Ograniczanie wyników
Czasopisma help
Autorzy help
Lata help
Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników

Znaleziono wyników: 231

Liczba wyników na stronie
first rewind previous Strona / 12 next fast forward last
Wyniki wyszukiwania
Wyszukiwano:
w słowach kluczowych:  odkształcenie plastyczne
help Sortuj według:

help Ogranicz wyniki do:
first rewind previous Strona / 12 next fast forward last
EN
Tensile deformation behavior of nuclear grade Austenitic Stainless Steel (SS) and its welded joints fabricated by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) and Activated Flux Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (AGTAW) processes were studied and correlated with relevant microstructural morphologies using Infrared Thermography (IRT) technique. The microstructure of base metal showed a complete austenite phase. GTAW Fusion Zone (FZ) exhibited both primary ferrite and primary austenite mode of solidification. Meantime, AGTAW FZ exhibited only primary austenite mode of solidification. A strain rate of 4.4x10-4 s-1 was used during the tensile test of the base metal and welded joints. The failure locations of the base metal, GTAW and AGTAW samples were noticed at the center of the gauge portion, the base metal side away from Fusion Line (FL) and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) respectively. The temperature variations of the base metal and weld zones were recorded in the form of thermograms using the IR camera at the different stages of the tensile deformation. During deformation study, peak temperature of 39.2 °C, 38.8 °C and 34 °C were observed at the base metal, GTAW and AGTAW samples respectively. The lesser peak temperature of the AGTAW sample compared to the base metal and GTAW samples indicated that the AGTAW sample undergone lesser deformation. Moreover, tensile deformation behaviours of the base metal and welded joints were correlated with their microstructural morphologies using corresponding temperature curves.
PL
W pracy zbadano zachowanie deformacji podczas rozciągania austenitycznej stali nierdzewnej i jej połączeń spawanych wykonanych metodą GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) oraz AGTAW (Activated Flux Gas Tungsten Arc Welding), a następnie skorelowano je z odpowiednimi morfologiami mikrostrukturalnymi za pomocą termografii w podczerwieni (ang. lnfrared Thermography). Mikrostruktura materiału bazowego wykazała całkowitą fazę austenitu. Spoina GTAW wykazywała zarówno ferryt, jak i austenit, podczas gdy spoina AGTAW wykazywała jedynie austenit. Podczas próby rozciągania materiału bazowego i złączy spawanych zastosowano prędkość odkształcania o wartości 4,4x10-4 s-1. Do zerwania poszczególnych próbek doszło odpowiednio na środku próbki materiału bazowego, w linii wtopienia złącza spawanego GTAW i w strefie wpływu ciepła (SWC) złącza spawanego AGTAW. Zmiany temperatury w materiale rodzimym i poszczególnych obszarach złączy spawanych rejestrowano w formie termogramów za pomocą kamery na podczerwień, przy różnych etapach deformacji podczas rozciągania. Podczas badań odkształceń zaobserwowano maksymalne wartości temperatury: 39,2 °C, 38,8 °C i 34 °C odpowiednio w próbkach z materiału bazowego, spawanych GTAW i spawanych AGTAW. Niższa maksymalna temperatura próbki spawanej metodą AGTAW w porównaniu z pozostałymi próbkami wskazała, że uległa ona mniejszemu odkształceniu. Ponadto zachowania deformacji przy rozciąganiu materiału rodzimego i złączy spawanych zostały skorelowane z obrazami ich mikrostruktur przy użyciu odpowiednich krzywych temperatur.
EN
A set of ultrasonic burnishing equipment with two different burnishing tips was designed and manufactured, with which a series of experiments were performed to explore the effects of process parameters and burnishing tips on the surface integrity of austenitic stainless steel material being treated by ultrasonic burnishing (UB). Based on the experiment data, the two surface treatments, i.e. UB with ball tip and UB with roller tip, were comparatively assessed together with the other two surface machining methods of fine turning and grinding. As a further study, a microscopic FE model was built to investigate the three-dimensional transient stress and strain field inside the being treated material. It was found that parameter combination is determinative to surface finishing in UB process, and static pressure and burnishing pass are supposed to be the two most significant parameters for surface integrity of the treated sample. On the whole, roller tip is more preferable to achieve good surface enhancement than ball tip. The superposition of ultrasonic vibration leads to the dynamic change of the stress and strain field in UB, resulting in the oscillating propagation of stress wave inside the material, which gives explanation for the good performance of UB than that of conventional burnishing without ultrasonic.
EN
The quaternary Mg–9Li–2Al–0.5Sc alloy (in wt%) was prepared from pure components. After homogenization, the alloy was subjected to severe plastic deformation by KoBo extrusion and cyclic forging leading to grain refinement in the range of 0.5–2 µm of hexagonal close-packed (HCP) α phase. Deformed alloys showed high ultimate tensile strength near 200 MPa and good elongation in the range 30–40% at room temperature (RT). Large elongations close to 200% were obtained during the tensile test at a temperature of 200 °C. Deformed samples showed the presence of multiple voids confirming grain boundary sliding mechanism of deformation. Twins on {101¯¯¯2} planes were identified using electron backscatter diffraction analysis, being in a good agreement with the earlier observation of Mg–Li and Mg–Sc alloys. Intermetallic phases such as cubic MgSc were identified in deformed alloys mostly within HCP α phase, whereas HCP MgSc2 particles were observed within body-centered cubic (BCC) β phase. Intermetallic phases were responsible for RT strengthening of alloys and slightly lower tensile elongation during superplastic deformation. Formation of the HCP α phase was observed within the BCC β phase in tensile deformed alloys. Atomic-level nucleation of HCP phase within the β phase was identified by the use of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy technique.
EN
Direct-drive friction welding of ASTM A106 and AISI 4140 steel tubes has been investigated both experimentally and numerically. A remeshing technique was implemented to accurately simulate highly distorted flashes during the FE simulation. The results revealed that the circumferential thermal expansion led to a higher contact pressure at the inner diameter of the interface and consequently, inner flashes were formed up to 18% larger than the outer ones. The maximum temperature was also located at the outer diameter of the interface in the first moments of the process, then it moved towards the center of the section where there was a balance between the higher slipping rate at the outer section and greater pressure at the inner section of the joint. Validation tests showed the capability of the FE model in terms of temperature, flash cross-section, and axial shortening with the maximum difference of 18.6%.
EN
The effect of multi-pass multi-directional forging (MDF) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Zn–22Al–xSi (X = 4 and 8 wt. %) alloy, also known as SiP/ZA22 composite, was investigated. MDF process was applied at 100 °C for one, three, and five passes with the strain of 0.47 per pass. According to the results, MDF refined and homogenized the composites microstructure so that the average size of primary Si (SiP) particles reduced from 25.0 µm and 30.4 µm in as-cast ZA22-4Si and ZA22-8Si composites to about 6.2 µm and 7.3 µm in five-pass MDFed condition, respectively, and their distribution shifted to the smaller size range. Mechanical properties tests revealed that multi-pass MDF has softened the investigated composite. For instance, the hardness, tensile strength, and shear strength of ZA22-4Si composite reduced from 83 HV, 280 MPa, and 165 MPa in as-cast condition to about 58 HV, 160 MPa, and 118 MPa in the five-pass MDFed sample, respectively. This is while its fracture strain increased from 15% to about 40% with the strain rate of 1.2 × 10–3 s−1.
EN
Hydrostatic cyclic extrusion–compression as a novel severe plastic deformation method in the processing of the rods is introduced and used for refining ultrafine-grained commercial pure aluminum. HCEC is solving the limitation of the conventional CEC in producing long-length samples by utilizing pressurized hydraulic fluid and eliminating the frictional effects. An increase in the length of the processable sample, a reduction in the processing loads, an intensification in the hydrostatic stress, and improvement in the strain distribution are the novel achievements of the HCEC. The capability of HCEC in grain refinement of the commercial pure aluminum was investigated by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The processed samples showed the grain sizes of 780 nm and 400 nm after the first and second passes of the HCEC, respectively. Furthermore, tensile and shear punch tests were utilized for investigation of the mechanical properties of the unprocessed and HCEC processed rods. An increase in the tensile and shear yield and ultimate strengths after the process confirmed the decreases in grain sizes. The tensile yield and ultimate strengths of the rod after the second cycle of the process reached 170 and 196 MPa, respectively. The same increasing trend as strength was shown in the microhardness after the HCEC. FEM analysis depicted the homogenous distribution of strain along the length of the sample. Also, the independency of the processing force to the length of the sample was shown by the FEM. The implementation of this novel technique looks very interesting for the industrial utilization of SPD techniques, especially in automotive and aerospace industries, which suffer from the limited size of the processing specimens.
EN
Due to the limitation of huge forming load, inhomogeneity of plastic deformation, and small volume of deformation region, it is difficult to prepare bulk ultra-fine grains material (UFGM) with industry size by the existing severe plastic deformation (SPD) methods. In this study, a novel SPD method, namely 3D-SPD, was proposed. By establishing finite element model, the distribution of material flow, restraining to Mannesmann effect, and comparison of load were discussed. Based on the self-developed rolling mill, the corresponding experiments were conducted. The experimental results reveal that the buck ultra-fine grains material of 45 steel was obtained under the condition of feed angle 21°, cross angle 15°, cone angle 5°, reduction rate 50%, and roll speed 30 rpm. The average grain size was refined from 46 to 0.8–4 μm. The tensile test results indicate that the yield strength and tensile strength of the rolled bar were significantly improved.
8
EN
A method has been developed for determining residual stress based on displacement fields near drilled holes analyzed using 3D digital image correlation. Finite element modeling was used to determine corrections for analytical equations describing displacement fields near the blind holes, which made it possible to determine the residual stress distribution over a wide range of hole depth-to-hole diameter ratios and various areas of displacement field measurements using inverse method iterative calculations. The proposed method eliminates many drawbacks of traditional procedure based on strain gauges as hole eccentricity sensitivity and requirement of the relatively large span between holes. The method and testing setup, build-up of generally available components, were used to determine the residual stress distribution for 316 LVM samples processed by two methods from the large deformation group: hydrostatic extrusion (HE) and high-pressure torsion (HPT), by drilling 1.75 and 0.58-mm-diameter blind holes, respectively. In the case of the measurements performed on the surface of a HE-processed 16 mm bar cut along its diameter, a gradual change was revealed-from a compressive to a tensile residual stress distribution (from ~ − 300 MPa in the center to 400 MPa in 4 mm distance from the edge) in the longitudinal direction, with near-zero values in the radial direction. Moreover, the method was also adapted to perform measurements on the outside surface of the bar, which gave results consistent with those taken along the radius profile (~ 600 MPa longitudinal stress). Measurements on the top surface of a cylinder 10 mm in diameter and 1 mm high processed by HPT showed a high compressive residual stress in the center and a dominant shear component for the holes drilled at different distances from the center.
EN
Materials scientists are seeking to produce metals with reduced weight and dimensions while maintaining the appropriate mechanical properties. There are several ways to improve the internal structure of metals, such as the ultrasound used to solidify liquid metal. The homogeneity of the grains and the uniformity of the metal structure affects its mechanical strength. This paper presents the results of investigations into the effects of hot deformation parameters in compression on the austenite grain size in the HSLA (High Strength Low Alloy) steel (0.16% C, 0.037% Nb, 0.004% Ti, 0.0098% N). The axisymmetric compression investigations were performed on cylindrical investigation specimens using a Gleeble 3800 thermomechanical simulator with the strain rate of 1÷15.9 s-1 and strain degree ε = 1.2. Before deformation, the research specimens were austenitized at TA = 1100÷1250 °C. The metallographic observations of the primary austenite grains were conducted with an optical microscope, while the structure of dynamically recrystallized austenite, inherited by martensite, was examined by using a scanning electron microscope.
EN
In this paper, we use a phenomenological model based on the Jiles-Atherton-Sablik model of stress affecting the magnetic hysteresis of magnetic materials as modified when stress goes past the yield stress. We use this to show that (1) the model produces sharp shearing of hysteresis curves, as seen experimentally and that (2) it also produces a step in the hysteresis loss at small residual plastic strain. We also find that the step in the hysteresis loss can be fitted to a power law, and find that the power law can be fitted by the power m=0.270, different from the mechanical Ludwik Law exponent, and reasonably close to the experimental 0.333 and 0.202. We will also suggest a method of measuring how plastically deformed the material is by suggesting how the dislocation density can be measured.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań wpływu odkształcenia plastycznego oraz szybkości chłodzenia na strukturę i postać krzywych przemian fazowych austenitu przechłodzonego stali mikrostopowej z Nb, Ti, V i B. Wyznaczono krzywe przemian austenitu przechłodzonego nieodkształconego plastycznie (CTPc) oraz odkształconego plastycznie (OCTPc).
EN
The aim of the paper is to investigate the influence of plastic deformation and cooling rate on the structure and shape of the supercooled austenite transformations diagrams of a Nb-Ti-V-B microalloyed steel. The CCT diagrams of underformed and plastically deformed supercooled austenite were developed. The plastic deformation of steel prior to the start of phase transformations results in a sharp acceleration of pearlitic transformation and a slight translation of bainitic transformation towards shorter times. The elaborated curves of supercooled austenite transformations of the steel create possibilities to develop an industrial technology for thermomechanically treated forgings of high mechanical properties.
EN
The specimens sintered from Distaloy AB iron powder have been examined to evaluate evolution of morphological characteristics under complex deformation conditions. The sintering procedure, in particular, the pressure and the temperature have been adjusted in order to obtain about a 15% porosity level. All examinations were performed on the specimen in as-sintered state, as well as after plastic deformation (compression with cyclic torsion). The volume fraction and pores shape have been described quantitatively before and after deformation. On the basis of statistical analysis, it was found that compression with cyclic torsion with amplitude 3° and frequency 0.5 Hz better reduce porosity than deformation with amplitude 6° and frequency 1 Hz. All shape factors that were used to describe pores geometry, except convexity, differ significantly after plastic deformation in comparison to values before deformation. The Principal Component Analysis of the pores shape factors showed, that it is possible to reduce the characterization of the pores to two principal components. Alternatively, it is sufficient to fully characterize pores shape with three shape factors: circularity, Malinowska’s factor and not correlated with them aspect ratio.
PL
Właściwości materiałów porowatych silnie zależą od cech geometrycznych porów: ich objętości względnej, wielkości, kształtu, rozmieszczenia itp. Odkształcenie plastyczne materiałów porowatych jest procesem, który zmienia ich właściwości, również wskutek zmiany cech porowatości. W trakcie odkształcenia plastycznego morfologia i liczba porów zmienia się, wpływając na właściwości materiału. Kontrola i możliwość kształtowania właściwości materiałów porowatych wymaga wiedzy dotyczącej zmian morfologii porów, przede wszystkim kształtu określanego na podstawie pomiarów na obrazach mikrostruktury zarejestrowanych podczas badań zgładów metalograficznych. Celem pracy było określenie zmian objętości względnej i kształtu porów po ściskaniu z cykliczną rotacją spiekanych próbek oraz dobór współczynników kształtu porów najlepiej charakteryzujących morfologię porów po odkształceniu plastycznym.
EN
Purpose: The aim of the paper is to determine influence of plastic deformation rate at room temperature on structure and mechanical properties of high-Mn austenitic Mn-Al-Si 25-3-3 type steel tested at room temperature. Design/methodology/approach: Mechanical properties of tested steel was determined using Zwick Z100 static testing machine for testing with the deformation speed equal 0.008 s-1, and RSO rotary hammer for testing with deformation speeds of 250, 500 and 1000s-1. The microstructure evolution samples tested in static and dynamic conditions was determined in metallographic investigations using light microscopy as well as X-ray diffraction. Findings: Based on X-ray phase analysis results, together with observation using metallographic microscope, it was concluded, that the investigated high-Mn X13MnAlSiNbTi25-3-3 steel demonstrates austenitic structure with numerous mechanical twins, what agrees with TWIP effect. It was demonstrated, that raise of plastic deformation rate produces higher tensile strength UTS and higher conventional yield point YS0.2. The UTS strength values for deformation rate 250, 500 and 1000 s-1 grew by: 35, 24 and 31%, appropriately, whereas in case of YS0.2 these were: 7, 74 and 130%, accordingly, in respect to the results for the investigated steel deformed under static conditions, where UTS and YS0.2 values are 1050 MPa and 700 MPa. Opposite tendency was observed for experimentally measured uniform and total relative elongation. Homogeneous austenitic structure was confirmed by X-ray diffractometer tests. Research limitations/implications: To fully describe influence of strain rates on structure and mechanical properties, further investigations specially with using transmission electron microscope are required. Practical implications: Knowledge about obtained microstructures and mechanical properties results of tested X13MnAlSiNbTi25-3-3 steel under static and dynamic conditions can be useful for the appropriate use of this type of engineering material in machines and equipment susceptible to static or dynamic loads. Originality/value: The influence of plastic deformation at room temperature under static and dynamic conditions of new-developed high-manganese austenitic X13MnAlSiNbTi25-3-3 steels were investigated.
EN
The importance of second phase particles has received less attention for metal-matrix composites (MMCs) processed by one of the most common severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques known as accumulative roll bonding (ARB). Accordingly, the present work has been dedicated to the processing and evaluating the effects of ARB on the tensile properties, work-hardening behavior, distribution of particles, and fracture surface appearance of a typical Al-B4C particulate composite. It was found that bonding between the reinforcement and the matrix is not good enough to grant the effective strengthening effect. As a result, both tensile strength and ductility of ARB processed aluminum were higher than those of ARB processed Al-B4C composite. Moreover, by increasing ARB pass number, the tensile strength and total elongation of composites increased, where the latter was related to the enhancement of particle distribution, improvement of the particle/matrix interface, and enhancement of the work-hardening behavior. It was revealed that particle distribution affects the ductility but its effect on the tensile strength is less pronounced.
EN
To overcome some possible deficiencies of pure copper, dilute alloying and employment of equal channel angular pressing seem the cost-effective solutions. In this work, dilute copper alloys with the tin amount of 0.18, 0.3, and 0.5 wt.% were obtained with continuous casting and subsequently, they were subjected to ECAP process up to four passes. It was shown that integrated treatment by dilute alloying and ECAP lead to 182% improvement of the corrosion resistance as compared to the as-received condition due to the grain refinement. Meanwhile, the alloying impact on current density is decreased with the ECAP process which may result from the changes at the distribution of Sn atoms in Cu. The difference in measured corrosion current density of unprocessed and ECAPed samples for the alloys Cu-0.3%Sn and Cu-0.5%Sn are 15% and 2%, respectively. The corrosion improvement by means of current density reduction due to the alloying before the ECAP process is about 45% while this value after the ECAP diminishes to 35%. Microstructure analysis showed that four passes of ECAP process cause the average grain size of the pure copper to less than 700 nm and the Cu-0.5%Sn to about 550 nm. Also, the HAGBs fraction of the ECAPed pure Cu is 74%, while the correspond-ing magnitude for the Cu-0.5%Sn is 78%.
PL
Umocnienie odkształceniowe materiału blach poddawanych wytłaczaniu decyduje o charakterze zjawisk tribologicznych w strefie kontaktu oraz determinuje konstytuowanie się topografii powierzchni blach, w szczególności wykazujących anizotropię właściwości mechanicznych. Materiałem badawczym były blachy stalowe walcowane na zimno, gatunku DC04, przeznaczone do obróbki plastycznej na zimno. Wpływ odkształcenia blachy na wielkość rzeczywistej powierzchni kontaktu powierzchni blach z narzędziem w procesie wytłaczania badano za pomocą wciskania wgłębnika z płaską powierzchnią roboczą. Po przekroczeniu pewnej wartości nacisku, zależnej od stopnia odkształcenia blachy, obserwowano brak wpływu wartości nacisku na zmianę pola powierzchni nośnej wierzchołków nierówności. Określono również, że wartość podstawowych parametrów chropowatości powierzchni zmienia się nieproporcjonalnie w stosunku do nacisku wgłębnika.
EN
The strain hardening of the sheet material subjected to deep drawing determines the nature of tribological phenomena in the contact area and determines the formation of the topography of the sheet surface exhibiting anisotropy of mechanical properties. The investigations were carried out on cold-rolled deep-drawing quality steel sheets DC04 destined for cold sheet metal forming. The influence of the sheet deformation on the true area of the contact of the sheet surfaces with the tool in the deep drawing process was examined by pressing the flat indenter into the sheet surface. After exceeding a certain pressure value depending on the degree of sheet deformation, no clear effect of the pressure value on the change of the bearing area ratio was observed. It was also determined that the value of the basic parameters of the surface roughness varied disproportionately with the pressure of the indenter.
PL
W artykule podjęto tematykę wpływu podwyższonej temperatury na oliwinowe masy formierskie i rdzeniowe ze spoiwem nieorganicznym z grupy niemodyfikowanych gatunków uwodnionego krzemianu sodu. Sporządzone w warunkach laboratoryjnych masy na osnowie piasku oliwinowego formowano w kształtki prostopadłościenne do badania przemieszczenia wolnego końca rdzenia pomiarowego w warunkach otoczenia o podwyższonej temperaturze. W celu utwardzenia, wykonane z mas oliwinowych, kształtki poddawano szybkiemu nagrzewaniu mikrofalowemu w piecu z generatorem częstotliwości fali elektromagnetycznej f = 2,45 GHz i mocy wyjściowej 1000 W, w czasie 180 s. Badania przeprowadzono na kształtkach prostopadłościennych formowanych we wnęce o wymiarach: 25,9 × G × 120,4 mm, gdzie G = 6 lub 8, lub 10 mm. Pomiary przemieszczeń wolnego końca kształtek rdzeni pomiarowych przeprowadzono na zautomatyzowanym urządzeniu laboratoryjnym DMA Hot- Distortion. W trakcie pomiarów zastosowano trzy sposoby ogrzewania powierzchni prostopadłościennych kształtek spotykanych w technice pomiarowej odkształceń H-D (Hot Distortion Test): grzanie od dołu, grzanie od dołu i od góry (Modified Hot Distortion Test) oraz ogrzewanie tylko od góry. Przemieszczenie wolnego końca kształtek prostopadłościennych, w zależności od grubości oraz sposobów ogrzewania ich powierzchni, posłużyło do wstępnej oceny zachowania utwardzonych mikrofalowo mas oliwinowych z krzemianem sodu w warunkach otoczenia o podwyższonej temperaturze.
EN
The article raises the issue of the influence of increased temperature on olivine moulding and core sands with an inorganic binder from the group of unmodified kinds of hydrated sodium silicates. Produced at laboratory conditions, moulding sands with an olivine sand matrix were formed into cuboidal specimens to test the deformation of the free measuring core end at conditions of increased temperature. In order to harden, the measuring cores made of olivine moulding sands fast microwave heating was applied to which used was a furnace with an electromagnetic wave frequency generator f = 2.45 GHz and output power of 1000 W, in the time period of 180 s. Tests were carried out on cuboidal specimens moulded in a cavity with the dimensions 25.9 × G × 120.4 mm, where G = 6 or 8 , or 10 mm. Measurements of deformation of the free specimen end of the measuring cores were conducted on an automated laboratory DMA Hot-Distortion apparatus. During the measurements three techniques were used to heat the surfaces of cuboidal specimens which are applied in the Hot Distortion Test: heating from the bottom, heating from the bottom and the top (Modified Hot Distortion Test), and heating only from the top. The deformation of the free end of cuboidal specimens, depending on the thickness and heating techniques of their surfaces, served for the initial assessment of the behaviour of microwave hardened olivine moulding sands with sodium silicate at conditions of increased temperature.
EN
The paper presents the comparison of the results of experimental fatigue tests for 6082-T6 aluminium alloy, carried out for two states of loading: strain controlled tension-compression, and strain and bending moment controlled oscillatory bending. The following were used for that purpose: the Manson-Coffin-Basquin, Kandil, Langer, and the authors’ own strain fatigue characteristics, and also the Basquin stress fatigue characteristic. Our experimental studies and adequate physical relationships were applied to convert the amplitudes of stress and strain occurring in rods without a geometrical notch subject to bending, according to the model of an elasto-plastic body. The obtained results were used to compare both loading types under different control methods and different fatigue characteristics.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono porównanie wyników eksperymentalnych prób zmęczeniowych dla stopu aluminium 6082-T6, przeprowadzonych dla dwóch stanów obciążenia: rozciąganie-ściskanie i ściskania oraz zginania oscylacyjnego kontrolowanego pod wpływem odkształcenia i zginania. Do tego celu użyto następujących parametrów: odkształceniowej charakterystyki zmęczeniowej Mansona-Coffina-Basquina, Kandila, Langera i autorów, a także naprężeniowej charakterystyki zmęczeniowej Basquina. Własne badania eksperymentalne i odpowiednie związki fizyczne zostały zastosowane do konwersji amplitud naprężenia i odkształcenia występującego w elementach zginanych bez karbu geometrycznego, zgodnie z modelem ciała sprężysto-plastycznego. Uzyskane wyniki wykorzystano do porównania obu typów obciążeń przy różnych metodach sterowania i różnych charakterystyk zmęczeniowych.
EN
The article presents the development of a method enabling the calculation of force necessary to bend a chain link during butt welding, taking into consideration a plastic strain in the shunting zone. The study also discusses technological peculiarities concerned with the welding of single-contact chain links characterised by high bending rigidity and describes principles of the elastic-plastic strain of chain link shunting zone during bending. The work also contains the theoretical justification of the possibility of calculating the value of bending force based on the ultimate limit state and presents an analytical formula identifying the mathematical correlation between ultimate force, geometrical parameters and physico-chemical properties of the welded chain link material. Using an anchor chain as an example, the above-named analytical formula and the Finite Element Method were used to calculate the value of bending force, thereby confirming the reliability of the proposed method. It was ascertained that taking plastic strains into consideration significantly affected calculations results concerning the value of bending force during the butt welding of products having a closed shape and characterised by significant bending rigidity. The value of bending force calculated on the basis of the ideal elasticity of the anchor chain link material was higher (by more than an order of magnitude) than the value of the above-named force calculated taking into consideration plastic strains in the chain shunting zone.
PL
Artykuł dotyczy opracowania metody obliczania siły niezbędnej do gięcia ogniwa łańcucha podczas zgrzewania doczołowego z uwzględnieniem odkształceń plastycznych w strefie bocznikowania. W pracy przedstawiono osobliwości technologiczne zgrzewania jednostykowych ogniw łańcuchów o dużej sztywności zginania oraz opisano reguły sprężysto-plastycznego odkształcenia ich strefy bocznikowania podczas gięcia. Teoretycznie uzasadniono możliwość obliczenia wielkości siły gnącej w oparciu o stan graniczny oraz sformułowano wzór analityczny, który w sposób jawny ustala związek matematyczny pomiędzy siłą graniczną a parametrami geometrycznymi i własnościami fizyko-mechanicznymi materiału zgrzewanego ogniwa łańcucha. Na przykładzie łańcucha kotwicy, za pomocą uzyskanego wzoru analitycznego oraz metody elementów skończonych wykonano obliczenia siły gnącej, co umożliwiło potwierdzenie wiarygodności zaproponowanej metody. Stwierdzono, że uwzględnienie odkształceń plastycznych ma istotny wpływ na wyniki obliczeń siły gnącej podczas zgrzewania doczołowego wyrobów o kształcie zamkniętym cechujących się dużą sztywnością zginania. Wartość siły gnącej obliczona w oparciu o idealną sprężystość materiału ogniwa badanego łańcucha kotwicy jest o ponad rząd wielkości większa od wartości tej siły obliczonej z uwzględnieniem odkształceń plastycznych w strefie bocznikowania ogniwa.
PL
W austenitycznych stalach chromowo–niklowych pod wpływem odkształcenia plastycznego na zimno następuje zmiana struktury dyslokacyjnej, w wyniku czego metastabilny austenit przechodzi częściową przemianę w martenzyt ε oraz ferromagnetyczny martenzyt α’. Dla próbek ze stali austenitycznej X2CrNi18-9 stwierdzono znaczący wpływ stopnia deformacji plastycznej na parametry polowego efektu Barkhausena. Uzyskane korelacje ilościowe pomiędzy stopniem deformacji plastycznej stali X2CrNi18-9 a modułem wartości maksymalnych obwiedni UENV, wykazują możliwość wykorzystania ich przy rozwiązywaniu zagadnień odwrotnych badań nieniszczących.
EN
In austenitic chromium - nickel steels under the influence of cold working, a change of dislocation structure occurs, as a result of which metastable austenite undergoes partial transformation into martensite ε and ferromagnetic martensite α '. For samples made of austenitic X2CrNi18-9 steel a significant influence of the degree of plastic deformation on the parameters of the Barkhausen noise was found. Quantitative correlations between the degree of plastic deformation of the X2CrNi18-9 steel and modules of extremes values of envelope were developed. These correlations can be used as calibration curves in reverse problems of non-destructive testing.
first rewind previous Strona / 12 next fast forward last
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.