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EN
The profession of a seller (especially in small grocery stores) does not enjoy a social respect. The reasons for this are, above all, low requirements, low salary and difficult working conditions. In addition, too little attention is paid in the literature to this profession from the point of view of safety and hazards at work. However, the problem of working conditions in the position of a salesman is an important issue concerning a very large number of people. The paper deals with this difficult topic by describing selected methods of ergonomic analysis and using them to assess occupational risk at the seller's workplace. In the paper, the results of the Ergonomic Checkpoint List, as well as the results of questionnaire surveys are presented. All the results are related to the possibility of proper identification and the probability of hazards occurrence in the position of a seller.
EN
The work presents the assessment of occupational risk using the Risk Score method for the position of a policeman from the Patrol and Intervention Link. A policeman in this position often works in conditions that are not only hazardous to health, but also to life. It patrols streets, buildings, etc. and participates in many interventions. Therefore, it seems important to raise the topic of occupational risk in such a position. By assessing occupational risk using the Risk Score method, threats were identified with the highest risk and activities that may reduce this risk have been indicated.
EN
Noise is one of the most common physical factors causing nuisance and harmful to worker health in the long term. The focus of the research was the measurement and analysis of the noise level at the screw injection moulding machine operation station intended for plastic elements’ manufacturing. The occupational risk evaluation was conducted based on the observed data. The results of the study allowed for the development of precautionary and preventive measures. Furthermore, the paper features identification of the work environment factors occurring in the studied manufacturing enterprise with division to dangerous, harmful, and bothersome.
EN
In accordance with the applicable law, an employer cares for safe and hygienic working conditions. An occupational risk analysis isone of the elements determining the level of safety. The risks that may significantly contribute to the damage are identified through the activities related to the risk assessment. The role of an employer is to counteract these threats. The COVID-19 pandemic has had many negative consequences for the functioning of enterprises and the health and safety at work. The subject of the paper is to update the occupational risk among selected employees after the COVID-19 pandemic. Depending on the work environment, an employee is exposed to various types of risks that significantly affect not only health and safety, but also comfort, quality and work efficiency. COVID-19 causes various negative consequences, so it is important for the employer to monitor the employee's return process after the infection for a long time (approximately 2 months). Adjusting working conditions and temporarily reducing work intensity (expectations and work results) relatively increase the possibility of recovery and a faster return to full productivity.
EN
Purpose: Elaborate stochastic models to comprehensive evaluation of occupational risks in “man - machine - environment” systems taking into account the random and dynamic nature of the impact on the employee of negative factors over time. Design/methodology/approach: Within study, the methods of probability theory and the theory of Markov processes - to find the limit distribution of the random process of dynamic impact on the employee of negative factors over time and obtain main rates against which the level of occupational risks within the "man - machine - environment" systems can be comprehensively evaluated; Erlang phases method, Laplace transform, difference equations theory, method of mathematical induction - to elaborate a method of analytical solution of the appropriate limit task for a system of differential equations in partial derivatives and appropriate limit conditions were used. Findings: A system of differential equations in partial derivatives and relevant limit conditions is derived, which allowed to identify the following main rates for comprehensive evaluation of occupational risks in systems "man - machine - environment": probability of excess the limit of the employee's accumulation of negative impact of the harmful production factor; probability of the employee’s injury of varying severity in a random time. An method to the solution the limit task for a system of differential equations, which allows to provide a lower bounds of the probability of a certain occupational danger occurrence was elaborated. Research limitations/implications: The elaborated approach to injury risk evaluation is designed to predict cases of non-severe injuries. At the same time, this approach allows to consider more severe cases too, but in this case the task will be more difficult. Practical implications: The use of the elaborated models allows to apply a systematic approach to the evaluation of occupational risks in enterprises and to increase the objectivity of the evaluation results by taking into account the real characteristics of the impact of negative factors on the employee over time. Originality/value: For the first time, a special subclass of Markov processes - Markov drift processes was proposed and substantiated for use to comprehensive evaluation of occupational risks in “man - machine - environment” systems.
EN
Purpose: Develop a system of automated occupational health and safety management to improve the procedure for minimizing occupational risks and ensure comprehensive protection of employees from the impacts of negative factors of the systems "man - machine - environment". Design/methodology/approach: The following set of scientific methods was used in the study: analysis of normative-legal documents and scientific-technical literature in the field of building and functioning of occupational safety and health management systems, methods of system analysis, simulation methods, namely discrete-event simulation (DES) of random and dynamic processes, methods of decision theory and data mining. Findings: Based on the results of the research, a system of automated occupational health and safety management, which due to the connection the functionally independent elements (according to a certain scheme) allows to provide comprehensive protection of employees from the impacts of negative factors of the system "man - machine - environment" and reduce occupational injuries and diseases, was developed. This is done by constant monitoring and promt correcting of parameters of impact on the employee of the specified factors. The developed system was implemented in the occupational health and safety management system of the industrial enterprise "Stalkanat-Silur" (Odessa, Ukraine), resulting in reducing the number of accidents, in particular, in dangerous areas of production by 33.3%, increasing the economic efficiency of the enterprise through increasing the level of productivity by 5% and reducing in the number of social insurance payments by 11%. Research limitations/implications: The developed system can be implemented both within separate industrial premises and in the enterprise as a whole, but the number of its elements could be changed (increase / decrease) depending on the number of jobs and dangerous areas that need control. Practical implications: The implementation of the proposed system allows to increase the level of economic efficiency of the enterprise by increasing the level of labor productivity due to reducing the negative impact on the employee of harmful factors and compliance with rational mode of work and rest in each workplace, as well as by reducing the number of social insurance payments due to reducing the occupational injuries and diseases. Originality/value: For the first time the system of automated occupational health and safety, which, in contrast to existing automated occupational risk minimization systems and traditional occupational health and safety management systems, provides comprehensive protection of employees from the the impacts negative factors of the system "man - machine-environment", by constant monitoring the parameters of such impact and their prompt correction in case of deviation of the specified parameters from the set criteria, was developed and proposed for use at enterprises, institutions and organizations.
PL
W artykule dokonano analizy potencjalnych zagrożeń wynikających z emisji promieniowania nadfioletowego oraz przedstawiono kryteria oceny zagrożenia tym promieniowaniem. Scharakteryzowano źródła promieniowania – elektryczne promienniki oraz technologiczne źródła promieniowania UV. Następnie przedstawiono wyniki oceny ryzyka zawodowego dla przykładowych stanowisk pracy, na których występuje ekspozycja pracowników na promieniowanie UV.
EN
In this article an analysis of the potential hazards, coming from the emission of the UV radiation, was performed and the criteria for the evaluation of the threat of said radiation were presented. Sources of the UV radiation were described – electric radiators as well as technological sources of the UV radiation. Following that the Author presents the results of the evaluation of occupational risk on selected work stations where the exposition of employees to the UV radiation is present.
PL
W artykule omówiono sposoby określania lub wyliczania wartości maksymalnej dopuszczalnej ekspozycji (MDE) oka i skóry na promieniowanie laserowe oraz znaczenie tych wartości w ocenie ryzyka związanego z narażeniem człowieka na przypadkową ekspozycję promieniowaniem laserowym. Omówiono opracowane algorytmy do wyznaczania MDE, bazujące na wytycznych określonych w rozporządzeniu Ministra Pracy i Polityki Społecznej z 6 czerwca 2014 r. w sprawie najwyższych dopuszczalnych stężeń i natężeń czynników szkodliwych dla zdrowia w środowisku pracy. Zaprezentowano również przykłady obliczeń przeprowadzonych z wykorzystaniem algorytmów, wskazując na znaczenie MDE w ocenie ryzyka związanego z narażeniem człowieka na przypadkową ekspozycję promieniowania laserowego.
EN
The article describes how to determine or calculate the value of the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) of laser radiation to eyes and skin. The importance of these values in the risk assessment of human exposure to accidental laser radiation were also discussed. The developed algorithms for determining MPE are based on the guidelines set out in the Regulation of the Minister of Labour and Social Policy of June 6, 2014 on the maximum permissible concentrations and intensities of harmful factors in the work environment. Examples of calculations carried out with the use of the developed algorithms are also presented. These examples show the importance of MPE in assessing the risk of human exposure to accidental exposure to laser radiation.
PL
Artykuł analizuje wyniki ankiety, przeprowadzonej wśród górników, pracowników oddziału odstawy głównej w zakresie ich skłonności do podejmowania ryzyka. Wytypowana grupa badawcza stanowiła 35% stanu osobowego oddziału. Ryzykowne zachowania pracowników są wpisane w codzienność wykonywanych zadań, które to mogą prowadzić do zdarzeń niebezpiecznych. Na podstawie odpowiednich kwestionariuszy i ankiet można określić skłonność osób do podejmowania ryzyka oraz ich wpływu na bezpieczeństwo pracy. Skłonność do zachowań ryzykownych, psycholodzy lokalizują zazwyczaj w strukturze osobowości, kiedy to dane osoby częściej niż inne podejmują tego rodzaju zachowania. Pracownik, według psychologów, szacuje ryzyko jakie wiąże się z podjęciem działania ryzykownego i prawdopodobieństwo wystąpienia straty czy korzyści. Oprócz tego w trakcie podejmowania decyzji analizuje wszelką wiedzę jaką ma na temat powstałego ryzyka. Ankieta wykorzystuje formę pytań zamkniętych z możliwością odpowiedzi TAK lub NIE.
EN
The article analyzes the results of a survey carried out among miners, employees of the main depot branch in terms of their propensity to take risks. The selected research group accounted for 35% of the branch’s staff. Risky behaviours of employees are inscribed in the daily routine of their tasks, which may lead to dangerous events. The propensity of people to take risks and their impact on work safety can be determined on the basis of appropriate questionnaires and surveys. Psychologists tend to locate the propensity for risky behaviours in the personality structure, where the persons concerned are more likely than others to undertake such behaviour. The employee, according to psychologists, estimates the risk involved in taking risky action and the probability of loss or benefit. In addition, he analyses all his knowledge of the risks involved in making decisions. The questionnaire uses the form of closed questions with the possibility of answering YES or NO.
EN
In enterprises, accidents happen mainly due to improper and dangerous behavior of employees. The approach called Behavioral Safety (BBS) assumes that the most effective attempts to modify dangerous employee behavior are based on influencing people abuse. As a consequence, change in behavior leads to a change in the way of thinking and attitude. In the other words, as a result of using behavioral methods for a long time, employees create a safe attitude that in the future translates into further safe behavior. Mutual control of employees during work is not accepted in Poland and positively perceived by participants of the work process. It is difficult to change the mentality and habits of people. Increasingly, employee behavior control systems are implemented in medium and large enterprises. Shaping a positive attitude of the employee to such systems and methods is a long and time-consuming work that lies with the employer and OSH supervisor. Presented studies have shown that a fairly large pro-portion of employees do not understand the positive effects of using behavioral safety methods. There is a great need to shape awareness of safe behaviors among Polish employees using behavioral safety, i.e. safety based on mutual observation of behaviors. This paper contains the results of the first stage of the study aimed at modifying undesirable behavior among employees using the implemented BBS system.
EN
The operation of various types of machinery and equipment constituting a material work environment exposes employees to many different hazards (especially mechanical hazards). According to the Polish law, the basic duty of both machine manufacturers and employers is to limit the level of these hazards and to provide employees with broadly understood safety. The article presents the basic issues related to the technical safety of laser cutter operators on the example of a selected industrial plant. Technical and organizational solutions used to reduce the level of risk associated with the use of the selected machine were assessed.
PL
Ocena ryzyka zawodowego jest jednym z najważniejszych narzędzi do analizy stanowiska pracy, aby zapewnić pracownikom bezpieczne warunki pracy. W artykule omawiamy ocenę ryzyka zawodowego podczas pandemii SARS-CoV-2.
PL
Operator zajmujący się utylizacją surowca pochodzenia zwierzęcego pracuje w bardzo specyficznych warunkach. W szczególności pracownik narażony jest na czynniki biologiczne. Jak przygotować stanowisko pracy związane z przetwórstwem surowego mięsa?
PL
Proces anodowania to powierzchowna obróbka metali, w której elektrolitycznie wytwarza się warstwę tlenku. Warstwa ta jest wytwarzana w procesie kąpieli w kwasie siarkowym 96%. Kwas ten ma zastosowanie w procesie obróbki powierzchni, oczyszczania, trawienia, w procesach elektrolitycznych.
PL
Prace murarskie i zbrojarskie są przeważnie związane z wznoszeniem budynków, obiektów infrastruktury. W związku z rodzajem wykonywanych budowli, część prac może odbywać się poniżej gruntu lub na wysokości. Wykopy są zaliczane do obiektów budowlanych (stałych lub tymczasowych) do grupy budowli ziemnych.
PL
Budownictwo należy w dalszym ciągu do najbardziej niebezpiecznych działów gospodarki. W celu zminimalizowania ryzyka wystąpienia wypadku osoby zaangażowane w prowadzenie budowy powinny przestrzegać przepisów i starać się organizować ergonomiczne oraz bezpieczne stanowiska pracy
EN
The article presents the element of occupational health and safety management in enterprises, with particular emphasis on the identification of occupational hazards. The factors that may be a source of occupational hazards have been classified and divided. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of occupational hazards on work safety in the opinion of employees of micro and small enterprises. The research was carried out using the proprietary questionnaire. The results were verified by means of a direct interview with elements of observation. The research was compared with the trends prevailing in the enterprises of the European Union countries according to the results of the research conducted by EU-OSHA. Polish respondents considered physical and psychophysical factors to be the main occupational hazards. The results turned out to be very similar to those presented by EU-OSHA in its publicly available reports. The basic principle of occupational health and safety management, i.e. identification of occupational hazards, is reliability and correctness. Identification of occupational hazards gives the opportunity to take correct and effective corrective and preventive actions reducing occupational risk, for example through the effective use of personal protective equipment, or a more detailed treatment of both introductory and instructional training. The article also highlights the migration of individual occupational hazards, which depends on many factors, both professional and nonprofessional.
EN
Purpose: Elaborate and substantiate stochastic models of occupational risk evaluation for application in the occupation health and safety. Design/methodology/approach: Analysis of scientific and technical literature and regulatory framework for risk evaluation in the occupation health and safety; methods of probability theory, theory of Markov processes; methods of restoration theory. Findings: A system of differential equations and limit conditions for finding the limit distribution of probabilities of a random process of occupational dangers is derived. Based on the results of solving the limit value task, expressions to determine a number of key indicators by which the level of occupational risk can be evaluated are obtained. Research limitations/implications: The proposed approach aims to evaluation the risk associated with the impact on the employee of harmful factors, but can also be used to evaluate the injury risk. But in this case the received limit value task will be much more difficult. Practical implications: The application of the proposed approach allows to increase the level of occupational safety by taking into account the stochastic characteristics of the negative factors impact on the employee during occupational risks evaluating, as well as the possibility of setting such values of controllable parameters that will allow with a certain probability to ensure not to exceed the level of impact accumulation in the employee of the consequences of these factors. Originality/value: Stochastic models of occupational risk evaluation based on the application of Markov drift processes for the modeling the hybrid nature of the negative factors impact on the employee, which occurs within the real systems "man - technical system - production environment" were elaborated and substantiated for the first time.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań drgań działających w sposób ogólny na 30 stanowiskach pracy związanych z przeróbką surowców mineralnych. Analiza narażenia na drgania ogólne wykazała, że na tego typu stanowiskach pracy mogą wystąpić przekroczenia wartości dopuszczalnych. Na 7 spośród zbadanych stanowisk ryzyko zawodowe ze względu na drgania ogólne oszacowano jako duże. Na 6 stanowiskach pracy wyznaczone wartości dziennych ekspozycji przekraczały 0,5 NDM (ryzyko średnie), także na 6 stanowiskach nie przekraczały 0,5 NDN (ryzyko małe). Na 11 stanowiskach ryzyko zawodowe oszacowano jako pomija/lne małel (wartości dziennych ekspozycji nie przekraczają 0,2 NDN). Uzyskane wyniki badań wskazują na potrzebę przeprowadzania pomiarów kontrolnych i oceny drgań ogólnych na stanowiskach pracy związanych z przeróbką surowców mineralnych.
EN
The paper presents the results of whole-body vibration research at 30 workstations associated with the processing of raw minerals. Measurements of the acceleration of mechanical vibrations were carried out at selected workstations located in places where the person supervising the machine/equipment works. Based on the results of the measurements, daily exposure levels to whole-body vibration and occupational risk were determined. The risk was large at 7 workstations. At 6 workstations the daily exposure values exceeded 0.5 the threshold limit value (TLV) (medium risk), at 6 workstations did not exceed 0.5 TLV(low risk). At 11 workstations daily exposure values do not exceed 0.2 TLV (negligible risk). Obtained research results indicate the need to carry out control measurements and WBV assessment at workstations associated with the processing of mineral raw materials.
EN
The results of a literature review show that there is an undeniable link between the working conditions connected with the existence of threats in a form of harmful, dangerous (mechanical) or strenuous factors and the employees’ health condition determining the level of their ability to continue their work. It is necessary to shape the employee’s working environment in an appropriate way by eliminating or minimising the threats related to the work process (in accordance with the binding norms) in order to prevent the existence of any health problems or such undesirable events as accidents at work. Thus, the issue concerning the influence of elimination or limitation of threats connected with the existence of harmful, dangerous (mechanical) and strenuous factors in the work process on the level of employment in the hazardous conditions considering the prevention of early leave from the performed work is becoming an important and current research problem. Therefore, in this article, the attempt was made to present the dependencies between the level of considered employment and the factors affecting the level of acceptable occupational risk. The econometric modelling, which uses cross-section-time data, was applied. Moreover, the analysis showing the changes in shaping considered variables was performed. The presented information refers to Polish regions and was taken from the publications of CSO (Statistics Poland) covering the period 2011 - 2017.
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