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EN
This economic analysis contains a case study for a 100 ha apple orchard where a pruning-to-energy (PtE) strategy is employed. Technical aspects of pruned biomass harvesting in apple orchards are outlined, with emphasis on the efficient harvesting of pruning residues using a dedicated baling machine. Economic aspects are approached using economic performance metrics such as the net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR). It is found, for a 10-year project on the 100 ha orchard, that the NPV is €5650, the IRR is 8.71% and the payback time is about 8.0 years. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the economic metrics are highly influenced by the quantity of prunings, orchard area, and the price of pruning residues at the final user. The distance from the orchard to the final user (6 km in the analysed case) and orchard labour costs are both less impactful. The analysis shows that pruned biomass harvesting is technologically feasible in apple orchards, while the obtained values of the economic metrics indicate the economic feasibility of such bioenergy solutions.
EN
From 2014 to 2015 the influence of foliar application of sulphur on apple trees (Gloster cv.)was investigated in the apple orchard at the Research and Breeding Institute of Pomology in Holovousy (North-East Bohemia, Czech Republic). The experiment was based on foliar applications of fertilizers containing different forms of sulphur: elemental S0, sulphate SO4 2− and thiosulphate S2O3 2− (in combination with other macro- and microelements) and fungicides with or without sulphur: Kumulus (S0 + F) and the conventional fungicide programme (F), in the respective treatments. Apple scab incidence on leaves and fruits was investigated in each experimental year according to the relevant methodology of the OEPP/EPPO standard PP1/5(3) Venturia inaequalis. Data on the incidence of apple scab correlate with the process of pathogen life cycle and risk of infection on the given dates. The incidence of apple scab was the lowest in 2014 in treatment S0 + F (10.8 % on leaves, 2.8 % on fruits) and F (15.8 % on leaves, 6 % on fruits) where conventional fungicides were used. When compared with the other treatments these treatments were the most effective even if the incidence of scab in the individual treatments in 2015 increased by 28 to 60 % due to high infection pressure. The results confirmed the efficiency of the conventional fungicide programme (S0 + F and F) against apple scab incidence on fruits. What is more, the results were slightly better in the treatment, where the conventional fungicide programme was combined with fertilizer containing elemental S (S0 + F) in comparison with fungicides applied alone (F). The effect of the other forms of sulphur (SO4 and S2O3) on apple scab control has not been confirmed. According to the results, the application of the conventional fungicide programme (S0 + F and F) is more effective against scab incidence than the inorganic forms of sulphur alone.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono ocenę wpływu nawadniania podkoronowego na plonowanie jabłoni Fuji Kiku, w trzecim roku owocowania w okresie wegetacyjnym 2014 roku. W okresie wegetacyjnym 2014 roku, charakteryzującym się sumą opadów wyższą od średniej z wielolecia o 90 mm, wystąpiły dłuższe okresy bezopadowe, które spowodowały zastosowanie uzupełniającego nawadniania, dawką sumaryczną w ilości 80 mm. Spowodowała ona przyrost plonu jabłoni o 1,8·t ha-1 w stosunku do plonu uzyskanego z sadu nienawadnianego (kontrolnego).
EN
The paper presents an assessment of the effect of under-crown irrigation on the yield of Fuji Kiki apple trees, in the third year of fruiting in the vegetation period of 2014. Sum of rainfalls during the vegetation period of 2014 was higher than mean rainfalls in the period of 90 mm. Dry spells in the analyzed vegetation period were longer, it was necessary to use a supplementary irrigation (total dose of water - 80 mm). On the basic of obtained results it was found that increase in apple trees yield was higher by 1,8 t·ha-1 in comparison with the yield unirrigated plants.
4
EN
A side product emerging during apple orchard cultivation is pruned biomass, which may be used for energetic purposes. As Poland is the third largest producer of apples in the world, it is crucial to estimate the annual energetic potential of branches from apple tree pruning. In this paper, the theoretical, technical and economic potential of cut branches for energy production with distribution according to provinces (Voivodeships) is determined. Based on literature reviews and our own measurements the amount of produced branches was estimated to be 3.5 Mg×ha-1×year-1. It was shown, that the energetic potential of pruned biomass from apple trees in Poland is in the range of 7.9-12.5 PJ×year-1. Moreover, the abundance of that potential depends on the province and for a single Voivodeship, may vary from 0.04 PJ×year-1 up to 4.8 PJ×year-1.
PL
Celem prowadzonych badań było określenie wydajności oraz zapotrzebowania na moc sadowniczych kosiarek i urządzeń odchwaszczających wykorzystywanych do pielęgnacji powierzchni ekologicznego sadu jabłoniowego. Wyznaczono wydajności godzinowe maszyn oraz nakłady ponoszone na pielęgnację międzyrzędzi. Ilość zabiegów wykonanych w sezonie wegetacyjnym zależała od warunków atmosferycznych, rocznie przeprowadzano 5-8 zabiegów odchwaszczania i 7-9 zabiegów koszenia. Prędkości robocze oraz wydajności godzinowe maszyn zależały od intensywności zachwaszczenia oraz wysokości murawy, np. prędkość jazdy ciągnika z kosiarkami sadowniczymi wynosiła od 4,4 do 7,8 kmh-1. Wydajność robocza sadowniczych urządzeń odchwaszczających zależała od stopnia zachwaszczenia pasów ugoru i wynosiła od 0,4 do 1,2 hah-1. Wydajność robocza kosiarek 1,0-1,8 hah-1. Zapotrzebowanie na moc dla kosiarki bijakowej wynosiło ok. 8,5 kW na 1 m szerokości koszonej murawy i przewyższało moc potrzebną do pracy kosiarki nożycowej. Maksymalne zapotrzebowanie na moc dla glebogryzarki sadowniczej o szerokości roboczej 0,7 m wynosiło ponad 9 kW i było wyższe od zapotrzebowania na moc maszyny z uchylnym zespołem roboczym.
EN
The goal of researches was to evaluate the efficiency and power requirements of mowers and weeding equipment in organic orchard. It has been determined a hourly productivity of machines and expenditures on inter-row cultivation. During the season 5-8 weeding and 7-9 mowing treatments were made. Working speed and efficiency of machines depended on the weed infestation and the grow stage of turf, ex. the speed of the tractor with mower was from 4.4 to 7.8 kmh-1. Working efficiency of weeding machines depended on the degree of weed infestation, and it amounted from 0.4 to 1.2 hah-1. Working efficiency of mowers was 1.0 to 1.5 hah-1. Power consumption of flail mower was 8.5 kW for 1 m wide on mowing turf and exceeded the power needed to operate the drum mower. The maximum power demanded for orchard rotoculivator was higher than for the machine with tilting working unit.
PL
W latach 2009-2010 badano skuteczność preparatów NeemAzal-T/S (ekstrakt z nasion miodli indyjskiej, Azadirachta indica (L.) i Madex SC (preparat wirusowy) w zwalczaniu owocówki jabłkóweczki na jabłoni. Pierwszy z preparatów użyto w dawce 3,5 l/ha, drugi w dawce 0,25 l/ha. Stosowano również mieszaninę tych preparatów w wymienionych dawkach lub w dawkach o połowę niższych. Zabiegi wykonywano dwukrotnie w sezonie przeciwko I pokoleniu szkodnika. Doświadczenia wykonano na jabłoni odmiany 'Topaz' i 'Pinova'. Uzyskane wyniki wskazują, że przy użyciu testowanych preparatów możliwe jest ograniczenie strat powodowanych przez gąsienice owocówki jabłkóweczki. Lepsze wyniki zwalczania tego szkodnika uzyskano na poletkach traktowanych mieszaniną badanych środków, aniżeli po oddzielnym stosowaniu tych preparatów.
EN
Codling moth (Laspeyresia pomonella L.) is one of the most important pests occurring in apple organic orchards. Two products were assessed for their biological activity in reducing level of fruit infested by codling moth: NeemAzal T/S (azadirachtin) and Madex SC (granulosis virus). Field experiments were conducted during the years 2009-2010 at the Institute of Pomology and Floriculture in organic apple orchard. Both products in different doses reduced the number of damaged fruits. The highest effectiveness of NeemAzal-T/S at the dose of 3,5 l/ha in the mixture with Madex at the dose of 0,25 l/ha was proved.
PL
Celem pracy była ocena masowego rozkładu cieczy użytkowej w drzewach podczas opryskiwania sadu jabłoniowego. W badaniach użyto trzy opryskiwacze reprezentujące odmienne systemy emisji powietrza: kierowany (Sepia), poziomy (Holder QU16) i radialny (Storm 1001). Wszystkie opryskiwacze wyposażone były w tradycyjne rozpylacze wirowe. Opryskiwania wykonywano w okresie kwitnienia (maj) i w pełni ulistnienia drzew (lipiec) przy trzech prędkościach roboczych (4,0; 6,0 i 8,0 km h–1). Ocenę naniesienia cieczy użytkowej wykonano metodą fluorescencyjną przy użyciu sztucznych próbników wykonanych z bibuły filtracyjnej. Największe naniesienie uzyskano z opryskiwacza z kierowanym systemem emisji. W pełni ulistnienia naniesienie było średnio o 30% mniejsze niż dla okresu kwitnienia. Uzyskane wyniki wskazują na potrzebę zmian w zaleceniach formułowanych w etykietach środków ochrony roślin.
EN
The objective of the study was to measure the spray deposition on the treated apple trees during the applications made with different sprayers and working parameters. The treatments were made with three sprayers with different air-flow systems: directed air-jet, cross-flow and a radial-flow. All the sprayers were equipped with traditional hollow cone nozzles. The treatments were made during blossom and at full leaf stages. The sprayers were working at travel velocities 4.0; 6.0 and 8.0 km h-1. Deposit of fluorescent tracer was measured on the artificial collectors (filter paper) located in the tree canopies. During the full leaf stage deposition was decreased on average by 30% compared to blossom time. The highest deposition in both stages was observed for directed air-jet sprayer. The obtained data points on the need of changes in recommendations concerning the use of plant protection products.
8
Content available remote Funkcja maszyny rolniczej w kreowaniu postępu naukowo-technicznego w rolnictwie
EN
Machines, allowing the application of relevant technologies or restricting the erroneous activities of the farmer, bring knowledge to farms. These machines reduce the effort of work and meet the requirements formulated by Professor R. Michalek and Professor J. Kowalski in the research into the scientific and technical progress in the agricultural industry. The cognitive objective has been associated with the evaluation of the machines in the context of the problems of knowledge distribution. The observations of orchards in the Nowy Sącz District have provided some assistance, based upon the example of which, the following matters have been considered, notably: - the issues of farms modelling, as the overall grounds for further analyzes; - the possibilities of attaining the cognitive objective, as the detailed subject. The conceptual modelling has been proposed, in accordance with principles used in the IT science and corresponding to the UML language philosophy. The difficulties seen in farms modelling arise from the dissipation of knowledge, its size, and the necessity of specifying numerous, related structures. The ontology issues have created the necessity of establishing the base, acting as the prime, universal cognitive backbone. Some proprietary solutions have also been proposed. The following notions have been introduced to facilitate the realization of the detailed subject: - The declarative knowledge, related to the implementation of a specific technology by the machine; - The procedural knowledge, allowing the machine to respond depending on the situation it has recognized; - The declarative or procedural knowledge, describing the machine capabilities of interacting with other systems, in particular, with its operator. This has been called the potential for interaction. The types of declarative and procedural machines, as well as combined types and finely machines with potential for interaction have been relevantly recognized. The focus has chiefly been on the declarative type, the most popular in the solutions currently applied. The hypothesis about the possibility of determining the amount of knowledge that characterizes these machines in a formal way has been confirmed. The proprietary methods of evaluating this amount of knowledge based upon cognitive modelling, symbolic models of physics and qualitative interpretation of phenomena have been presented. The assumptions adopted have set out the relevant perspective, physical situation and the original space with the specific inception entropy. The method has been illustrated with the examples from the orchards sector. The problem of the "amount" of knowledge, the carrier of which machines are, was not considered in the agricultural industry, and the results are part of the cognitive model of the farm. The procedural knowledge features different and diversified character, mostly corresponding to the algorithmic issues with a certain computation complexity. The behavioural models assisted assessments of information processing by individuals are problematic and difficult. The arguments and examples documenting the necessity of further works have been presented. It is doubtless that the designers and researchers should aim at incorporating the aspects of shaping and distribution of knowledge between the farmer and the farming machine in a way that is less intuitive and more formal.
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