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EN
We assess if survey of containers discarded by people (and collected within environmental cleanup actions) may be an useful method in detection of small mammal species and how different parameters of containers affect mammal mortality. The discarded containers without stoppers were collected from two sites (one forest and one agricultural) in western Poland. In 13 bottles (out of 288 collected containers), 58 specimens belonging to 10 species were found. Remains were found mostly in color glass bottles with mouth diameter 18-31 mm and 0.5-5.0 l capacity. We detected only six small mammal species during four short-term live-trapping sessions performed in the same sites. Thus, we suggest that the survey of discarded bottles may be an efficient complement to traditional scientific methods (as live-trapping), which can be performed by both specialists and amateurs, who, at the same time, would clean the environment of the ecological traps.
2
Content available remote Porcelanowy „złośnik” ze Ślůnska
EN
The study was conducted in the Pomological Orchard of the Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice on a plantation of blackcurrant cultivar ‘Tiben’. The following variants of the experiment were applied: control – NPK fertilization only, mulching with a peat substrate, shredded pine bark, sawdust of coniferous trees, bovine manure, plant compost, straw of cereals, and application of mycorrhizal inoculant MYKOFLOR. Mulching was performed each year in the spring in an amount of 25 dm3 per plot, and the inoculum was applied in an amount of 10 ml per shrub. Samples for acarological examinations were collected at 4 times, in the spring and autumn of successive seasons in 2012-2013. An increase in the overall density of mites, in comparison with the control surface, was observed after mulching the soil with sawdust of coniferous trees and plant compost. On all the plots, the communities of mites were dominated by mites of the order oribatid mites. For these mites, a statistically significant increase density was recorded after mulching the soil with sawdust of coniferous trees, bovine manure and plant compost. Mulching did not increase significantly the species diversity of oribatid mites. The soil of the blackcurrant plantation was found to be inhabited by relatively large numbers of two common oribatid mites species: Punctoribates punctum and Tectocepheus velatus. An increase in the population density of Punctoribates punctum was observed after mulching with peat, sawdust and compost.
EN
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to evaluate the development efficiency of classical steel thermochemical treatment. The criterion assumed for dividing the technologies into groups was the thermochemical treatment kind. Three technology groups were selected to realised researches, as follows: nitriding, carburising and diffusion boriding. Design/methodology/approach: In the framework of foresight-materials science researches: a group of matrices characterising technology strategic position was created, materials science experiments using: light microscope, transmission and scanning electron microscopes, X-ray diffractometer, microhardness tester, work-stands for testing of thermal fatigue resistance and mechanical fatigue strength, abrasion and corrosion resistance were conducted and technology roadmaps were prepared. Findings: The outcarried researches pointed out the great industrial importance of nitriding and carburising and good perspectives for these technology groups. However, diffusion boriding is obsolete and will slowly leave the market. Research limitations/implications: Researches concerning steel thermochemical treatment constitute a part of a larger research project aimed at identifying, researching, and characterizing the priority innovative technologies in the field of materials surface engineering. Practical implications: Nitriding and carburising with their popularity and good quality-price relation can be recommended for use in small and medium enterprises. Obsolete diffusion boriding is not recommended for that. Originality/value: The value of this paper is to evaluate the value of thermochemical treatment technologies in the background environment with their future development perspectives determination including the influence of thermochemical treatment on the quality, microstructure and properties of surface layers obtained by thermochemical treatment.
5
Content available remote Stereology of carbide phase in modified hypereutectic chromium cast iron
EN
In paper are presented results of studies of carbide phase stereology modified hypereutectic wear resistance chromium cast iron which contains carbon about 3,5% and chromium about 25%. Three substances were applied to the modification: boron carbide (B4C), ferroniobium (FeNb) and mixture of ferroniobium and rare-earth (RE). The measurements of geometrical features of carbides were conducted on microsection taken from castings which were cooled with various velocities.
EN
The unique stand to founding dilatometric samples ("on ready”) which solidify with different cooling speeds was presented. The dilatometric investigations, X-ray, metallographic they disclosed the occurrence in matrix of chromium cast iron of considerable quantity of austenite in dependence from concentration of chromium (18% and 23%) and the speed of solidification. Castings these despite large part of austenite mark with high hardness in raw state.
8
Content available remote Wear resistance of chromium cast iron - research and application
EN
Purpose: A short characteristic of wear resistance chromium cast iron has been presented as well as possibilities of this material researches realization in Foundry Department have been discussed. Design/methodology/approach: Main attention was given on research process of crystallization and analysis of chromium cast iron microstructure and its resistance on erosion wears. Separate part of paper was devoted to discuss the bimetallic castings with chromium cast iron layer as well as typical applications of chromium cast iron castings in minig, proccesing, metallurgical and power industry. Findings: The new method of crystallization process research with three testers (DTA-K3) was found in the work. The method makes possible to characterize sensitivity of chromium cast iron on cooling kinetic. Research limitations/implications: DTA-K3 method can be used for research of crystallization proccess of cast materials particularly for abrasion-resisting alloy. Practical implications: Wide scope researches of chromium cast iron in Foundry Department enable extending applications its material in many industries. Originality/value: Value of the paper is the presentation of researches possibilities which undertaken in Foundry Department within the range of wear resistant materials.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań wpływu obróbki cieplnej na wybrane własności (twardość i udarność) staliwa chromowego odpornego na ścieranie.
EN
In this paper the results of research select properties (hardness and impact resistance) of wear resistance chromium cast steel has been presented.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono fragment badań wytopów stopowego staliwa konstrukcyjnego (G32NiCrMo12-4) przeznaczonego na wielkogabarytowe elementy rurociągów tj. kolana, trójniki. Celem badań było określenie parametrów odlewania i obróbki cieplnej staliwa ułatwiające optymalny dobór technologii wytwarzania odlewów w warunkach wybranej odlewni staliwa.
EN
In this paper the research fragment of constructional alloy cast steel (G32NiCrMo12-4) for large-size parts of pipelines (elbows, T-pipes) has been presented. The goal of research was definition of casting and heat treatment parameters which facilitated the optimum choice of process production under conditions in selected cast steel foundry.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań dylatometrycznych staliwa chromowego z trzech wytopów laboratoryjnych oraz żeliwa chromowego z dwóch wytopów przemysłowych, poddanych austenityzowaniu w 980°C lub 1000°C i chłodzonych z różną szybkością. Z otrzymanych dylatogramów wyznaczono charakterystyczne wartości temperatury przemian fazowych przechłodzonego austenitu, które posłużyły do wykreślenia krzywych CTPc. Stwierdzono istotny wpływ zawartości chromu na przebieg krzywych CTPc.
EN
In the article results of dilatometric tests of chromium cast steel from three laboratory melts as well as of chromium cast iron from two industrial melts are presented . Each sample of cast steel and cast iron was austenitized at 980°C or 1000°C and next was cooled with different rate. On the base of obtained dilatographs the characteristic temperatures of undercooled austenite phase transformations which were used to trace the TTTc diagrams were determined. Essential influence of chromium content on TTTc diagram shape was observed.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono fragment badań prowadzonych w Zakładzie Odlewnictwa dotyczących żeliwa chromowego odpornego na ścieranie. Zaprezentowany zakres prac obejmuje badania krystalizacji żeliwa metodą ATD-K3, umożliwiającą określenie wpływu szybkości stygnięcia na określane parametry struktury żeliwa z ilościowym opisem fazy węglikowej.
EN
The part of research on wear resistant chromium cast iron, being carrying out in Foundry Department is described in this article. The presented scope of the work comprises research on the cast iron crystallization with DTA-K3 method which makes possible the determination of the influence of cooling rate on the structure parametersunder testing with the quantitave description of the carbide phase.
15
Content available remote Wpływ szybkości wypełniania wnęki formy na strukturę żeliwa chromowego
PL
W artykule przedstawiono analizę wpływu szybkości wypełniania wnęki formy na twardość i mikrotwardość osnowy żeliwa chromowego oraz na stereologię fazy węglikowej. Eksperyment wykonano w warunkach przemysłowych w odlewni specjalizującej się w odlewach odpornych na ścieranie.
EN
In this paper influence of filling rate of mould cavity on hardness and microhardness of matrix and stereological parameters of carbides of chromium cast iron in sand mould has been presented. The experiment was conducted in foundry which produces wear-resistant iron casting.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono przykłady eksperymentów technologicznych wytwarzania odlewów z żeliwa chromowego w warunkach odlewni specjalizującej się w odlewach odpornych na ścieranie oraz żaroodpornych, mające na celu podwyższenie jakości produkcji.
EN
In this paper examples of technological experiments of production castings of chromium cast iron in Foundry has been presented. The Foundry produces wear resistant and stable to heat castings.
17
PL
W artykule przedstawiono rozkład twardości i mikrotwardości na przekroju modelowego odlewu z żeliwa chromowego, który odwzorowuje odlew grubościenny. Zaprezentowane wyniki badań dotyczą 9 wytopów żeliwa chromowego o zmiennej zawartości węgla i chromu. Opisano zależność składu chemicznego i szybkości stygnięcia na omawiane parametry (własności) analizowanego tworzywa.
EN
The paper presents research of hardness and microhardness of matrix on section of casting-model (representation heavy-section casting) of chromium cast iron. The influence of chemical composition and cooling rate on hardness and microhardness of matrix have been described.
PL
W pracy przebadano wytopy żeliwa chromowego zawierające około 7; 12 i 22 %Cr oraz 1.8 i 2.6 %C. Określono powierzchnie, obwody wydzieleń węglików oraz ich udział objętościowy w stanie surowym i po austenityzowaniu w 900 i 1000°C. Przedstawiono w sposób graficzny empiryczny oraz funkcyjny rozkład ilości węglików i udziału objętościowego w klasach ich powierzchni.
EN
In this paper stereological parameters of carbides of chromium cast iron has been presented. Chromium cast iron in as-cast and after austenitizing 900°C and 1000°C have been examined.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono analizę procesu stygnięcia żeliwa chromowego w formie piaskowej. Proces odlewania przeprowadzono na stanowisku do eksperymentalnego modelowania stygnięcia odlewów o różnych modułach krzepnięcia w formie odlewniczej.
EN
In this paper casting analysis of chromium cast iron in sand mould has been presented. Cooling process of cast in new test stand has been observed.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono krótką analizę twardości i mikrotwardości osnowy żeliwa chromowego odpornego na ścieranie na przekroju modelowego odlewu [1,2] odpowiadającego odlewom grubościennym. Analizie poddano żeliwo chromowe odporne na ścieranie o stałej zawartości chromu około 18% i zmiennej zawartości węgla, na trzech poziomach 1.8%, 2.4% i 3.3%.
EN
The paper presents research results of hardness and microhardness of matrix of chromium cast iron consisting of 18 % Cr and 1.8 %C or 2.4 %C or 3.3%C. Casting sample was obtained in special sampler [1, 2].
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