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EN
A characteristic feature of the environment in which contemporary organizations operate is its variability. To survive in such an environment, organizations need leaders who can set themselves and their subordinates specific goals and influence their achievement. Many positive examples of leadership can be transferred to the civilian environment thanks to the models developed in the armed forces. One of the tools for shaping leadership attitudes in the Polish Armed Forces is the author's program for training non-commissioned officers called "Leader" in operation since 2008. The knowledge passed on during this program, which is conducted in the form of a course (considered to be one of the most difficult ones in the Armed Forces), is related to building leadership skills. It can be successfully transferred to the civilian environment, wherever there are relationships between superiors and subordinates.
PL
Charakterystyczną cechą środowiska, w którym funkcjonują współczesne organizacje jest jego zmienność. Aby w takim otoczeniu organizacje mogły przetrwać potrzebują liderów posiadających umiejętność stawiania sobie i swym podwładnym określonych celów oraz wpływania na realizację tych celów. Wiele pozytywnych przykładów przywództwa może zostać przeniesionych do środowiska cywilnego dzięki wzorcom wypracowanym w armii. Jednym z narzędzi kształtowania postaw przywódczych w Wojsku Polskim jest funkcjonujący od 2008 roku autorski program szkolenia podoficerów Lider. Wiedza przekazywana podczas tego programu, prowadzonego w formie kursu (uważanego za jeden z najtrudniejszych z siłach zbrojnych) związana z budowaniem kompetencji przywódczych, może z powodzeniem zostać przeniesiona do środowiska cywilnego, wszędzie tam, gdzie istnieją zależności pomiędzy przełożonymi a podwładnymi.
2
EN
The paper is an attempt to characterise the most significant concepts of public management. The starting point for the considerations is definition of the term "public management". Next, the author presents directions of the evolution of changes that have been taking place in public sector management. The last part of the paper outlines the assumptions of two modern concepts of public management, i.e., New Public Management and Public Governance.
PL
W artykule podjęto próbę scharakteryzowania najważniejszych koncepcji zarządzania publicznego. Punktem wyjścia dla rozważań było określenie znaczenia terminu zarządzanie publiczne. Następnie przedstawiono kierunki ewolucji zmian w zarządzaniu sektorem publicznym. W ostatniej części artykułu przedstawiono założenia dwóch współczesnych koncepcji zarządzania publicznego jakim jest New Public Management i Public Governance.
EN
The article addresses what seems to be the critical aspects related to the most important competence of a human being in the 21st century – the competence to manage oneself. Nowadays, when life and civilization and technological development have accelerated unbelievably, people find it increasingly challenging to fulfill the social roles entrusted to them. That applies to everyone, but especially to those who have to manage (lead) other people or even entire teams, often forgetting about themselves, their needs, life priorities, and personal development. One should be able to wisely and rationally plan professional development in his/her personal life so as not to lose himself/herself entirely in the surrounding reality, being absorbed only in professional matters and others’ problems. This article indicates the most critical aspects that should be taken into account when planning personal and socio-professional development since only in this way can one feel the fulfillment of both in personal (family) and social and professional life.
PL
W artykule zostały przedstawione, jak się wydaje, kluczowe aspekty związane z najważniejszą kompetencją człowieka XXI wieku – kompetencją zarządzania sobą. W obecnych czasach, kiedy życie i rozwój cywilizacyjny i technologiczny nieprawdopodobnie przyspieszyły, coraz trudniej jest wypełniać ludziom powierzone im role społeczne. Dotyczy to wszystkich, ale w szczególności tych, którzy muszą zarządzać (kierować) innymi ludźmi czy całymi wręcz zespołami, często zapominając o sobie, o swoich potrzebach, priorytetach życiowych i rozwoju osobistym. Człowiek powinien umieć w sposób mądry i racjonalny planować swoje życie osobiste o rozwój zawodowy, aby całkowicie nie zatracić się w otaczającej go rzeczywistości pochłonięty tylko sprawami zawodowymi i problemami innych. Niniejszy artykuł wskazuje na najważniejsze aspekty, które należy wziąć pod uwagę planując swój rozwój osobisty i społeczno-zawodowy, gdyż tylko w ten sposób można poczuć spełnienie się zarówno w życiu osobistym (rodzinnym), jak i społeczno-zawodowym.
PL
Kompleksowo rozumiana jakość we współczesnym świecie posiada znaczenie strategiczne. Stanowi szansę na sukces organizacji funkcjonujących w warunkach zmian, niepewności, ryzyka, chaosu oraz braku ciągłości działania. Należy nią skutecznie zarządzać z wykorzystaniem coraz bardziej rozwijających się narzędzi i metod w ramach technologii IT. Warunkiem rozwoju i doskonalenia jakości jest dostęp do informacji i wiedzy oraz chęć działania. W centrum problematyki jakości znajduje się troska o klienta i zaspokojenie jego potrzeb. Newralgicznym problemem ze względów ekonomicznych i społecznych jest mierzenie jakości. Dorobek światowych i polskich klasyków jakości stanowi kanwę dla badań naukowych i rozwiązań praktycznych w obszarze jakości. Jednocześnie tempo zmian, jakie narzucają rozwiązania Przemysłu 4.0, zmusza do szerszego spojrzenia na problemy związane z jakością. Rozwiązania powstające w ramach Rewolucji 4.0 wymuszają transformację do Gospodarki 4.0, w tym także obejmują konieczność transformacji do Jakości 4.0 i poszukiwania możliwości jej doskonalenia w czasach cyfryzacji i sztucznej inteligencji. Rozwiązania te posiadają wiele zalet, ale budzą także obawy i lęk. Dlatego badania nad koncepcją Jakości 4.0 stają się koniecznością.
EN
Broadly understood quality in the modern world is of strategic significance. It is an opportunity for the success of organizations operating in conditions of change, uncertainty, risk, chaos and discontinuity. Quality should be effectively managed with the use of more advanced and sophisticated tools and methods based on IT technology. For quality development and improvement people need access to information and knowledge and the will to act to improve their products and services. In the center of the quality issue is the concern about the customer and meeting their needs. A critical problem is the measurement of quality. Many seminal works of foreign and Polish provide the basis for scientific research and offer practical solutions in the area of quality. At the same time, the pace of changes imposed by Industry 4.0 solutions forces us to take a broader look at the problems related to quality. Solutions emerging within the 4.0 Revolution force transformation to the 4.0 Economy, including the necessity of transformation to Quality 4.0 and searching for possibilities of quality improvement in times of digitalization and artificial intelligence. These solutions have many advantages, but they also raise concerns and fears. Therefore the research on Quality 4.0 concept becomes a necessity.
PL
Od wielu lat demografowie zwracają uwagę na niekorzystny trend, jakim jest depopulacja. Zjawisko to nie dotyczy jedynie Polski, ale i też prawie całej Europy. Należy zdać sobie sprawę, że kryzys demograficzny będzie miał wpływ na wiele dziedzin naszego życia, takich jak na przykład ekonomiczne, społeczne, medyczne, kulturowe i co będzie tematem poniższego artykułu – szeroko pojęte bezpieczeństwo. Niekorzystne wskaźniki demograficzne mogą skutkować wyludnianiem się obszarów mniej zurbanizowanych, migracją ludzi z mniejszych ośrodków do większych, emigracją zarobkową, ograniczonym dostępem do edukacji itp. Każde państwo w ramach stworzonego systemu bezpieczeństwa wykorzystuje zasoby ludzkie, jednak co będzie w przypadku, gdy zacznie brakować ludzi chcących podjąć służbę w Policji, Państwowej Straży Pożarnej, Straży Granicznej? Jakie kroki należy przedsięwziąć już teraz, aby te służby były przygotowane na reakcję, w przypadku gdy diagnoza demografów potwierdzi się? Tego typu zagadnienie powinno zainteresować badaczy zajmujących się bezpieczeństwem.
EN
For years now demographers have been drawing attention to the adverse trend of depopulation. This phenomenon does not only concern Poland but also almost all of Europe. It should be recognised that the demographic crisis will affect many areas of our life, such as, for example, economic, social, medical and cultural aspects along with broadly understood security, which is the subject of this article. Adverse demographic indicators may cause the depopulation of less urbanized areas, migration of people from smaller centres to larger ones, labour emigration, limited access to education etc. Each country makes use of human resources as part of the established security system, yet what would happen if a shortage of people willing to serve in the police, the fire brigade or border guards happens? What activities could possibly be undertaken now so that these services are prepared for appropriate actions should the diagnosis of demographers prove to be right? This type of issue should be of interest to security researchers.
6
Content available Hackathon dla rozwoju otwartych innowacji w klastrze
PL
Artykuł jest skoncentrowany na wybranych zagadnieniach z zakresu stosowania hackathonu w kreowaniu otwartych innowacji w klastrze. Zaprezentowane w nim rozważania prowadzono głównie z zastosowaniem metody studium przypadku, analizy danych zastanych i klasycznego przeglądu literatury przedmiotu. Oprócz wprowadzenia i podsumowania artykuł składa się z czterech integralnych części, w których przedstawiono metodykę badań, scharakteryzowano istotę otwartych innowacji, strategiczny wymiar hackathonu oraz doświadczenia klastrowe w zakresie jego stosowania. Na podstawie wyników badań własnych wykazano, że kreowanie otwartych innowacji z zastosowaniem hackathonu w klastrach nie tylko kształtuje atrakcyjność inwestycyjną klastrów, ale także przyczynia się do budowy sprawnego regionalnego ekosystemu innowacji. W artykule zwrócono uwagę, że potencjał biznesowy i społeczny hackathonu dostarcza licznych korzyści istotnych z punktu widzenia rozwoju klastra. Ponadto podkreślono, że pomyślne zastosowanie hackathonu w kreowaniu otwartych innowacji stanowi przykład wyzwania strategicznego w zarządzaniu klastrem w warunkach turbulentnego otoczenia. Podjęta na gruncie nauk o zarządzaniu i jakości problematyka badań odnosi się do istoty przedsiębiorczości strategicznej i kreatywnej w gospodarce opartej na wiedzy.
EN
The article focuses on selected issues related to hackathon application in creating open innovation within a cluster. The considerations were based mainly on the case study method, desk research, and a literature review. In addition to the introduction and conclusion, it consists of three parts, which characterize the essence of open innovation, the strategic dimension of the hackathon and the cluster experiences with using of hackathon. Based on the results of own research, it was shown that creating open innovations using a hackathon in clusters not only shapes the investment attractiveness of clusters, but also contributes to the construction of an efficient regional innovation ecosyetm. The article draws attention to the fact that the business and social potential of the hackathon provides a wide range of benefits essential for cluster development. Moreover, it is emphasized that the successful application of the hackathon in process of creating open innovations is an example of a strategic challenge for cluster management in a turbulent environment. The research problem in the field of management and quality sciences, analyzed by the Authors as a part of the article is directly related to the essence of strategic and creative entrepreneurship within knowledge-based economy.
EN
Purpose: The aim of the presented investigations was to explore the possibilities of the effective use of the 8D method to improve the merchandise distribution processes. Design/methodology/approach: The application of the 8D method involved the use of support tools, such as 5Why or ABC. These tools helped to identify and categorize problems involved in the distribution of goods. Next, major problems and their causes were identified. The 8D method enabled establishing improvement, corrective and remedial actions. The last stage of the analysis was verifying the effectiveness of the implemented actions, which proved that the application of the 8D method to improve distribution processes was justified. Findings: The 8D method turned out to be an effective tool for solving problems identified in the distribution process, which proves its effective transfer from the automotive industry. Research limitations/implications: The correct use of the 8D method, which guarantees obtaining reliable and useful results, is only possible if an interdisciplinary research team is appointed. Such a team should consist of a leader and specialists from organizational units responsible for the process correctness. Small and medium-size companies may have insufficient resources to conduct investigations and analyses in a proper way. Practical implications: The discussed case study proves that it is possible to use advanced management methods in the company. Creating an efficient and experienced team should result in developing an effective mechanism for identifying the causes and solving problems in the company’s logistic processes. Originality/value: An original solution is implementation of the 8D method from the automotive industry to improve logistic processes.
EN
Purpose: The goal of the article was to try to reflect on the entrepreneurial process of discovery and its influence on sustainable regional development. Design/methodology/approach: In the article, a method of literature review was used. Findings: The article presents the theoretical analysis of the concept of smart specialisation and the entrepreneurial discovery process. The initiatives supporting the entrepreneurial discovery process were reviewed. Views were presented on the impact of the concept of smart specialisation on regional management.
EN
Purpose: The aim of this article is to analyze personal data protection requirements specifically in the context of the freight forwarding industry. Design/methodology/approach: This article looks into the legal regulation of personal data protection and examines its application by freight forwarding companies, taking into account the specific needs found in this industry. This article should provide managers with the knowledge of how to properly protect personal data while increasing this way the company's competitive edge on the market. By analyzing legally binding laws and explaining them in a comprehensive way, focusing on the needs of the freight forwarding industry and the way it handles personal data. Findings: The study revealed that the handling of personal data in the freight forwarding industry carries a high data risk theft. Moreover, a company in the freight forwarding industry can take on many roles in relation to personal data (i.e. controller, co-controller, or contract processor) and takes on the financial responsibility for that personal data. Originality/value: The article presents the processes of handling personal data by a freight forwarding company and a plan to be followed while it implementing of the rules of the GDPR. It is valuable for managers of the freight forwarding companies.
10
EN
Purpose: The aim of the article is to verify the dependencies between the implementation of open innovations as strategic companies' decisions and the achieved financial results. Design/methodology/approach: The paper contains three parts. In the first part the strategic decisions in enterprise management were presented. In the second part the open innovations as an instrument for implementing enterprise strategic decisions were shown. And in the last part of the paper the methods were described. In this part of the paper the verification of dependencies between the implementation of open innovations and achieved financial results were presented. The whole of the paper is closed by the discussion and summary. Findings: The article shows the topic concerned with open innovations with regard to the strategic decisions of enterprises. It has been shown that the implementation of open innovation in an enterprise affects its financial result. Originality/value: The issues of implementing open innovations in logistics enterprises are important and current due to their impact on the financial results of the surveyed enterprises.
EN
Purpose: The article attempts to determine what contemporary globalization is and what opportunities and threats this process creates (in terms of global threats to enterprise information systems). Design/methodology/approach: The management of information security and counteracting cyber-attacks is an important aspect of the functioning of enterprises in the 21st century. In this sense, this article will analyse the threats resulting from the dynamic development of information technology, based on the results of research conducted on a sample of Polish enterprises. Findings: This publication is an attempt to identify the basic threats resulting from the fact that the organization operates in a digitized global reality. Research limitations/implications: It seems that the threats mentioned in the article will be gaining momentum and will be evaluated in the unpredictable today direction. Social implications: The 21st century brought a completely new look at the processes of globalization and management of a modern enterprise. It turns out that information has become the basic tool of competitive struggle in the global market. For this reason, the management of information security and counteracting cyber-attacks is an important aspect of the functioning of enterprises in the 21st century. Originality/value: The article addresses current problems of cyberspace security in the context of globalization. It can be useful for company managers as well as for conducting research in this field.
EN
Purpose: The main reason for writing the article is to demonstrate the impact of knowledge management on the functioning of public administration. Multiprocessing in this respect in public administration means that knowledge management has a wide dimension. Design/methodology/approach: The article is theoretical, its purpose is to explain the essence of the issue, which is knowledge, and to give an example of knowledge management in the context of human resource management at a state university. The theoretical scope of work includes broadly understood knowledge, its management in public administration. Findings: In the context of achieving the objectives of the article are: - public administration has been shown to focus on finding and accumulating areas of knowledge, - explained what is effective knowledge management in public administration and what processes take place in it, - features of knowledge-oriented public administration were indicated, - categories of knowledge in public organizations are discussed in detail, - an example of knowledge management at a university in the context of human resources was given. Social implications: During the work on the article, the importance of the need to deepen knowledge by each member of the public organization was recognized so that it was current, broad, i.e. covering various aspects, true and bringing the expected results or solutions. Originality/value: The novelty and innovation of the article may be the author's suggestions on how to effectively manage knowledge of public administration staff.
EN
Purpose: The main purpose of the article is to identify the economic conditions for the development of smart cities in Poland and their changes over time. Design/methodology/approach: To achieve this goal, the first part of the article presents the distinguishing features of a smart city. Then, in national and international terms, the regions in which such units develop most dynamically and most often are indicated. In the second part of the article, the analysis of economic conditions is limited to Poland in the Voivodeship system. In the course of the study, budget data of Polish communes from 2003-2017 are used. The study covers the level of income per capita, as well as property and investment expenses, while looking for regularities and features that predispose a given region for creating smart cities. At the end, tips are formulated with the orientation both at supporting the idea of developing smart cities in Poland and preventing economic exclusion of those regions that are currently not actively participating in their creation. Findings: The incomes of communes in Poland in all researched Voivodeships in the years 2003-2017 systematically increased. The overall increase in the value of income per capita over the fifteen year research period ranged from 78% to almost 120%. However, the fastest income growth rate concerned Voivodeships with the largest number of smart cities (already existing and listed in international rankings and classifications) and the highest absolute income per capita. These were the Masovian and Pomeranian Voivodeships, which, in connection with the above, can be considered the most entitled to create smart cities in Poland. Originality/value: The research on financial aspects of smart cities development is rarely analyzed in literature and practice, therefore the results and conclusions fill the existing gap and contribute to municipal economics and management, especially in Poland.
EN
Purpose: The purpose of the article is to analyse the most significant factors determining the implementation of CSR within an enterprise on the example of socially responsible entities highlighted in the “Równa Firma” ranking, organized every year by students and employees of the Faculty of Economics, Finance and Management of the University of Szczecin, affiliated with the Biznes Innowacje Networking Foundation. Design/methodology/approach: This is a research paper, in which the author utilized the survey method. The research was carried out among 25 enterprises awarded with honourable mentions by the committee in the “Równa Firma” ranking in 2018. Findings: The article addresses the issues related to determinants of the implementation of the concept of corporate social responsibility. It is worth noting, that many motives for the use of CSR are presented in both Polish and foreign literature. The article focuses on the factors which have an impact on implementation of the concept of CSR on the basis of own surveys. Research limitations/implications: The results of the research cannot be generalised, but can form a basis for further deliberations. They shed certain light on possible main determinants of implementation of the concept of corporate social responsibility in some enterprises. In the future, it is suggested to perform similar research on the presented topics in a larger group of enterprises. Originality/value: This paper provides research results on the most significant factors determining the implementation of CSR in chosen enterprises of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland.
EN
Purpose: The purpose of the article is to review two important issues within management and quality sciences, namely capital management and risk management. Design/methodology/approach: Due to the cognitive nature of the article, the aim of the work will be achieved using the method of analyzing the literature on the subject. Literature studies include Polish and foreign publications. Findings: The conducted literature analysis has shown that sources dealing with capital management issues and the cost of capital treat the problem of risk very casually. Similarly, in publications referring to the issue of risk, it rarely refers to capital and its cost. This paper indicates the need for a comprehensive approach to these two issues, indicating the close relationship between them that occurs in the field of management and quality sciences. Research limitations/implications: The research presented in the article is theoretical and may contribute to further empirical research. Practical implications: The practical implications of the conducted research are associated with the possibility of their application for the needs of management decisions in enterprises. Originality/value: A review of the literature on the subject shows that the issues of capital management and risk management are often treated separately and undertaken as independent research areas. This article indicates the need for a comprehensive approach to capital management and risk management and their consideration. The author proves that management decisions regarding raising capital result in a specific cost of capital. This in turn largely depends on the level of risk associated with investing in the enterprise.
EN
Purpose: Corporate Social Responsibility should have its origin in law enforcement and consist in the implementation of additional, voluntary practices, reaching further than statutory obligations. These practices should be permanent, strategic, long-term, they are to support the development of enterprises in different areas of operation. The objective of this article is an attempt to present the results of the research into practices of corporate social responsibility in management processes of contemporary enterprises located in southern Poland in the Silesian Voivodeship. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical research was conducted on the basis of anonymous data obtained from the surveys. The target group of the surveyed enterprises was the entities established in the area of southern Poland in the Silesian Voivodeship. Findings: The surveyed enterprises seem to partially take into account corporate social responsibility as the concept of management of business entities, according to which enterprises conduct business activities taking into account not only own profits but also social and environmental interests in their surrounding. The idea and the principles of corporate social responsibility, at the level of the surveyed companies forming logistic structures, while constituting the link of the supply chain, marginally related to raising the awareness of their operations, both leading to the maintenance of relationships with business partners and the actions oriented towards the inside of the organization. Originality/value: This paper provides research results on CSR practices in enterprises of southern Poland, taking into account logistics area and analysis of selected correlations.
EN
The aim of the article is to present the essence of sustainable human resource management and attempt to answer the question of whether enterprises actually use the concept of the sustainable management of human resources in business management to achieve sustainable development. This is why the following research question was chosen for the study: “Is the concept of sustainable human resource management important in achieving sustainable development of an enterprise?” Verification of the research question and the realisation of the stated goal were made on the basis of a critical analysis of the source literature and a case study. In striving to achieve the research goal, the first part of the article presents the essence of sustainable human resource management; the second part presents a case study. This paper concludes with the applications in which the research question was confirmed. Enterprises choose a strategy for human resource management, depending on the following: the situation in the labour market, the economic situation, legal regulations, demographics, changes in technology in a given enterprise, the activities of both the employers’ and employees’ organisations, as well as self-governing bodies, employment agencies or personnel consulting firms and the capital owned by the organisation. The results of this study have shown that enterprises actually use the concept of the sustainable management of human resources in business management to achieve sustainable development.
18
Content available remote Impact of micro-stoppages on overall equipment effectiveness measure
EN
The basic activity carried out in the aluminium sections manufacturing market is the extrusion process. The large demand for aluminium products makes it very important for entrepreneurs to achieve the highest possible production effectiveness, expressed in product tons manufactured within a unit of time. The recognition of the factors affecting the machine operation time losses is a valuable source of information that creates the opportunity to introduce changes improving production effectiveness. One of the identified factors affecting production effectiveness, specified through the OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) measure, are micro-stoppages, the impact of which is rarely noticeable due to the difficulty in their recording. However, it is extremely important due to the total machine operation time losses. For the purpose of analysing micro-stoppages in selected machines in this paper, the authors used testing tools for the quantitative statistical analysis as well as Pareto charts.
PL
Samorząd terytorialny w ramach przyznanej prawem samodzielności realizuje zadania publiczne także w zakresie ochrony dziedzictwa kulturowego, które wynikają ze źródeł obowiązującego powszechnie w Polsce prawa. Konieczne jest, aby ochrona dziedzictwa kulturowego była efektywna. Dziedzictwo kultury musi być sprawnie zarządzane przez organy administracji publicznej, w tym organy jednostek samorządu terytorialnego. Na płaszczyźnie normatywnej sprawność działania administracji samorządowej powinna być poddana ocenie poprzez analizę treści przepisów, z których dekodowane są normy prawne wyznaczające cele i zadania poszczególnych organów jednostek samorządu terytorialnego w obszarze dziedzictwa kultury. Celem artykułu jest analiza norm prawnych wynikających ze źródeł prawa pod kątem sprawnego zarządzania dziedzictwem kultury przez jednostki samorządu terytorialnego, a także sformułowanie uwag de lege lata oraz de lege ferenda w tym zakresie.
EN
The local government, in the domain of its inde-pendence as given by law, performs public tasks, including in the scope of the cultural heritage, which comes from the legal source materials which are commonly in force in Poland. It is necessary for cultural heritage protection to be effective. Cul-tural heritage should be efficiently managed by the public government, especially by local government. From a prescriptive point of view, the efficiency of the local government should be verified by analysis of the content of regulations, which are sources of legal norms that define the aims and tasks of local government bodies in the area of cultural heritage. The aim of the paper is to analyze the regulations coming from sources of law which are commonly in force in Poland in terms of efficient cultural heritage management. It also includes remarks de lege lata and de lege ferenda for the field in question.
20
Content available remote Wzrost ryzyka jako determinanta celowości wprowadzania innowacji w logistyce
PL
Sukces oraz rozwój przedsiębiorstwa zależy od wielu czynników ekonomicznych, społecznych, technicznych itp. Chcąc je osiągnąć, przedsiębiorstwa śledzą najnowsze trendy w zarządzaniu logistyką i łańcuchem dostaw oraz odpowiednio je wdrażają. W ostatnich latach można zaobserwować pewne zjawiska odwracające dotychczasowe trendy masowego wprowadzania innowacyjnych rozwiązań w logistyce. Obserwowane, dynamiczne zmiany otoczenia mają bezpośredni lub pośredni wpływ na podwyższenie zagrożeń w działalności gospodarczej – w tym w logistyce – powodując, iż firmy często z większą uwagą przyglądają się wdrażanym strategiom pod kątem zwiększonego ryzyka działalności.
EN
The success and development of a company depends on many economic, social and technical factors, etc. To achieve it, the companies follow the latest trends in logistics and supply chain management and implement them accordingly. In recent years, certain phenomena have been observed that reverse the current trends of mass introduction of innovative solutions in logistics. The observed, dynamic changes in the environment have a direct or indirect impact on the increased risks in business activities – including logistics – causing that companies often pay more attention to the implemented strategies in terms of increased business risk.
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