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1
Content available Globalna gospodarka energetyczna na przykładzie USA
PL
Artykuł jest skoncentrowany na analizie gospodarki energetycznej USA pod względem zaspokajania potrzeb i zaopatrzenia w energię elektryczną przemysłu oraz społeczeństwa. Pokazuje alternatywne metody rozwiązania problemu energetycznego oraz porównuje koszty generowania energii elektrycznej pozyskanych z różnych źródeł. Zawiera również analizę szans i zagrożeń związanych z uzależnieniem sektora energetycznego od poszczególnych źródeł energii. Artykuł ocenia wpływ sprawności energetycznej urządzeń na gospodarkę energią. Zawiera praktyczne wnioski i rekomendacje dla gospodarki energetycznej w skali globalnej.
EN
The article focuses on the analysis of the USA energy economy in terms of meeting the needs and the demands for electricity by industry and society. It shows alternative methods of solving the energy problem and compares the costs of generating electricity obtained from various sources. It also includes an analysis of opportunities and threats related to the dependence of the energy sector on individual energy sources. The article assesses the impact of energy efficiency of the equipment on energy management. It contains practical conclusions and recommendations for the energy economy on a global scale.
2
Content available Methods and Proposals for Meeting Energy Needs
EN
The article includes a comparative analysis of different methods of solving energy problems especially meeting the demand for electricity. Energy problems became a global concern due to the rapid increase in the world population. Energy consumption reflects the habits of the society and the nature of the economy. The focus of the article is the analysis of the United States (USA) energy economy in terms of meeting the needs of industry and society. It includes a comparison of costs of generating electricity obtained from various sources. It also includes an analysis of opportunities and threats related to the energy sector’s dependence on individual energy sources. Meeting the demand for electricity cannot be solved by increasing only the energy generation. The cost of increasing electricity production is always higher compared to increasing energy efficiency. The impact of energy efficiency of devices on energy management was also assessed. The publication also contains practical conclusions and recommendations regarding energy management on a global scale.
EN
Renewable energy from solar power plants is becoming more and more popular due to the depletion of raw materials and reduction of dependence on oil and gas and is also harmless to the natural environment. The management and rational use of land resources is currently a pressing problem in the world, including in Ukraine. One of the solutions is the development of technologies for the use of these areas and the establishment of environmentally friendly technologies for reducing air pollution, namely electricity facilities – solar power plants based on the use of photovoltaic panels. Choosing the right location for obtaining solar energy depends on many factors and constraints. Optimal location of solar farms is important to maximize the beneficial features of projects while minimizing the negative. A method of finding places in the vicinity of large cities that could be suitable for installing power plants was developed. The proposed method uses an analytical hierarchical process, analytical network process, Boolean logic and weighted linear combination. It has been implemented in the QGIS program. The method was successfully used for the city of Zaporizhia, but it can be directly implemented in any other region. That is why the presented works constitute a scheme that can be easily used to estimate large areas in order to optimally choose a place for a solar park in the vicinity of large cities. Such a model can be very useful for investors to find potential locations for solar energy before conducting detailed field research.
EN
Pulverizing system is an important part in the clean and efficient utilization of coal in thermal power plant, and the optimal control of the system is an important way to achieve this goal. This paper presents a stair-like multivariable generalized predictive control scheme for a pulverizing system. This control scheme focuses on the problem of predictive control algorithm in practical application, and integrates the feedforward experience in traditional control schemes of pulverizing system. Simulation results showed that the scheme are able to realize the decoupling control of the pulverizing system, avoid the problem of matrix inversion, reduce the amount of calculation, and has certain engineering application value.
EN
The operation of large power plants, including power stations, and combined heat and power stations, causes the emission of significant amounts of gaseous pollutants into the environment. As a result, in the urban and agricultural areas occurs a pollution of undesirable gaseous substances, such as nitrogen and sulfur oxides. This is especially dangerous for living organisms, soil and water, because, in combination with water vapor, these pollutants are the cause of acid rain. In addition, nitrogen oxides participate in the formation of ground-level ozone, which affects both human health and the condition of existing vegetation. Therefore, the distribution of air pollutants (NO2, SO2 and O3) in the selected urban and rural areas, under the influence of power plants, located in the Lodz Voivodeship, in Poland, in Central-Eastern Europe, was analyzed for a 10-year period (2007-2016). As a result, it was possible to evaluate the impact of the entry into force of Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008 “on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe” on the changes in emissions and concentrations of pollutants in selected locations. As a result of the analysis, a significant decrease in the concentration of SO2 (by 75% in the urban area and by 59% in the rural area), and small changes (from - 8% to + 12%) in NO2 and O3 concentrations in ambient air were found. This indicates the effectiveness of actions aimed at reducing SO2 emissions, however the influence of the power plants on the concentration of air pollutants in these areas is not clear. At the same time, considering the criterion of permissible concentration of ozone and nitrogen dioxide, although the air quality did not improve, the air quality index can be considered as being in the category of "good".
PL
Przeanalizowano dalszy rozwój krajowego sektora wytwarzania energii elektrycznej na tle fundamentalnych zmian w energetyce światowej. Artykuł jest próbą odpowiedzi na wyzwania inwestycyjne z uwzględnieniem z jednej strony krajowych zasobów paliw kopalnych, z drugiej zaś polityki klimatyczno-energetycznej Unii Europejskiej. Odniesiono się do kwestii kierunku inwestowania: w nowe bloki wielkoskalowe lub w rewitalizację istniejących bloków klasy 200 MW dla przedłużenia ich okresu eksploatacji w warunkach głębokiej regulacji i częstych uruchomień. Wskazano możliwości istotnego ograniczenia emisji CO2 drogą dywersyfikacji krajowego parku elektrowni z uwzględnieniem odnawialnych źródeł energii, elektrowni gazowych i jądrowych.
EN
Analysed is further development of the domestic electricity generation sector against fundamental changes in the world power industry. An attempt is made to respond to investment challenges taking into account, on the one hand, domestic fossil fuel resources and, on the other hand, the European Union’s climate and energy policy. Reference is made to the issue of investment directions i.e. whether to invest into new large scale supercritical blocks or into revitalization of the existing 200 MW class units to extend their service life under conditions of deep regulation and frequent start-ups. Indicated are possibilities to achieve significant reduction of CO2 emission by diversification of the national power plant park taking into account renewable energy sources as well as the gas and nuclear power plants.
PL
The cogeneration power unit in the enterprise heating is presented. It has nominal electric power of 7.36 MW and the thermal power of 22 MW, launched in December 2008. The solution choice was the result of technical and economic analyzes carried out in the company. It discusses also the history of the unit building. It summarizes more than 4-years operation of the unit - the expected results have been achieved and even exceeded.
EN
The article presents the results of Transvarestraint test of a modern precipitation hardened steel X10CrNiCuNb18-9-3 with copper. For comparison, the results of tests of conventional steel without the addition of copper X5CrNi18-10 are presented. The total length of all cracks and the maximum length of cracks were measured. The study of microstructure (LM, SEM) showed that the austenitic stainless steel X10CrNiCuNb18-9-3 is very prone to hot cracking. After performing the Transvarestraint tests three types of cracks were observed: solidification cracks occurring during crystallization, liquation cracks due to segregation in the heat affected zone (HAZ) and surface cracks. Niobium carbonitrides dispersed in the bands of segregation are the reason of high susceptibility to liquation cracking. Segregation of copper occurring during solidification causes of surface cracking. A combined effect of copper and stresses contributes to formation of hot microcracks. These microcracks propagate to a depth of 20-30 μm.
9
PL
Leksykon odnawialnych źródeł energii z uwzględnieniem energii wodnej, przybliża nazewnictwo wraz z uporządkowaniem tematyki dotyczącej zagospodarowania energii kinetycznej i potencjalnej, co skutkować będzie poprawą ochrony środowiska (brak zanieczyszczeń). Polska ze względu na stosunkowo małe zasoby wód powierzchniowych w porównaniu do pozostałych państw europejskich ma ograniczone możliwości pozyskiwania odnawialnej energii z zasobów wody. Dlatego też należy zwiększyć m.in. retencjonowanie wody w zbiornikach wodnych, szczególnie zaporowych.
EN
The lexicon of renewable energy sources, including hydropower, popularises relevant terminology and orders the topics concerning the management of potential and kinetic energy of water, which may result in an improved environment protection (lack of pollution). Because of a relatively small area of its surface waters in comparison with other European countries Poland has a limited possibility to get renewable energy from water resources. This is the reason we should increase, among other things, the retention of water in reservoirs, especially dam reservoirs.
10
Content available An overview of methods for wave energy conversion
EN
Legal and economic aspects connected with generating electricity from waves are discussed and a classification of wave energy converters is shown. The study discusses selected technical solutions generating electricity from sea and ocean waves. Research directions of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Poland, are presented in terms of energy conversion from wave energy into electricity and using sea wave energy for coast protection against waves. The potential of waves as a renewable energy source (in Europe and outside) is evaluated and problems connected with implementing wave energy conversion systems are outlined.
PL
Artykuł przedstawia uwarunkowania Polski po podpisaniu Protokołu z Kioto i następnych ustaleń wynikających z pakietów klimatyczno-energetycznych przyjętych przez UE w kontekście konieczności dostosowania polskiej energetyki węglowej do wymagań tych zapisów. Przedstawiono stan emisji i redukcji emisji CO2 w Polsce, UE i świecie. Stan ten pokazuje, że Europa jest na czele peletonu z redukcją CO2, a nasz kraj w latach 1988–2014 zredukował emisję tego gazu o blisko 35%, co jest wynikiem najlepszym w UE. Polityka klimatyczna UE wyznacza kolejne wyzwania w 2030 i 2050 roku. Dla spełnienia tych wyzwań Polska winna oprócz wprowadzania OZE zmodernizować podstawową część energetyki, tj. energetykę węglową. Dzisiejsza sprawność netto obecnej energetyki węglowej to 33–34%. Należy iść drogą niemiecką i zdecydowanie przyspieszyć budowę bloków energetycznych o sprawności 46 lub więcej procent. Na tym tle omówiono stan energetyki krajowej oraz zamierzenia inwestycyjne w nowoczesne węglowe bloki energetyczne w Polsce i w Niemczech. Nasi sąsiedzi na przełomie XX i XXI wieku zdecydowanie zwiększyli sprawność (wybudowali kilkanaście nowoczesnych) swoich elektrowni opalanych tak węglem brunatnym, jak i kamiennym. Należy wspomnieć, że w Niemczech pierwsze bloki o sprawności netto powyżej 40% zaczęły pracować na przełomie lat 80./90. XX wieku, a u nas po prawie 20 latach, tj. pod koniec I dekady XXI wieku (Gabryś 2014/2015; Kasztelewicz 2013; Kasztelewicz 2014/2015).
EN
The article presents the Polish conditions after the signing of the Kyoto Protocol and subsequent findings of the climate and energy package adopted by the EU in the context of the need to adjust Polish coal power to the requirements of these provisions. Presents the state of emissions and reduction of CO2 emissions in Poland, the EU and in the world. This state shows that Europe is ahead of the pack with a reduction of CO2 and our country during the years 1988 and 2014 reduced the emission of this gas nearly 35%, which is the best result in the EU. The EU climate policy sets more challenges on the horizon of 2030 and 2050 years. To meet these challenges Poland should (except implementing renewable energy) modernize the basic part of the energy, ie. coal energy. The current net efficiency of coal energy is 33–34%. We should take advantage of the German way and speed up a construction of power station with an efficiency of 46% or more percent. Against this background, it discusses the state of national energy and investment plans in a modern coal power stations in Poland and Germany. Our neighbours at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries have boosted efficiency by building a lot of modern power station burning lignite and hard coal. It should be noted that in Germany first power stations of the net efficiency above 40% started to work at the turn of the 80’s and 90’s of the 20th century and in Poland after nearly 20 years, ie. at the end of the first decade of the 21st century (Gabryś 2014/2015; Kasztelewicz 2013; Kasztelewicz 2014/2015).
PL
W Polsce największym konsumentem węgla kamiennego jest energetyka zawodowa. W latach 2007–2013 jej udział w zużyciu ogółem wyniósł 53–56% (40,4–47,5 mln ton). Ze względu na duże zapotrzebowanie ze strony tego sektora do przewozu węgla najczęściej wykorzystywanym rodzajem transportu jest kolej. W artykule skupiono się na oszacowaniu kosztów dostawy węgla do elektrowni. Dla wybranych poziomów cen zużytego węgla w elektrowni (od 8,0 do 12,5 zł/GJ), oszacowano udział kosztów jego dostaw, dla kilku poziomów odległości transportowych (od 20 do 400 km). Stawki transportowe zaczerpnięto z taryfy PKP Cargo obowiązującej w 2014 roku. Ceny węgla oraz koszty jego transportu obliczono dla dwóch przykładowych kaloryczności: 21 i 23 MJ/kg (ok. 5000 i 5500 kcal/kg). Wyniki obliczeń zaprezentowano w dwuwymiarowych tabelach. Na przykład, przy cenie węgla kamiennego zużytego przez elektrownię rzędu 11 zł/GJ oraz zastosowaniu 60% rabatu przewozowego, udział kosztów transportu dla węgla o kaloryczności 21 MJ/kg (ok. 5000 kcal/kg) zmienia się od 7 do 20%, a dla kaloryczności 23 MJ/kg (ok. 5500 kcal/kg) – od 7 do 18%
EN
In Poland, the largest consumer of hard coal is the energy sector. In the years 2007–2013 its share of the total domestic consumption amounted to 53–56% (40,4–47,5 million tons). Because of the high demand from the transport sector, the most frequently hard coal is transported by rail. The article focuses on assessing the cost of coal supply to power plants. For the selected price levels hard coal consumed by the power plant (from 8.0 to 12.5 zł/GJ) was estimated share of the costs of its deliveries for several levels of transport distances (from 20 to 400 km). Transport rates taken from PKP Cargo tariffs in force in 2014. Prices of coal and the transport costs are calculated for two exemplary calorific value: 21 and 23 MJ/kg (approx. 5,000 and 5,500 kcal/kg). The results of calculation are presented in two-dimensional tables. For example, when the price of hard coal consumed by the power plant is 11 zł/GJ, and the use of 60% discount of the transport, the share of coal transport a calorific value of 21 MJ/kg (approx. 5,000 kcal/kg) varies from 7 to 20% and the calorific value 23 MJ/kg (approx. 5,500 kcal/kg) – from 7 to 18%.
13
Content available remote Environmental management with the use of LCA in the Polish energy system
EN
The article presents an assessment of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and pointed out its advantages in the analysis of the environmental impact of electricity generation. The article also points to the direction of development of the Polish energy sector and pointed out the need to determine the environmental risks associated with the production of electricity. The use of coal and lignite as the primary fuel causes a significant burden on the environment. An analysis by the method of LCA based on data obtained from two Polish power plants. The results were compared and identified the cause of the existing differences in the results obtained. The article sets out the actions that contributed to reduce the negative impact on the environment, taking place during the production of electricity.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono ocenę cyklu życia (Life Cycle Assessment - LCA) oraz wskazano na jej zalety podczas analizy wpływu na środowisko wytwarzania energii elektrycznej. W artykule wskazano również na kierunki rozwoju polskiego sektora energetycznego oraz wskazano na konieczność określania zagrożeń środowiskowych związanych z wytwarzaniem energii elektrycznej. Wykorzystanie węgla kamiennego oraz brunatnego jako podstawowego paliwa powoduje znaczne obciążenie środowiska. Przeprowadzono również analizę za pomocą metody LCA na podstawie danych uzyskanych z dwóch polskich elektrowni. Wyniki badań porównano oraz wskazano na przyczynę występujących różnic w osiągniętych wynikach. W artykule określono działania, które przyczyniły się do zmniejszenia negatywnego wpływu na środowisko, mającego miejsce podczas wytwarzania energii elektrycznej.
EN
The paper presents a comparison of selected power technologies from the point of view of emissions of greenhouse gases. Such evaluation is most often based only on analysis of direct emissions from combustion. However, the direct analysis does not show full picture of the problem as significant emissions of GHG appear also in the process of mining and transportation of fuel. It is demonstrated in the paper that comparison of power technologies from the GHG point of view has to be done using the cumulative calculus covering the whole cycle of fuel mining, processing, transportation and end-use. From this point of view coal technologies are in comparable level as gas technologies while nuclear power units are characterised with lowest GHG emissions. Mentioned technologies are compared from the point of view of GHG emissions in full cycle. Specific GHG cumulative emission factors per unit of generated electricity are determined. These factors have been applied to simulation of the influence of introduction of nuclear power units on decrease of GHG emissions in domestic scale. Within the presented simulations the prognosis of domestic power sector development according to the Polish energy policy till 2030 has been taken into account. The profitability of introduction of nuclear power units from the point of view of decreasing GHG emissions has been proved.
15
EN
This article presents professional activity of Krzysztof Jesionek within the background of his personal career in the field of heat and power engineering on Wrocław University of Technology. In particular, we present stages of scientific and professional development with an emphasis on nature Professor Jesionek’s career main driving forces as a result of his cooperation with industry and power engineering.
PL
Przedstawiono najbardziej zaawansowaną pod względem technologicznym metodę absorpcji chemicznej CO2 w procesach PCC (post combustion capture). Program badawczy w obszarze technologii CCS obejmujący kompleksowe badanie sorbentów aminowych oraz procesów absorpcji i desorpcji został zrealizowany w skali laboratoryjnej, półtechnicznej i pilotowej przez Instytut Chemicznej Przeróbki Węgla we współpracy z Tauron Polska Energia SA i Tauron Wytwarzanie SA. Przedstawiono niektóre zagadnienia projektowe pierwszej w Polsce przewoźnej instalacji pilotowej aminowego usuwania CO2 ze spalin. Zaprezentowano wybrane wyniki badań sprawności procesu i zapotrzebowania cieplnego procesu desorpcji.
EN
A process for absorption of CO2 in aq. solns. of NH2 C2 H4 OH (20 or 30% by mass) was developed and checked under lab. and semi-tech. scale conditions. The knowledge and experience about the process allowed to design and build the CO2 capture mobile pilot plant. Some operational problems (corrosion, sepn. of residues) were also dissolved.
EN
The paper presents results of analysis of failures of high power induction motors installed in utility power plants and combined heat and power plants.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki analizy uszkodzeń silników indukcyjnych dużej mocy prądu przemiennego, zainstalowanych w elektrowniach zawodowych i elektrociepłowniach.
PL
Nie ma wątpliwości, że Polska gospodarka w perspektywie najbliższych kilkunastu lat musi przestawić się na niskoemisyjne źródła energii. W przeciwnym razie kraj czeka wzrost kosztów energii elektrycznej spowodowany koniecznością zakupu uprawnień do emisji CO2, co będzie prowadzić do spadku konkurencyjności polskich przedsiębiorstw. Modernizacja instalacji wynika również z polityki klimatycznej, której głównym celem, jest wspieranie i działanie na rzecz rozwoju gospodarki i przekształcania jej na niskoemisyjną. Modernizacja energetyki jest konieczna, i powinna się skupić przede wszystkim na inwestycjach w lokalne źródła energii, czyli na energetykę rozproszoną. Ale nie tylko, ponieważ powinniśmy również wdrażać innowacyjne technologie przemysłowe, zużywające mniej energii i surowców.
EN
The Polish energy sector is perceived as obsolete and thus requires new investments to meet growing demand, keeping at the same time its negative impact on the environment at similar level. This requirement also results from the necessity to comply with EU Climate Package, which aims to: decrease negative influence of the energy sector on the environment (most of all emissions of greenhouse gases), diversify the energy-mix as well as reduce Polish dependency on imported energy. Poland needs to refurbish its energy generation capacities, to modernize and develop existing industrial and transmission facilities. This is going to be possible through investments in new power units; as well as replacement of existing ones with new energy sources. Plans regarding this issue already exist and are very ambitious – according to governmental announcements Poland plans to spend nearly 100 billion PLN in upcoming years. Most expenditure will be directed to renewables, such as wind generation and solar generation (photovoltaic), but also to construction of natural gas power units or low emission hard coal installations.
19
Content available remote Boundary conditions in models of power plant components under thermal loading
EN
Purpose: The main purpose of the work is the description of conditions of fatigue process of power plant components working under mechanical and thermal loading. The work focuses on the chosen component characteristics. The issue of influence of the heat transfer conditions on the component surface on stresses changes in time has been discussed. Design/methodology/approach: The FEM modelling method has been used to describe the behaviour of the chosen component. The models have been validated on the basis of temperature measurements during operation period. Findings: It has been shown that the determination of the effects induced by unsteady conditions of start-up and shut-down of installations requires application of unconventional methods of research and analysis of their results. In such a case, a methodology can be applied consisting in combining the methods of computer modelling of temperature fields with temperature measurements in selected points of the component. Research limitations/implications: The presented analysis is the part of the complex investigation method which main purpose is increasing the accuracy of the thermo-mechanical fatigue process description. In such situation the investigations curried out in the work give the model approach and data for the comparison the real behaviour with the predictions. However the work is focused only on the chosen component and chosen characteristics of loading. Practical implications: The method of the chosen component behaviour analysis used in the paper could be useful in the practical cases when the real components mechanical behaviour would be analysed and their fatigue life would be assessed. Originality/value: The main value of this paper is the own method of the mechanical behaviour analysis of the power plant components. This method includes FEM modelling and assumption that the heat transfer coefficient should be treated as dependent on time. The material stress-strain behaviour has been treated as the local phenomenon that could be modelled.
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