The most important component of bacterial cell walls especially Gram-positive bacteria is peptidoglycan, called also murein, PGN. The first time this synonym was used in 1964 by Weidel and Pelzer . Peptidoglycan is present in the outer layer of the cytoplasmic membrane and its structure. The structure of peptidoglycan depends on the bacteria strain. It is estimated that in Gram-negative bacteria, it occupies only about 10–20% of the total area of the cell wall, when in Gram-positive bacteria it is 50 and up to 90% of all space. Problems with isolation with high purity of biological material shows the need for developing techniques for chemical synthesis of peptidoglycan fragments and their analogs. In past few years there has been a growing interest within the synthesis of compounds glycoprotein (glycopeptides, peptidoglycan, etc.). As a basis for the construction of cell walls of many bacteria. Despite intensive research and gain significant knowledge of the physical and biological, chemical synthesis or biosynthesis (Fig. 5 and 6) of peptidoglycan, not so far failed to unambiguously determine its three-dimensional structure. The works of Kelman and Rogers  and Dimitriev  nearer picture of its structure. However, the time to develop in vivo visualization of cell structure it will be difficult to identify correctly peptidoglycan three-dimensional structure. Due to the important biological roles of murein, many research centers have taken to attempt their chemical synthesis. For biological research began to use chemically synthesized peptidoglycan fragments which guaranteed both uniform and a certain structure. An important roles in the development of methods of chemical synthesis of peptidoglycan had H. Chowdhury work, Fig. 8 , Hesek, Fig. 9 and 10 [36, 37], Dziarskiego  and Boneca  and Inamury [34, 40].