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EN
The publication discusses the concept of modern embedded systems that can be programmed and build in bigger systems in order to ensure the safety of people with disabilities. Article presents the definition of embedded system and, also, introduces the definition of the author. What is more, article briefly presents the most popular and developed in the fastest way exemplary systems: ARM, STM32, Raspberry PI, Sony Spresense and NvidiaJetson. Moreover, the main reasons were described why the embedded systems are used in more and more solutions and the factors that strengthen this trend have been noted: labor costs reduction through automation, reduction of costs of development of a new product through the possibility of making quick changes and reduction of product testing time, value creation potential and, also, the way to individualize the possibilities of electronics. Also, the examples of usage of those systems were presented. Finally, the practical side of programming and testing the embedded systems were described: ‘radar‘ (a torch) for blind people, help with balance disorders and the device to help with problems with orientation in space. In the conclusions, author shapes the estimated potential future of electronics supported with modern embedded systems, which as author believes makes this article the comprehensive study.
EN
The article presents the design and execution of a startup system based on an Atmel AVR microcontroller. Due to its intended educational use, the system was equipped with a large number of peripherals connected to various microcontroller outputs using pin-cables. The diagram and PCB design feature an ergonomic layout of the microcontroller outputs and peripherals, to ensure clarity of connection. Libraries and examples were written in the C programming language, the code was compiled using Atmel Studio 7 software – the official Atmel programming environment. The startup system provides optimum conditions for learning related to microprocessor technology in the laboratory.
3
Content available remote Using fuzzy logic to stabilize the position of a Multi Rotor
EN
The article is a continuation of research into a stabilization system for the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle of vertical takeoff and landing. The stabilization system was designed on the basis of a fuzzy logic Mamdani type controller. In the framework of the research, the authors built a test stand with a Multi Rotor model, which allows "Hardware In The Loop" testing in real time. The control system was written in the Matlab/Simulink software and implemented to the Arduino microcontroller.
PL
Artykuł stanowi kontynuację badań nad układem stabilizacji do modelu Bezzałogowego Statku Powietrznego pionowego startu i lądowania. System stabilizacji zaprojektowany został w oparciu o regulator logiki rozmytej typu Mamdani. W ramach badań wykonane zostało stanowisko testowe z modelem quadrocoptera pozwalające na wykonywanie testów HIL „Hardware In The Loop” w czasie rzeczywistym. System sterowania napisany został w oprogramowaniu Matlab/Simulink i zaimplementowany do mikrokontrolera Arduino.
4
Content available remote Remote programming and reconfiguration system for embedded devices
EN
This article presents a concept of a system which can be utilized as a remote management add-on for embedded devices. It can be applied to resource-constrained wireless sensors and IoT nodes based on a general purpose microcontroller unit or a field programmable gate array (FPGA) chip. The proposed solution facilitates remote firmware update, management, and operation monitoring. Thanks to the utilization of standard protocols and interfaces, the proposed system is very flexible and it can be easily customized for multiple modern microcontrollers or programmable logic chips. The presented system can be an efficient solution for fast prototyping and it can be an alternative to a time-consuming process of bootloader development for ad hoc devices. It can also be applied to remote laboratory access for educational purposes. A proof of concept prototype implementation has been successfully developed and evaluated. The implementation is available on a free license and utilizes a commonly available and inexpensive hardware platform.
PL
W artykule opisano badania związane z możliwościami implementacyjnymi modulatorów OFDM stosowanych w systemach radiofonii cyfrowej. Dokonano porównania implementacji modulatora OFDM dla trybu pierwszego radiofonii cyfrowej w standardzie DAB/DAB+ w układzie programowalnym FPGA oraz na procesorze ogólnego przeznaczenia w architekturze x64. Badania były związane z współpracą autorów z twórcami implementacji modulatora dla standardu DAB+ w ramach fundacji OpenDigitalRadio oraz zaprezentowanie własnego sposobu implementacji układu modulacji.
EN
The article describes research related to the implementation possibilities of OFDM modulators used in digital radio systems. The comparison of the OFDM modulator implementation for the first digital radio broadcasting mode in the DAB / DAB + standard in the FPGA system and on the general transient processor in the x64 architecture has been made. The research was related to the cooperation of the authors with the creators of the implementation of the modulator for the DAB + standard as part of the OpenDigitalRadio foundation and to present their own way of implementing the modulation system.
6
Content available remote System wbudowany do sterowania oświetleniem stanowiska biurowego
PL
W pracy przedstawiono system wbudowany dedykowany do sterowania oświetleniem stanowiska roboczego. Przedstawiono budowę rozważanego systemu oświetleniowego z diodami LED i koncepcję jego sterowania. Przedstawiono wyniki badań skonstruowanego systemu, w szczególności wyniki pomiarów parametrów elektrycznych i optycznych. Przedyskutowano uzyskane wyniki badań.
EN
In the paper the embedded system dedicated to control lighting of the workplace is proposed. The construction of the considered lighting system with the power LED and the idea of its control are presented. Some results of investigations of the constructed lighting system, particularly some results of measurements of optical and electrical parameters, are shown and discussed.
EN
Cross modeling in embedded systems development is proposed in the paper. The main idea consists in a translation of SysML artifacts into the related Coloured Petri Net (CPN) models, which may be verified directly or using other tools, e.g. Temporal Logic Provers. The paper is an extension of [20] mainly by insertion of sequence diagrams (SysML) and presentation of their mapping into CPN models. The additional part describes communication features and completes the cross modeling approach.
EN
Background : Due to the increasing complexity of embedded systems, system designers use higher levels of abstraction in order to model and analyse system performances. STARSoC (Synthesis Tool for Adaptive and Reconfigurable System-on-Chip) is a tool for hardware/software co-design and the synthesis of System-on-Chip (SoC) starting from a high level model using the StreamsC textual language. The process behaviour is described in the C syntax language, whereas the architecture is defined with a small set of annotation directives. Therefore, these specifications bring together a large number of details which increase their complexity. However, graphical modelling is better suited for visualizing system architecture. Objectives : In this paper, the authors propose a graphical modelling editor for STARSoC design tool which allows models to be constructed quickly and legibly. Its intent is to assist designers in building their models in terms of the UML Component-like Diagram, and in the automatic translation of the drawn model into StreamsC specification. Methods : To achieve this goal, the Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) approach and well-known frameworks and tools on the Eclipse platform were employed. Conclusion : Our results indicate that the use of the Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) approach reduces the complexity of embedded system design, and it is sufficiently flexible to incorporate new design needs.
EN
Real time processing enables online reactions to dynamic environment changes. The author focuses on possibilities of implementing the Finite Element Method (FEM) to real time algorithms on microcontrollers. The paper presents the current state of the Real Time Finite Element Method (RTFEM) and describes results obtained by the author. The RTFEM for microcontrollers (with examples of use cases) is presented and results of the computations for the chosen platform are given. The results consider optimization of RTFEM computational algorithms for a microcontroller taking into account their execution time. All the tests were performed on the ARM-CortexM4F based STM32F429ZIT6 microcontroller. The obtained results were compared, discussed and presented in the paper.
10
Content available remote SoC research and development platform for distributed embedded systems
EN
This paper presents a novel research and development hardware platform for distributed embedded systems. The platform is based on Xilinx Zynq-7000 SoC devices and it enables a fast physical verification and behaviour analysis of the distributed systems. Furthermore, it eliminates the necessity for usage of a large number of physical devices, which results in the simpler structure and implementation, improved ergonomics in laboratory, lower costs and eliminates external, physical connection between modules. The article presents the architecture of the platform and concurrent process implementation using the EmbedCloud structure. Synthesis and optimization results for different number of end modules and an analysis of resource usage were provided.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano nową koncepcję sprzętowej platformy rozwojowo-badawczej dla rozproszonych systemów wbudowanych. Platforma oparta o układy Xilinx Zynq-7000 SoC, pozwala na szybką fizyczną weryfikację oraz analizę behawioralną systemów rozproszonych. Ponadto, eliminuje konieczność użycia dużej liczby fizycznych układów, co przekłada się na prostszą strukturę i implementację, poprawę ergonomii w laboratorium, niższe koszty oraz eliminuje zewnętrzne, fizyczne połączenia pomiędzy modułami. W artykule przedstawiono architekturę platformy oraz proces współbieżny zaimplementowany przy użyciu metody strukturalnej - EmbedCloud. Syntezy, optymalizacji i analizy użycia zasobów sprzętowych dokonano dla różnej liczby modułów końcowych.
11
EN
Paper presents a new method of patient activity monitoring, by using modern ADL (Activities of Daily Living) techniques. Proposed method utilizes energy efficient Bluetooth iBeacon BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) modules, developed by Apple. Main advantage of this technology is the ability to detect neighboring devices, which belong to the same device family. Proposed method is based on observing changes of received signal strength indicator (RSSI) in the time domain. The RSSI analysis is performed in order to asses a human activity. Such observation may be particularly useful for monitoring consciousness of elder people, where reaction time of emergency rescuers and appropriate rescue operations may save the human lives.
EN
The embedded engineering became the key success factor in many segments of human activities. Therefore, the needs for embedded engineers rapidly grew in last years. The engineering education in embedded systems is facing new challenges with the interdisciplinary approach and the high development dynamics of many specific components. The paper presents the results of Remote Laboratory (RL) service for distance learning for Embedded Systems, developed under Embedded Engineering Learning Platform (E2LP) – 7th Framework Programme funded project. This project provides an unified learning platform for embedded engineering over-coming an important problem of the high introduction overload by separate courses typical for embedded engineering studies. The developed E2LP includes the unified platform for typical courses (digital system design, computer system design) accompanied with basic set of exercises. The study efficiency is improved using the RL functionality. E2LP RL delivered secure and open access e-learning portal, which allowed to create full course and provide alternative teaching methods through the real-time experiments. The whole concept was evaluated at partner universities as well as at Warsaw University of Technology, where we introduced the new learning model in Digital System Design course.
13
EN
The production of stereoscopic motion pictures has been recently getting increasingly popular. To provide the best quality of the resulting image, the parameters controlled must precisely correspond to the values calculated by the stereoscopic image analysis platform or chosen by a camera operator. Currently no integrated system exists, which can provide remote monitoring and control of the parameters of 3D rig and cameras on it. The parameters should be controllable both by the Rig Controller software, tablet application or hand controller. The paper discusses an innovative system for remote control of 3D camera rig created within the Recording of 3D Image (ROS3D) research project. The system controls several parameters of both camera rig - stereo base, convergence and camera lenses - focus distance, aperture and focal length. Several approaches of implementation of a solution for the aforementioned problem are presented and compared. The first proposed approach used custom servo motor controller with CAN bus as the communication interface between connected devices, i.e. Rig Controller board and hand manipulators. Another solution contains a commercial servo motor controller connected to the Rig Controller board via RS232 and commercial hand controller. D-Bus Inter-Process Communication (IPC) system is used to communicate between the servo motor controller drivers and Rig Controller software.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono koncepcję urządzenia kontrolno-pomiarowego dla energetyki, opartego na modelu architektury rozproszonej, wyposażonego w jednostkę centralną i moduły wewnętrzne o określonej funkcjonalności. Autorzy skupili się na problematyce identyfikacji, wymiany danych oraz automatycznej konfiguracji całego urządzenia w zależności od rodzaju i liczby przyłączonych w danym momencie do jednostki centralnej modułów wewnętrznych.
EN
In the paper the conception of measurement and control device for power industry with distributed architecture has been presented. The device consists of a central unit and internal modules with specified functionality. The authors concentrated on the problem of modules identification, data exchange and automatic configuration of the device depending on the number of internal modules connected to the central unit.
EN
The real time (RT) computations with the use of microcontrollers have been present in everyday life for years. They are very useful in e.g. online control of processes due to the ability to determine the proper control in case of any environment changes. The algorithms employed in RT computation must be as simple as possible to meet the imposed time limits. On the other hand, the continuous increase in computational power of modern microcontrollers and embedded platforms causes that more complex algorithms can be performed in the real time. However, during implementation of any algorithm the specific structure and requirements of the microcontroller must be taken into consideration. Another way of fulfilling the time limits of the RT computations is application of metamodel instead of model of controlling process. Within this paper the possibility of application of evolutionary algorithm (EA) to solve three chosen optimization problems in real time using microcontroller of ARM architecture was considered. Analyzed optimization problems were as follows: aluminum alloy anti-collision side beam hot stamping process, laminar cooling of dual phase (DP) steel sheets and minimization of the potential energy of the atomic clusters. All computations were performed using two different approaches i.e. low-level and object- oriented approach. Obtained results and drawn conclusions are presented.
PL
W artykule rozważano zastosowanie mikrokontrolerów w optymalizacji parametrów procesów metalurgicznych z użyciem algorytmów ewolucyjnych. Do wyznaczenia wartości funkcji przystosowania użyto metamodeli, zbudowanych w oparciu o funkcje wielomianowe i sztuczną sieć neuronową. Jako platformę testową wykorzystano zestaw uruchomieniowy ST-DISCOVERY. wyposażony w mikrokontroler STM32F429Z1T6 (rdzeń ARM-CortexM4F. architektura ARMv7M). Jest to 32-bitowy jednoukładowy mikrokomputer, wyposażony w sprzętową jednostkę zmiennoprzecinkową pojedynczej precyzji i wszystkie niezbędne peryferia pozwalające tworzyć samodzielny system mikroprocesorowy. Do implementacji algorytmu ewolucyjnego zastosowano dwa podejścia. W pierwszym użyto języka C ze wstawkami asemblera, a w drugim użyto środowiska programowania opartego o Visual Studio oraz bibliotekę .NET Micro Framework. W artykule przedstawiono optymalizację z użyciem metamodelu pozwalającego dobrać parametry procesu gorącego tłoczenia belki samochodowej, chłodzenia laminamego blach ze stali DP po walcowaniu na gorąco oraz minimalizację energii potencjalnej prostych układów kilkuatomowych. Porównano czasy pracy implementacji niskopoziomowej oraz wykorzystującej współczesny język obiektowy.
16
Content available remote Praktyczne nauczanie systemów wbudowanych z wykorzystaniem platformy Arduino
PL
Artykuł stanowi podsumowanie doświadczeń dydaktycznych w dziedzinie praktycznego nauczania systemów wbudowanych z wykorzystaniem platformy Arduino. Nauczanie zostało podzielone na dwa etapy poświęcone: 1) poznaniu rejestrów mikrokontrolera i konfigurowaniu portów i interfejsów na podstawie bezpośrednich wpisów do rejestrów; 2) wykorzystaniu magistral komunikacyjnych UART, SPI, I2c, 1-wire, Ethernet oraz samodzielnemu pisaniu bibliotek do transmisji danych po wybranych magistralach. W fazie uruchamiania projektu zastąpiono proste środowisko Arduino środowiskiem AtmelStudio, wyposażonym w możliwość debuggowania programu, integrując z nim przydatne biblioteki Arduino.
EN
The article is aimed at summarizing author’s experience in practical teaching of embedded systems using Arduino platform. The teaching process is divided into two levels: first level is devoted to getting experience in programming by direct entry to configuration and port registers of the microcontroller, the 2-nd level is devoted to using communication busses UART, SPI, I2C, 1-wire, Ethernet and writing own libraries to hold communication on these busses. While putting things in operation the simple Arduino platform is changed to more sophisticated AtmelStudio platform with capability of debugging the project (Arduino libraries are integrated in it).
PL
W pracy opisano projekt i realizację stanowiska laboratoryjnego do testowania algorytmów regulacji. Przedstawiono budowę mechaniczną oraz elektroniczną. Omówiono funkcje programowe umożliwiające sterowanie procesem. Podkreślono uniwersalność stanowiska, która polega na szerokich możliwościach konfiguracji, gdyż można badać prosty proces jednowymiarowy oraz skomplikowane procesy wielowymiarowe. Opisano możliwości zastosowania stanowiska, w szczególności do testowania algorytmów regulacji zaimplementowanych w systemach wbudowanych, wykorzystujących mikroprocesory, układy FPGA oraz sterowniki PLC. Omówiono przykład regulacji procesu za pomocą algorytmu regulacji predykcyjnej zaimplementowanego na mikroprocesorze.
EN
The article describes the design and implementation of a laboratory test-bench which may be used to evaluate control algorithms. Mechanical and electronic details are presented. The software features that allow to control the test-bench are discussed. The test-bench is very flexible since it may be easily configured to act as a single-input single-output process and as a number of complicated multiple-input multiple-output processes. Existing possibilities of development of control algorithms implemented on embedded systems based on microprocessors, FPGAs and PLCs are discussed. Finally, an example implementation of a model predictive control algorithm on a microprocessor is detailed.
EN
This paper presents the simple distributed system hardware platform for basic research. It allows to study the different variants and aspects of the data exchange or synchronization methods in distributed systems. Moreover, the platform has the ability to implement distributed embedded systems. The modularity of a system allows for fast reconfiguration of the platform, such as the exchange of end modules. Therefore, it is possible to make quick changes and verify the system operation.
EN
In this paper, the authors present selected examples of rapid prototyping environment consisting of a popular hardware platform like Arduino and software tools, like graphical language LabView. As a case study the MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) applications are described. First, the initial requirements regarding software and hardware are introduced. Next, some basic configuration procedures are presented. The main application example is a MEMS sensor data acquisition system. It shows the possibility of using LabView and non-dedicated hardware with a large number of Arduino compatible modules. The communication between Arduino and LabView is realized by a serial wire connection. Further examples show wireless communication with Arduino using Bluetooth link. The presented applications are very common in the embedded system environment and their implementation can be done with minimal effort on creating software code.
EN
The paper presents a part of a prototype system for the monitoring of selected vital functions of humans and some preliminary results obtained from the device using implemented algorithm. The system consists of such essential modules like a microcontroller board, an inertial measurement unit and additional sensors. The main task of the device is human movement monitoring and detecting selected anomalies, e.g. fall or fainting. At the first stage, the movement classification was considered. The main movement type are walking, running and selected variants of transitions between different phases like standing up or going downstairs. The determining of the movement is based on the intuitive algorithm using raw data from accelerometers complemented by sensors like barometer and heart rate monitor. The algorithm utilizes automated multiscale-based peak detection and wavelet transform energy calculations. Finally, some further work directions and development possibilities are discussed.
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