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EN
A series of catastrophic floods that have occurred over the last twenty years in Poland brought an urgent need for taking preventive steps to monitor river embankment conditions. The main problem seems to be the development of efficient (i.e. fast and economical) measurements for controlling the condition of river embankments, because the execution of the full range of geotechnical measurements is both lengthy and costly. In this situation, a cheap and quick geophysical survey has been proposed to undertake this purpose. In this article the results of geophysical surveys are described which were performed using geoelectric and electromagnetic methods along a section of the Vistula embankment, located near the Maniów area in the Małopolska province. According to the archival data, this region is situated in a high-risk flooding zone. Three geophysical methods were used to recognize conditions of the levee: (i) Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), (ii) Induced Polarization (IP) and (iii) Electromagnetic Conductivity (EMC). Geoelectrical measurement results were presented in the form of resistivity and polarization cross-sections. Results of conductivity measurement were presented in the form of plots. These parameters effectively supplement geotechnical testing, providing spatial information about the changes within the embankment and its substrate. It allows the prediction of potentially vulnerable areas to water percolation during flooding.
EN
Brachypodium pinnatum belongs to native grasses which could dramatically decrease the biodiversity of calcareous grasslands, therefore, an examination of the mechanisms of its expansion is of prime importance for their conservation. We studied the genetic structure of 12 subpopulations of the expansive grass B. pinnatum in a heterogeneous landscape with AFLP markers, aiming at determination whether spatial isolation influences the genetic diversity and the population genetic structure of this species. A high level of overall (79%) and within population polymorphic loci (38.44%) were found and 220 different genotypes were distinguished among the 252 samples analysed. No significant population structure nor isolation-bydistance were found, despite their long-time fragmentation history. This confirms that isolation of calcareous grasslands in a landscape cannot prevent the expansion of B. pinnatum grasses because of the high generative dispersal ability. Subsequent quick and extensive clonal growth of this species enables the successful establishment. In most cases mowing or grazing is sufficient to keep this species at a low density within ancient grasslands and to prevent seed and pollen dispersal, but not for restoration of species-rich calcareous grasslands.
PL
W ramach PHARE `99 w listopadzie ub. r. miała miejsce wizyta polskich ekspertów we Francji. Celem tej wizyty było zapoznanie się z efektami wdrażania dyrektyw Wspólnot Europejskich dotyczących bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy do prawa francuskiego. Czytelników na pewno zainteresuje doświadczenie francuskie dotyczące wdrażania Wspólnot Europejskich w dziedzinie bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy do prawa krajowego.
EN
A group of Polish experts went to France in November 2000 to learn about the results of the introduction of EC directives on occupational safety and health (OSH) into French law. This visit was part of the PHARE „99 project. The readers are bound to find the French experience of how EC directives on OSH were introduced into national law interesting.
PL
W ramach PHARE’99 w listopadzie ub. r. miała miejsce wizyta polskich ekspertów we Francji. Celem tej wizyty było zapoznanie sie z efektami wdrażania dyrektyw Wspólnot Europejskich dotyczących bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy do prawa francuskiego. Czytelników na pewno zainteresuje doświadczenie francuskie dotyczące wdrażania dyrektyw Wspólnot Europejskich w dziedzinie bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy do prawa krajowego.
EN
A group of Polish experts went to France in November 2000 to learn about the results of the introduction of EC directives on occupational safety and health (OSH) into French law. This visit was part of the PHARE ‘99 project. The readers are bound to find the French experience of how EC directives on OSH were introduced into national law interesting.
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