developed as well as the first software application that evaluates the degree of agility in an organization. The application includes statements on which the respondents give opinions in their situation concerning the current and future desired states of agility and its importance in an evaluative way. Today the application has been fully tested in the real world and we have obtained the first test results. The positive verification and validation of the method are shown in this article.
EN
Ontologies form the basis of the Semantic Web. Description Logics (DLs) are often the languages of choice for modeling ontologies. Integration of DLs with rules and rule-based reasoning is crucial in the so-called Semantic Web stack vision - a complete stack of recommendations and languages each based on and/or exploiting the underlying layers - which adds new features to the standards used in the Web. The growing importance of the integration between DLs and rules is proved by the definition of the profile OWL 2 RL1 and the definition of languages such as RIF2 and SWRL3. Datalog± is an extension of Datalog which can be used for representing lightweight ontologies and expressing some languages of the DL-Lite family, with tractable query answering under certain language restrictions. In particular, it is able to express the DL-Lite version defined in OWL. In this work, we show that Abductive Logic Programming (ALP) can be used to represent Datalog± ontologies, supporting query answering through an abductive proof procedure, and smoothly achieving the integration of ontologies and rule-based reasoning. Often, reasoning with DLs means finding explanations for the truth of queries, that are useful when debugging ontologies and to understand answers given by the reasoning process. We show that reasoning under existential rules can be expressed by ALP languages and we present a solving system, which is experimentally proved to be competitive with DL reasoning systems. In particular, we consider an ALP framework named SCIFF derived from the IFF abductive framework. Forward and backward reasoning is naturally supported in this ALP framework. The SCIFF language smoothly supports the integration of rules, expressed in a Logic Programming language, with Datalog± ontologies, mapped into SCIFF (forward) integrity constraints. The main advantage is that this integration is achieved within a single language, grounded on abduction in computational logic, and able to model existential rules.
EN
In this work we study a rational extension SROEL(⊓, x)R T of the low complexity description logic SROEL(⊓, x), which underlies the OWL EL ontology language. The extension involves a typicality operator T, whose semantics is based on Lehmann and Magidor’s ranked models and allows for the definition of defeasible inclusions. We consider both rational entailment and minimal entailment. We show that deciding instance checking under minimal entailment is in general ∏2P -hard, while, under rational entailment, instance checking can be computed in polynomial time. We develop a Datalog calculus for instance checking under rational entailment and exploit it, with stratified negation, for computing the rational closure of simple KBs in polynomial time.
17
Content available remote Universal Framework For OWL2 Ontology Transformations
EN
Domain ontologies are valuable knowledge assets with many potential applications, e.g. in software engineering. Their content is often a subject of bi-directional transformations. Unfortunately, a centralized transformation service which can be easily extended with new mappers is not available for ontology users. In consequence, they have to deal with many different translation programs, which have to be installed and learned separately. The paper presents a framework for universal ontology processing, dedicated to ontologies expressed in OWL2. The framework usefulness was verified by a proof-of-concept implementation, for which an existing OWL2 to Groovy translator was adapted. During the integration process, the translator functionality was enhanced with ontology individuals mapping. The exemplary implementation confirmed that the framework with plug-in architecture is flexible and easy for customization. The ontology stakeholders should benefit from the reduced cognitive load and more satisfying transformation process.
18
Content available Building an ontology for system analysis
EN
System analysis as scientific and engineering discipline underpins research and development in other areas. However, system analysis models and methods are often taught separately and, as a result, system analyst cannot form a holistic understanding of this area. In order to deepen our understanding of system analysis’ concepts and relations the ontology of this area was built. It was constructed based on models and methods of system analysis considered as knowledge patterns. The concept of system was selected as a central concept of ontology. Other important concepts, such as goal, function, decision and process are relating to it. Finally, the applications of created system analysis ontology for teaching system analysis in high school and as a part of semantic grid are discussed.
EN
The purpose of this study is to create, analyze and reuse an ontology-based approach during implementation of a multi-agent system (MAS) capable of integrating different elements of a distributed control system (DCS). Ontology is considered as knowledge about a particular domain. It includes static description of the domain’s structure and properties, by means of which it is possible to define the domain’s dynamic states, transitions between those states and conditions of those transitions. Because of that, it is possible to analyze such ontology in terms of modal logic in predicate logic settings.
PL
W artykule dokonano przeglądu literaturowego formalnych metod reprezentacji wiedzy w postaci ontologii ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem standardów RDF oraz OWL. Wskazano następnie obszar wiedzy dziedzinowej z zakresu prawidłowo realizowanych procedur serwisowych. Zaproponowano również sposób reprezentacji tej wiedzy jako szeregów kroków, opisywanych przez obsługiwane podzespoły, wykorzystane do tego narzędzia, elementy łączące i mocujące czy też materiały eksploatacyjne. Bazując na tych założeniach zaproponowano budowę ontologii przy wykorzystaniu języka OWL, wykorzystując w tym celu środowisko Protégé.
EN
This article reviews literature on formal knowledge representation methods using ontologies and focus on RDF and OWL standards. Then indicated the area of domain knowledge in the range of correctly performed service procedures. It was proposed to represent this knowledge as a series of steps. These steps are described by the supported components, the tools which are used, connecting elements and consumables. Based on these assumptions, it was proposed to build ontology using OWL using the Protégé environment.
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