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EN
In this paper, an unsteady 2-D incompressible fluid flow with heat and mass transfer in a four-sided lid driven square cavity is investigated numerically. The top, bottom, left, and right walls of the square cavity move to the right, left, downward and upward respectively. All four sides of the cavity move with a uniform velocity. The flow variables are simulated below the critical Reynolds numbers with isothermal and mass-transfer conditions in the square cavity. We have used a streamfunction-vorticity (ψ - ξ) formulation to investigate the fluid flow in terms of flow variables ψ, ξ, T and C at low Reynolds numbers (Re). The Prandtl number (Pr) and Schmidt number (Sc) have been chosen as 6:62 and 10, 50, 100, 150 respectively, in order to calculate the numerical solutions of T and C. The matrix method has been used to evaluate the stability and convergence of the numerical scheme. The conditions obtained from the matrix method have been used to arrive at the numerical solutions with desired accuracy.
EN
This work investigates the effects of radiation and Eckert number on an MHD flow with heat transfer rate near a stagnation-point region over a nonlinear vertical stretching sheet. Using a similarity transformation, the governing equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations which are solved numerically using the sixth order Runge-Kutta method with shooting technique. Tabular and graphical results are provided to examine the physical nature of the problem. Heat transfer rate at the surface decreases with radiation, Eckert number and as radiation increases, the flow temperature also increases for velocity ratio parameters […].
EN
The drying and humidifying processes of capillary-porous (colloid) bodies occur during the production of various materials for the consumer goods industry, building materials, storage of museum pieces, etc. It is known that the main linkage forms of the moisture and colloid capillary-porous bodies (CCPBs), namely adsorption, capillary condensation and capillary linkage of the free moisture in the cavities of the above bodies, depend on the temperature and relative humidity of drying/humidifying agent. It means that the CCPBs behave in a peculiar way depending on the temperature and humidity fields. The problems of CCPBs drying (or humidifying) process include the issue of the heat and humidity transfer both in the middle of the body and in the boundary layer on the interface of phases “body (object of drying/humidifying process) – environment”. The drying/humidifying intensity is at its maximum when the possibilities of the heat and mass transfer in the boundary layer correspond to the possibilities of moisture and heat moving inside the object of drying/humidifying process. The properties of the CCPB as material possessing specific elastic-viscous properties are described within the framework of O.Y. Ishlinskiy - O.R. Rzhanitsin generalized elastic-viscous body theory. A comparative analysis of the above mentioned CCPB’s properties from the point of view of Zener thermodiffusion theory is conducted. The mechanism of moisture transferring from the CCPBs’ central layers (as object of drying/humidifying process) up to their surfaces is developed. The theoretical researches examined the drying/humidifying phenomena for both the entire volume of the CCPB and three structural directions. It is noted that drying/humidifying of CCPBs is a complicated heat and mass transfer process accompanied by mechanisms of molecular nature determining the kinetics of their running. It is shown that the appropriate equations’ solution of molecular-molar heat and moisture transfer under the appropriate boundary (limit) conditions allows to describe the fields, i.e. the distribution of transfer potentials (the temperature and moisture content in the CCPB as object of drying/humidifying) at any time of the appropriate process. The drying/humidifying curves (“drying/humidifying rate versus CCPB humidity”) and the temperature curves (“CCPB temperatures versus CCPB humidity”) reflect the nature of the drying/humidifying processes. In the framework of the proposed generalized rheological model of CCPB, the residual deformations of bodies for various load types (the time-varying stress applied to the CCPB) is estimated.
EN
This paper investigates a chemically reactive Magnetohydrodynamics fluid flow with heat and mass transfer over a permeable surface taking into consideration the buoyancy force, injection/suction, heat source/sink and thermal radiation. The governing momentum, energy and concentration balance equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations by method of similarity transformation and solved numerically by Runge- Kutta method based on Shooting technique. The influence of various pertinent parameters on the velocity, temperature, concentration fields are discussed graphically. Comparison of this work with previously published works on special cases of the problem was carried out and the results are in excellent agreement. Results also show that the thermo physical parameters in the momentum boundary layer equations increase the skin friction coefficient but decrease the momentum boundary layer. Fluid suction/injection and Prandtl number increase the rate of heat transfer. The order of chemical reaction is quite significant and there is a faster rate of mass transfer when the reaction rate and Schmidt number are increased.
EN
This paper proposes a method to numerically study viscous incompressible two-dimensional steady flow in a driven square cavity with heat and concentration sources placed on its side wall. The method proposed here is based on streamfunction-vorticity (Ψ-ξ) formulation. We have modified this formulation in such a way that it suits to solve the continuity, x and y-momentum, energy and mass transfer equations which are the governing equations of the problem under investigation in this study. No-slip and slip wall boundary conditions for velocity, temperature and concentration are defined on walls of a driven square cavity. In order to numerically compute the streamfunction Ψ, vorticityfunction ξ , temperature θ, concentration C and pressure P at different low, moderate and high Reynolds numbers, a general algorithm was proposed. The sequence of steps involved in this general algorithm are executed in a computer code, developed and run in a C compiler. We propose that, with the help of this code, one can easily compute the numerical solutions of the flow variables such as velocity, pressure, temperature, concentration, streamfunction, vorticityfunction and thereby depict and analyze streamlines, vortex lines, isotherms and isobars, in the driven square cavity for low, moderate and high Reynolds numbers. We have chosen suitable Prandtl and Schmidt numbers that enables us to define the average Nusselt and Sherwood numbers to study the heat ad mass transfer rates from the left wall of the cavity. The stability criterion of the numerical method used for solving the Poisson, vorticity transportation, energy and mass transfer has been given. Based on this criterion, we ought to choose appropriate time and space steps in numerical computations and thereby, we may obtain the desired accurate numerical solutions. The nature of the steady state solutions of the flow variables along the horizontal and vertical lines through the geometric center of the square cavity has been discussed and analyzed. To check the validity of the computer code used and corresponding numerical solutions of the flow variables obtained from this study, we have to compare these with established steady state solutions existing in the literature and they have to be found in good agreement.
EN
In the paper two non-integer order, state space models of heat transfer process are compared. The first uses a known Caputo operator and the second – a new operator proposed by Caputo and Fabrizio in 2015. Both discussed models are modifications of a known, integer order, state space, semigroup model of heat transfer process. Parameters of both models were identified by means of optimization of MSE cost function with the use of simplex method, available in MATLAB. Both proposed models have been compared in the aspect of accuracy and convergence. Analytical and numerical results show that the Caputo-Fabrizio model is faster convergent and easier to implement than the Caputo model. However, its accuracy in the sense of MSE cost function is worse.
EN
It is necessary to carry out investigations on device behaviour before it will work in real conditions. Helpful tools are CAD systems and numerical simulations on virtual geometric models. They allow relatively cheap and fast analysis of devices without using expensive real models. This paper presents a method of multichannel pipe design with the help of a CAD system in terms of its strength and working conditions as an internal heat exchanger with carbon dioxide as a refrigerant. Two aluminium alloys were chosen: AA 3103-H112 and AA 6060-T6, and several shapes of channels. Results show that the selection of proper materials is one of the most important stages. It affects the strength of the pipe. A second significant parameter is the shape of external channels. It has been shown that it is important to choose proper value of radius R1 (corner between upper area of external channel and lateral surface of external channel). For the analysed type of multichannel pipe, the most appropriate value of radius R1 was 1 mm. As for heat exchange between fluids in internal and external channels, an important parameter was the thickness of the wall between the mentioned channels. It has been demonstrated that heat exchange efficiency depends on wall thickness and on the way of achieving this.
PL
Często konieczne jest przeprowadzenie badania zachowania się urządzenia zanim będzie pracowało w warunkach rzeczywistych. Jednym z przydatnych narzędzi to umożliwiających są systemy CAD oraz symulacje numeryczne przeprowadzane na wirtualnych modelach geometrycznych. Pozwalają one na dokonanie stosunkowo taniej i szybkiej analizy urządzenia bez konieczności użycia kosztownych modeli rzeczywistych. W artykule przedstawiono metodę projektowania rury wielokanałowej przy pomocy systemów CAD pod kątem ich wytrzymałości i warunków pracy jako wewnętrznego wymiennika ciepła z dwutlenkiem węgla, pełniącym rolę czynnika chłodniczego. Do analizy wybrano dwa stopy aluminium: 3103-H112 i 6060-T6 oraz kilka różnych kształtów kanałów. Wyniki pokazały, że dobór odpowiednich materiałów jest jednym z najważ- niejszych etapów projektowania rur. Ma to wpływ na wytrzymałość rury. Drugim istotnym parametrem jest kształt kanałów zewnętrznych. Wykazano, że dobór odpowiedniej wartości promienia R1 (narożnik pomiędzy górną i boczną powierzchnią kanału zewnętrznego) jest istotny. Dla analizowanego typu rury wielokanałowej wartość promienia R1 równa 1 mm była najbardziej właściwa. W przypadku wymiany ciepła pomiędzy płynami w kanałach zewnętrznych i wewnętrznym ważnym parametrem była grubość ścianki pomiędzy wymienionymi kanałami. Wykazano, że efektywność wymiany ciepła zależy od grubości ścianki oraz od sposobu osiągnięcia jej zmiany.
EN
Heat transfer processes occurring in the micro-domains can be described using the dual-phase lag equation (DPLE). This equation can be applied as a model of heating of the thin metal film subjected to the femtosecond laser pulse. In the paper, the 1D dual phase lag equation containing the additional internal heat source resulting from the laser pulse irradiation and supplemented by the appropriate boundary and initial conditions is considered. Appearing in this equation two lag times τq the phase lag of the heat flux) and τT (the phase lag of the temperature gradient) are taken into account. An analytical solution of this equation under the assumption that τT > τq is presented. The separation of the variables technique and the Green’s function method are used in order to find this solution. In the final part of the paper, the example of computations is presented.
EN
An unsteady magnetohydromagnetic natural convection on the Couette flow of electrically conducting water at 4°C (Pr = 11.40) in a rotating system has been considered. A Finite Element Method (FEM) was employed to find the numerical solutions of the dimensionless governing coupled boundary layer partial differential equations. The primary velocity, secondary velocity and temperature of water at 4°C as well as shear stresses and rate of heat transfer have been obtained for both ramped temperature and isothermal plates. The results are independent of the mesh (grid) size and the present numerical solutions through the Finite Element Method (FEM) are in good agreement with the existing analytical solutions by the Laplace Transform Technique (LTT). These are shown in tabular and graphical forms.
10
Content available remote 3D Numerical Simulation of Laminar Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer through Fabric
EN
The air flow and conjugate heat transfer through the fabric was investigated numerically. The objective of this paper is to study the thermal insulation of fabrics under heat convection or the heat loss of human body under different conditions (fabric structure and contact conditions between the human skin and the fabric). The numerical simulations were performed in laminar flow regime at constant skin temperature (310 K) and constant air flow temperature (273 K) at a speed of 5 m/s. Some important parameters such as heat flux through the fabrics, heat transfer coefficient, and Nusselt number were evaluated. The results showed that the heat loss from human body (the heat transfer coefficient) was smallest or the thermal insulation of fabric was highest when the fabric had no pores and no contact with the human skin, the heat loss from human body (the heat transfer coefficient) was highest when the fabric had pores and the air flow penetrated through the fabric.
11
Content available Hot Layer Formation during the Crude Oil Fires
EN
The paper presents the research results on hot layer formation during the crude oil fires, the conditions for creating a hot layer, mechanisms of the boilover and its accompanying dangerous phenomena. The research was carried out in The Main School of Fire Service in Warsaw. In the experiments, crude oil was burned in tanks with the diameter of 1.4 m and two different heights – 0.7 and 1.4 m.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań nad formowaniem się warstwy gorącej, warunków tworzenia się warstwy gorącej, mechanizmu wyrzutu i zjawisk towarzyszących podczas pożarów ropy naftowej, które zostały przeprowadzone w Szkole Głównej Służby Pożarniczej w Warszawie. W eksperymentach spalano ropę naftową w zbiornikach o średnicy 1,4 m i dwóch różnych wysokościach – 0,7 i 1,4 m.
EN
In this work, the influence of boundary conditions model (environmental model) on the ground temperature profile is analyzed. A numerical model for transport phenomena in the area above the top ground surface and below in the ground is presented. The results of simulation – ground temperature profile and mean seasonal temperature which estimate the energy potential of the ground are presented. In addition, the results of implementation of five different environmental models for the area above the top ground surface are presented. It is found that none of the models is able to reproduce the temperature variation similar to the reference (most complex) model accuracy. On the other hand, it is found that with a slight error a similar result for low ground depth can be obtained using the simplest Model 1.
13
Content available remote Wall temperature prediction in annular geometry during post-dryout heat transfer
EN
In this paper a new approach to predict wall temperature during post-dryout heat transfer in annuli with flow obstacles is presented. The proposed approach takes into account the obstacle specifics and location in the channel to determine the onset of post-dryout patch. The wall temperature in the dry patch area is predicted from a correlation that takes into account the developing post-dryout heat transfer regime. The method is applied to post-dryout conditions in an annulus with pin spacers and achieves a significant improvement in prediction accuracy compared to other reference methods.
EN
An unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) two-layered fluids flow and heat transfer in a horizontal channel between two parallel plates in the presence of an applied magnetic and electric field is investigated, when the whole system is rotated about an axis perpendicular to the flow. The flow is driven by a constant uniform pressure gradient in the channel bounded by two parallel insulating plates, when both fluids are considered as electrically conducting, incompressible with variable properties, viz. different viscosities, thermal and electrical conductivities. The transport properties of the two fluids are taken to be constant and the bounding plates are maintained at constant and equal temperatures. The governing partial differential equations are then reduced to the ordinary linear differential equations using two-term series. Closed form solutions for primary and secondary velocity, also temperature distributions are obtained in both the fluid regions of the channel. Profiles of these solutions are plotted to discuss the effects of the flow and heat transfer characteristics, and their dependence on the governing parameters involved, such as the Hartmann number, rotation parameter, ratios of the viscosities, heights, electrical and thermal conductivities.
15
Content available remote Interactions of the artificial light sources and the window glazing of buildings
EN
The article focuses on the issue of determining the real value of the heat transfer coefficient on the window glazing Ug in interaction of the window glazing and the artificial lighting. Measurements by the method of measuring the heat flow in situ conditions showed certain effects of the artificial lighting on the value Ug of the transparent constructions of a building. This knowledge can be used for energy performance evaluation of buildings.
PL
W artykule podjęto probe określenia współczynnika transferu ciepła wynikającego z interakcji oszklenia i sztucznego oświetlenia. Współczynnik transferu ciepła zależy między innymi od konstrukcji budynku.
EN
This paper presents a method based on the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for modelling the turbulent and thermal properties of the flow for cooling of a high-speed electrical machine. The method estimates the coefficients of thermal convection on the cooling surfaces of the machine, as well as the temperature and velocity fields of the coolant. The local values of the coefficients of convection are estimated for all of the cooling surfaces of the machine, including separate determinations for their inlet and outlet parts.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono metodę bazującą na obliczeniowej dynamice płynów dla zamodelowania turbulentnych i cieplnych właściwości przepływu chłodzącego wysokoobrotowe maszyny elektryczne. Metoda pozwala oszacować współczynniki konwekcji cieplnej z chłodzonych powierzchni maszyny, jak również pole temperaturowe i pole prędkości czynnika chłodzącego. Lokalne wartości współczynników konwekcji oszacowuje się dla wszystkich chłodzonych powierzchni maszyny, włączając też ich części wlotu i wylotu.
EN
Construction elements of power blocks such as collectors, separators or steam valves work in hazardous environment. During start-up and shut-down operations they are exposed to sudden temperature and pressure changes, that cause high stresses at certain points. Additionally, the cyclic character of loading causes material fatigue, known as low-cyclic fatigue, which may lead to the formation of fracture. Manufacturers of steam boilers provide instructions for heating and cooling processes in order to operate safely. It is important to find the optimum parameters for heating and cooling operations, i.e. parameters that enable to conduct heating and cooling in the shortest time and keep the maximum stresses in the construction within allowable limits. Efforts are made to develop an appropriate method for determining optimum operating parameters during start-up and shut-down phase of the power units. In this paper two optimum parameters will be found. Based on these parameters heating and cooling processes will be carried out and compared with heating and cooling operations processed according to the German boiler regulations Technische Regeln fur Dampfkessel 301 (TRD).
PL
W pracy przedstawiono metodę do wyznaczenia takiego przebiegu temperatury czynnika, aby maksymalne naprężenia cieplne powstające podczas rozruchu lub odstawiania bloku energetycznego nie przekraczały naprężeń dopuszczalnych. Przy założeniu liniowej postaci przebiegu temperatury czynnika poszukiwane są dwa parametry. Przebiegi naprężeń cieplnych uzyskane przy nagrzewaniu lub ochładzaniu, przeprowadzonych według zaproponowanej metody, porównane są z przebiegami uzyskanymi na podstawie Niemieckiej Normy Technische Regeln fur Dampfkessel 301 (TRD).
EN
Clothing materials coated with semi-permeable membranes were analysed as products protecting the organism against heat loss as well as ensuring the drainage of sweat. Both physical and mathematical models of the coupled heat and water vapour transfer within the multilayer structures were discussed. Material parameters should be determined for different numbers of layers, compositions of the raw material and thicknesses of the laminate with a membrane. The heat transfer resistance and resistance of the water vapour transfer were determined, which helped to design material for clothing that fulfils the user’s expectations and ensures thermal comfort.
PL
Scharakteryzowano materiały odzieżowe, powleczone membranami półprzepuszczalnymi, pod kątem ich zdolności do ochrony organizmu przed utratą ciepła oraz zdolnością do odprowadzania potu wydzielonego przez człowieka. Wytypowane do badań materiały były zróżnicowane pod względem liczby warstw, składu surowcowego i grubości. Wyznaczono wartości oporu cieplnego i oporu pary wodnej, które stanowią podstawową wiedzę dla projektantów odzieży. Znajomość ta pozwala na świadome projektowanie materiałowe wyrobów odzieżowych, tak aby uzyskać wyrób, który pozwoli z jednej strony na optymalne wypełnianie funkcji określonych charakterem odzieży, z drugiej zaś zapewni użytkownikowi odzieży odpowiedni komfort w warunkach przyszłego użytkowania.
PL
Rosnąca gęstość upakowania podzespołów elektronicznych w nowoprojektowanych urządzeniach oraz istotny wzrost szybkości ich działania generują nowe warunki pracy, w których szczególnego znaczenia nabiera zagadnienie odprowadzania i rozpraszania ciepła. Bezpośrednio przekłada się to na niezawodność zespołu elektronicznego na płytce obwodu drukowanego. Niezawodność ta staje się złożoną funkcją ciepła wytwarzanego w czasie pracy podzespołów, rodzaju narzędzi zastosowanych do rozpraszania lub zarządzania ciepłem, stabilności termicznej stosowanych materiałów i środowiska pracy zespołu. W artykule przedstawiono przegląd zagadnień związanych zarówno ze sposobami zarządzania termicznego w zespołach elektronicznych, jak również materiałami i rozwiązaniami konstrukcyjnymi stosowanymi w podzespołach elektronicznych i płytkach obwodów drukowanych, których głównym zadaniem jest wspomaganie odprowadzania i rozpraszania ciepła celem obniżenia temperatury pracy podzespołów elektronicznych.
EN
The increasing of electronic components placement density, in new-projected devices, and significant growth of their work speed generates the new working conditions, in which the question of transfer and dissipating of heat are very important issue. Directly it concerns on reliability of electronic assembly. That reliability to become a complex function of heat which is generated during electronic components work, used tools to dissipate or management of heat, thermal stability of used materials and work environment of assembly. In the article there are presented information connected with heat management in electronic assemblies, materials and solutions which are applied in electronic components and Printed Circuit Boards.
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