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PL
Określanie dojrzałości termicznej palinomorf na podstawie ich barwy jest metodą powszechnie stosowaną w prospekcji węglowodorów. Kolor zewnętrznej błony miospor zmienia się na skutek podgrzania od bladożółtego po czarny w zależności od paleotemperatury. Obecnie funkcjonuje wiele skal barw palinomorf skorelowanych z wartościami refleksyjności witrynitu, maksymalną temperaturą pogrzebania i stadiami generacji węglowodorów. Ze względu na zróżnicowany zarówno pod względem taksonomicznym, jak i morfologicznym materiał autorka posłużyła się skalą TAI AMOCO. Przeanalizowano ponadto udział poszczególnych grup kerogenu w palinofacjach pod kątem ich węglowodorowego potencjału. Badaniami objęto osady górnego permu i triasu z 11 otworów wiertniczych zlokalizowanych w północnej części niecki nidziańskiej. Wykazały one, że w próbkach triasowych oraz w próbkach górnego permu z otworu Milianów IG 1 dominuje jasnożółty do pomarańczowego kolor spor i ziaren pyłku, odpowiadający indeksowi TAI od 1 do 4, czyli stadium przed generacją ropy naftowej i stadium wczesnej generacji ropy naftowej. Jedynie w próbach górnego permu z otworu Pągów IG 1 dominuje brązowy kolor miospor, który odpowiada indeksowi TAI od 4+ do 5, czyli głównemu stadium generacji ropy naftowej. Dominująca wartość refleksyjność witrynitu Ro wynosi 0,4–0,6%, a zatem stopień dojrzałości materii organicznej w utworach górnego permu i triasu jest niezbyt wysoki, co świadczy o stosunkowo niskich temperaturach diagenezy osadu (< 80°C). Z analizy palinofacji wynika, że w utworach górnego permu i triasu występuje kerogen mieszany i strukturalny. Kerogen mieszany, stwierdzony w skałach węglanowych, zawiera amorficzny kerogen drobnorozproszony i „fluffy” pochodzenia glonowego oraz kerogen strukturalny, pochodzenia terygenicznego, głównie egzynit i witrynit. Kerogen mieszany charakteryzuje się potencjałem ropnym (kerogen ropotwórczy), natomiast kerogen strukturalny – potencjałem ropno-gazowym.
EN
Determining the thermal maturity of palynomorph based on their color is a method commonly used in hydrocarbon prospecting. The color of the outer membrane of miospores (exine) changes as a result of heating from pale yellow to black depending on the paleotemperature. Currently, there are many palynomorph color scales correlated with the value of vitrinite reflectance, temperature of burial and hydrocarbon generation stages. Due to the varied material, both in taxonomic and morphological terms, the author used the TAI AMOCO scale. Furthermore, the share of individual kerogen groups in palynofacies was analyzed in terms of their hydrocarbon potential. The Upper Permian and Triassic deposits from eleven boreholes located in the north part of the Nida Basin were investigated. They showed that the Triassic and in the Upper Permian samples from the Milianów IG 1 borehole, are dominated by the pale yellow to orange color of spores and pollen grains, corresponding to a TAI index from 1 to 4, i.e. the pre-generation, dry gas and the early oil generation windows. In turn, only the samples of the Upper Permian from the Pągów IG 1 borehole are dominated by the brown color of miospores, which corresponds to a TAI index from 4+ to 5, i.e. the peak oil prone. Dominant vitrinite reflectance Ro varies from 0,4% to 0,6%, so the degree of organic matter maturity in the Upper Permian and Triassic deposits is not very high, which indicates relatively low temperatures of sediment diagenesis (< 80°C). Analysis of palynofacies showed that the Upper Permian and Triassic deposits contain mixed and structural kerogen. Mixed kerogen, occurring in carbonate rocks, contains amorphous fine-scattered kerogen and “fluffy” of algae origin, as well as structural kerogen of terrigeneous origin, mainly exinite and vitrinite. Mixed kerogen is characterized by oil potential, whereas structural kerogen – by gas-oil potential.
PL
Głównym celem artykułu jest odtworzenie szczegółów budowy strukturalnej utworów triasu i paleozoiku centralnej części przedgórza Karpat na podstawie interpretacji nowych materiałów sejsmicznych 3D. W ramach interpretacji wykonano analizę atrybutów sejsmicznych, wśród których najbardziej pomocne były: Time gain, Relative acoustic impedance, First derivative, Dominant frequency oraz Instantaneous bandwidth. Dotychczasowe informacje na temat budowy geologicznej kompleksu paleozoicznego w tym obszarze pochodziły głównie z interpretacji profili sejsmicznych 2D, koncepcji regionalnych oraz informacji z jedynego głębokiego otworu wiertniczego zrealizowanego na przełomie lat 50. i 60. XX wieku. Wyniki przeprowadzonej analizy obrazu sejsmicznego wskazują, że podłoże jury zbudowane jest z szeregu bloków tektonicznych o zróżnicowanej wielkości oddzielonych powierzchniami dyslokacji. W większości mają one charakter bloków wychylonych (tilted blocks), stanowiąc pozostałość kaledońsko-waryscyjskiego systemu tektonicznego. Utwory paleozoiczne o wyraźnie uporządkowanych ciągłych refleksach sejsmicznych silnie kontrastują w obrazie sejsmicznym z zalegającym poniżej kompleksem anchimetamorficznych skał najwyższego ediakaru o nieuporządkowanym, jednorodnym zapisie. Klastyczne utwory dolnego triasu w pierwszej kolejności wypełniają głębsze partie półrowów tektonicznych. Na podstawie analizy obrazu sejsmicznego kompleks ten podzielono na dwie serie: dolną, o zdecydowanie mniejszych wartościach amplitudy i zauważalnie mniejszej ciągłości refleksów sejsmicznych, oraz górną, o zróżnicowanej dynamice i większej ciągłości refleksów. Najwyższym analizowanym kompleksem są węglanowe utwory retu i wapienia muszlowego, cechujące się wysokimi wartościami amplitudy i dużą ciągłością refleksów, dzięki czemu są one łatwo identyfikowalne na sekcjach sejsmicznych. Przeprowadzona analiza z wykorzystaniem atrybutów sejsmicznych pozwoliła na określenie charakterystyki sejsmicznej poszczególnych kompleksów litostratygraficznych triasu i paleozoiku oraz wniosła bardziej szczegółowe informacje o budowie geologicznej obszaru badań.
EN
The main purpose of the article was to reconstruct the structural details of the Triassic and Palaeozoic formations of the central part of the Carpathian Foreland based on interpretation of new 3D seismic data. The interpretation included the analysis of seismic attributes, among them Time Gain, Relative acoustic impedance, First derivative, Dominant frequency and Instantaneous bandwidth were the most useful. Previous knowledge on the geological structure of the Palaeozoic complex in this area was derived mainly from the interpretation of 2D seismic sections, regional concepts and data from the only deep well drilled in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The results of the seismic image analysis show that the Jurassic sub-surface is composed of a number of tectonic blocks of various sizes, separated by dislocation zones. Most of them are tilted blocks which are the remnants of the Caledonian-Variscan tectonic system. Palaeozoic sediments with clearly arranged continuous seismic reflectors strongly contrast in the seismic image with the complex of anchimetamorphic rocks of the uppermost Ediacaran characterized by disarranged, homogeneous record. Clastic formations of the Lower Triassic fill primarily the deeper parts of the tectonic half-grabens. Based on the seismic image analysis, the complex is divided into two series: the lower one, with significantly lower amplitude values and noticeably lower continuity of seismic reflectors and the upper one with diversified dynamics and greater continuity of reflectors. The highest analyzed complex is the carbonate formation of Roetian and Muschelkalk, characterized by high amplitude values and high continuity of reflectors so that it can be easily identified on seismic sections. The analysis carried out with the use of seismic attributes allowed to determine the seismic characteristics of individual lithostratigraphic complexes of the Triassic and Palaeozoic formations and provided more detailed information on the geological structure of the research area.
EN
The Upper Triassic shale of the Qadir Member of the Nayband Formation, East Central Iran has been analysed geochemically to evaluate provenance and palaeogeography. The Qadir Member in the Parvadeh Coal Mine section is 450 metres thick, and includes sandstone, shale, coal, siltstone, and fossiliferous limestone. XRD analysis of shale samples from the Qadir Member largely indicated the presence of illite and chlorite, with small amounts of kaolinite and montmorillonite. On binary and triangular diagrams the data suggests an intermediate igneous source rock for these shales. Plotting the geochemical data on binary diagrams also indicates the tectonic setting of an active continental margin, perhaps reflecting the Early Cimmerian tectonic event with Neothetys subduction under the Iran Plate, and collision of the Iran Plate with Turan during the Late Triassic. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) and Plagioclase Index of Alteration (PIA) values for shale from the Qadir Member of Nayband Formation vary from 74.04 to 80.54 (average 78.02) and 84.31 to 91.85 (average 87.81), respectively, indicating moderate to high chemical alteration in the source area and suggesting a semi-humid climate duri ng deposition. The geochemical data and palaeogeographical models indicate that the Qadir Member shale was deposited on an active margin in a shoreline to transitional-marine setting.
EN
Fossil vertebrate remains from the Keuper unit in the vicinity of the village of Krasiejów have been analyzed for almost two decades. However, the main goal of these works was focused mainly on large vertebrates. Here the authors present the first description of microvertebrate fossils from that site. The collection of around 5,000 specimens is mainly comprised of teeth and scales. The most numerous remains belong to osteichthyans: dipnoans (Ptychoceratodus and cf. Arganodus), palaeoniscids, semionotids, redfieldiids and chondrichthyans, such as Lonchidion sp., which is the first indisputable record of that genus in the Upper Triassic of Poland and the first shark at the Krasiejów locality. Tetrapod fossils consist of temnospondyl amphibians, rhynchocephalian lepidosauromorphs and archosauromorphs. Among them, temnospondyl amphibian remains are the most numerous and are represented mostly by Metoposaurus. However, on the basis of diversity in tooth morphotypes, the occurrence of other taxa cannot be excluded. Rhynchocephalians are composed of 7 fragmentary jaw morphotypes with dentition, which could indicate high taxonomic diversity (cf. Planocephalosaurus, cf. Diphydontosaurus and cf. Clevosaurus). The most varied fossil group was assigned to the archosauromorphs. The authors can distinguish at least 19 teeth morphotypes, which show similarities to the dentition of: protorosaurians (cf. Tanystropheidae), pseudosuchians (cf. Protecovasaurus, cf. Revueltosaurus), early crocodylomorphs and basal sauropodomorph dinosaurs. The first occurrence of a theropod dinosaur and cynodonts at the Krasiejów locality is also recorded. However, their remains are very rare. These new records show a high taxonomic diversity at the Krasiejów locality that contributes to our deeper understanding of Late Triassic ecosystem of Poland.
EN
An excavation dug out in the glacially transported rock masses at Golaszyn near Łuków (eastern Poland), revealed the presence of deposits unknown so far in this area. These are older than the only known so far here glacially transported clays containing concretions with splendidly preserved ammonites of late Callovian at Łapiguz brickyard of Łuków. The succession exposed consists of sands and sandstones of Middle Callovian age which rest on red-brownish clays. The latter may be compared with the Triassic - Buntsandstein deposits of the northwestern Lithuania, that is the home area of glacially transported rock masses, commonly occurring in eastern Poland in the Łuków area. The new geological discoveries markedly increase a set of attractions for the promotion of the Łuków region for the education and geotourism purposes.
EN
This paper presents the results of sedimentological studies of Zechstein marine deposits occurring in the Wleń Graben, a tectonic unit located in the southeastern part of the North Sudetic Synclinorium (NSS; Western Sudetes, SW Poland). Owing to poor exposure, small thickness, and lack of palaeontological data, the stratigraphy and age of these rocks were determined solely on the basis of analogies with adjacent areas. New findings described here, including faunal remains (remains of bivalves, including Liebea sp.), geopetal structures, clastic fills of halite crystals, moulds and bioturbation, shed new light on the environmental interpretations of the Zechstein in this part of the NSS. It should be assumed that at least two types of deposit may be assigned to the marine Zechstein in the Wleń Graben area, namely sparitic and microsparitic dolomite (PZ3) and the overlying deposits of the heterolithic series (PZt). These deposits were formed during the late Zechstein transgression, when the study area was in the marginal southwesternmost part of a newly formed shallow-marine bay of the Polish Zechstein Basin. In the central part of the present-day Wleń Graben, a shallow-marine bay (lagoon?) was dominated by carbonate sedimentation. A north-dipping mud plain, periodically flooded by a shallow sea, occurred in the southern part of the area. The paper summarises the present state of research on Permian deposits in the Wleń Graben, the first comprehensive lithostratigraphic scheme is suggested, and a new concept of the palaeogeographic evolution of the area in the Early and Late Permian is proposed.
EN
The upper Olenekian-Middle Triassic succession of the Tatricum domain (Central Western Carpathians, southern Poland) includes a few horizons of breccias, which are intercalated with early-diagenetic dolostones. On the basis of macroscopic and microscopic (including cathodoluminescence) observations, the paper presents a new interpretation of the genesis of the breccias and their diagenetic history. The rocks studied range from monomictic, cemented mosaic packbreccias to chaotic, unsorted, monomictic, particulate rubble floatbreccias. The processes that preceded the formation of the breccias encompassed the precipitation of evaporites and the early-diagenetic dolomitization of lime muds. The solution-collapse breccias were formed during episodes of cyclic sediment emersions in the upper Olenekian and Middle Triassic, as the result of gradual sediment collapse after karstic dissolution of the intercalated evaporites. After the brecciation process, during diagenesis the rocks were subjected to cementation by sulphate minerals and next, to multi-stage dolomitization. Later tectonic processes led to fracturing and even re-brecciation of the previously formed solution-collapse breccias.
EN
In the Upper Permian continental to marginal-marine succession of the Southern Alps (Dolomites, north Italy), the ichnological record consists of diverse vertebrate footprints and non-diverse invertebrate trace fossils, mainly occurring in the “Bletterbach ichnoassociation” of the Val Gardena Sandstone Formation. After the Permian-Triassic Boundary event, vertebrate ichnoassociations are scarce until the Middle Triassic (Anisian), whereas the uppermost Permian-Lower Triassic Werfen Formation preserves a rich invertebrate trace-fossil record. To date, fish body and trace fossils (Undichna) are very rare in the pre- and post-extinction deposits of the Dolomites; only Undichna gosiutensis Gibert, 2001 was identified in the “Voltago Conglomerate” (Middle Anisian), whereas some unidentified fossil fish casts were found in the Permian Val Gardena Sandstone and some fish remains in the overlying Werfen Formation. Recently, for the first time, fish trails have been discovered in the Val Gardena Sandstone (Lopingian) and in the Werfen Formation (Campil member, Early Triassic, Smithian). Val Gardena Sandstone yielded Undichna cf. quina Trewin, 2000 and U. bina Anderson, 1976 and these represent the oldest fish trails found in the Southern Alps so far. Conversely, the specimens found in the Werfen Formation can be assigned to Undichna cf. britannica Higgs, 1988. They represent the oldest Mesozoic record of fish trace fossils in northern Italy and one of the few records of Undichna from marine environments. These trace fossils are consistent with the fossil association found in the two formations and reflect fish swimming activity in different environments: in very shallow, calm, brackish distal-floodplain to marginal-marine environments in the Late Permian, in association with abundant and diverse tetrapod tracks, and non-diverse invertebrate trace fossils, and in inter- to subtidal calm, shallow, marine environments in the Early Triassic, together with abundant, but not diverse invertebrate trace fossils.
EN
The long-ranging Early to Middle Triassic coniform conodont form-genus Cornudina Hirschmann occurs abundantly in the Anisian of NW Turkey, Northern Tethys. Although suggested to represent the P1 element of an apparatus of the Order Ozarkodinida Dzik, questions concerning the apparatus of Cornudina remain. A description of the probable phylogenetic trends in the P1 elements of Cornudina is attempted and the role of the form-genera Ketinella Gedik and Kamuellerella Gedik, as the alternative ramiform skeletal elements in the Cornudina multi-element apparatus, is investigated. The newly described, Gedikella quadrata gen. nov., sp. nov., is an S element, Kamuellerella rectangularis sp. nov., is either an S3 or an S4 element, and Ketinella goermueshi sp. nov., is an M element.
EN
The uppermost Permian in the NWHoly Cross Mountains is represented by red mudstones with sandstone and conglomerate interbeds, forming the PZt cyclothem (dated by miospores of the Lueckisporites virkkiae Bc Zone), which grade upwards into the Siodta Formation. This succession is overlain by sandstones and mudstones of the Jaworzna Formation yielding the lowermost Triassic spore-pollen assemblage of the Lundbladispora obsoleta- Protohaploxypinus pantii Zone. Mudstones of the Siodta Formation reveal mottling structure with numerous root traces, rhizobreciation, as well as nodular and bedded calcretes. The root -Mader structures are represented by calcite tubules and root moulds, the latter filled with dark red calcareous mudstones. The presence of root traces in the Siodta Formation clearly indicates an increase of substrate moisture in contrast to the underlying PZt cyclothem. The mottled red mudstones were deposited in the playa-lacustrine depositional system and lost their primary structure due to rooting and other pedogenic processes. Carbonate nodules and thin indurated calcretes are related to periods of lower sediment accumulation rate or even non-deposition periods favouring development of continental carbonates. A relatively rapid switch to the alluvial depositional system represented by the Jaworzna Formation appears to be coeval to the increased sediment flux in terrestrial setting, postulated by Newell et al. (2010) at the Permo-Triassic boundary, driven by a devegetation event of upland catchments.
EN
Magnetostratigraphy of the Keuper succession in the southern Mesozoic margin of the Holy Cross Mountains is presented based on investigations of two sections of Brzeziny and Wolica. They cut an ~60 m thick succession of variegated siltstones and claystones, which overlies the Reed Sandstone (Stuttgart Formation). The succession has been correlated with the Patoka Member of the Grabowa Formation, defined in the Upper Silesia region as an equivalent of the Steinmergelkeuper (Arnstadt Formation). The primary Late Triassic magnetization was obtained from component B carried by fine-grained haematite. Twelve magnetic polarity zones, six of normal and six of reversed polarity, have been defined. The obtained polarity pattern corresponds to the Norian (E13–E16 Newark zones) according to the Long-Rhaetian option of the Late Triassic Magnetic Polarity Time Scale. The mean normal polarity characteristic direction (N = 24, D/I = 31/62, k = 28.24, α95 = 6.04) differs significantly from the reversed one (N = 18, D/I = 223/-25, k = 16.38, α95 = 8.65): the primary magnetic signal is partly overlapped by component A carried by magnetite of recent viscuous remanent magnetization. Some samples do contain also coarse-grained haematite that, however, does not form any clustered magnetization. The palaeopole position calculated from the transposed reversed and normal polarity directions of component B corresponds to the Late Triassic (Norian) segment of the reference Baltica/Europe Apparent Polar Wander Path.
EN
Tunethyris blodgetti sp. nov. from the Triassic Saharonim Formation, Makhtesh Ramon, an erosional cirque in southern Israel, is erected on the basis of a suite of 39 articulated specimens. The shells are very strongly sulciplicated, a feature that seems to be more prevalent in the Mesozoic than the Palaeozoic. The Saharonim Formation was deposited under quasi-normal, calm, relatively shallow marine conditions. Faunal constituents of the Saharonim Formation include conodonts, ostracods, foraminiferans, bivalves, cephalopods, gastropods, echinoderms and vertebrate remains that belong to the Sephardic Province and are diagnostic of the Middle Triassic series of Israel. The faunal composition and shallow depositional environment of the strata may help differentiate the Sephardic Province from the Germanic Muschelkalk and the Alpine Tethyan faunas to the north.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono studium dotyczące możliwości wykorzystania energii geotermalnej w obszarze znajdującym się na obszarze zapadliska przedkarpackiego w rejonie Tarnowa. Podano informację na temat budowy geologicznej analizowanej strefy oraz dokonano charakterystyki triasowego zbiornika wód termalnych, najbardziej interesującego w tym rejonie. Analiza została wykonana na podstawie parametrów hydrogeotermalnych (temperatura, mineralizacja, porowatość, przepuszczalność, wydajność), które uzyskano z otworów geologicznych i naftowych zlokalizowanych w strefie miasta oraz na terenach przyległych. W wyniku analizy oszacowano potencjalne zasoby energetyczne. Wykazano, że najlepsze perspektywy dla rozwoju geotermii w analizowanym obszarze stwarza wykorzystanie tego zbiornika głównie w aspekcie balneorekreacji.
EN
This work is a study on the possibility of using geothermal energy in the area of the Carpathian Foredeep in the Northern area of Tarnów. The information presents the geological structure of the analyzed area along with the characteristics of the Triassic thermal water reservoir, the most interesting in the region. The analysis was conducted on the basis of hydrogeothermal parameters (temperature, mineralization, porosity, permeability, efficiency), which were obtained from the geological and petroleum wells located in the zone of the city and adjacent areas. The analysis estimated potential energy resources. It was pointed out that the best prospects for the development of geothermal energy in the analyzed reservoir makes use in terms of balneo-recreation.
14
Content available remote Baseny solne triasu na obszarze Polski
PL
Na obszarze Polski sole triasu formowały się u schyłku dolnego triasu (ret) oraz w górnym triasie (środkowy kajper; tab. 1). Sole retu, grubości do kilkunastu metrów, rozpoznane w 1 otworze wiertniczym (Ryc. 1A-B), występują jako cienkie (cm grubości) chlorkowe przewarstwienia w sukcesji siarczanowo węglanowej, zaś ich cechy strukturalne i zawartość bromu (48-62 ppm) sugerują powstanie w środowisku okresowo zasolonego zbiornika jeziornego. Sole kajpru, grubości 40-143 m, zarejestrowane w 5 otworach wiertniczych (ryc. 2A-B), budują 1-3 pokłady grubości dcm-m w zdominowanej przez iłowce i mułowce sukcesji dolnych warstw gipsowych. Ich wykształcenie i niska (0-42 ppm) zawartośc bromu wskazują na powstanie soli w środowisku okresowo zasolonego zbiornika jeziornego. Prawdopodobne sole dolnego triasu są produktem naturalnej ewaporacji dolnotriasowego zbiornika morskiego, natomiast w górnym triasie ewaporacja schyłkowego zbiornika środkowotriasowego mogła być wzbogacona ługami z niszczenia odsłoniętych soli kamiennych dolnego triasu i/lub najmłodszych wydzieleń solnych cechsztynu, budujących strop formujących się struktur wysadowych. Pomimo dotychczasowego słabego stopnia poznania omawianych soli triasu należy jednak cieniach ich ekonomiczną wartość jako znikomą ze względu na stosunkowo niewielką grubość serii solnych (kilkanaście m - sole retu, do 90 m – sole kajpru) i dużą głębokość występowania (ponad 1680 m - sole retu, 1200-3250 m – sole kajpru).
EN
Except the well recognized chlorides of Late Permian (Zechstein) and the Neogene (Middle Miocene) age in Poland also the salts were accumulated here within the limited evaporate basins during the late Lower (Upper Bunter = Röt) and in the Upper (Middle Keuper) Triassic (Tab. 1, Figs 1A, 2A). The Röt rock salts with thickness >13 m were developed as interbeds of white to beige, polymorphic to giant secondary halites, cm to 9 m thick, incorporated within the sulphate-dolomitic succession of I Gypsum Beds (Fig. 1B). Their structures and bromine content (48-62 ppm) suggested accumulation in a salt pan of broad sabkha, being the marginal part of shallow marine evaporate basin, existed then in SW Poland area (Fig. 1A). The Middle Kuper salts, 40 to 143 m thick, created 1-3 seams with the profile of Lower Gypsum Beds, dominated by claystones and siltstones with sulphate-carbonate interbeds (Fig. 2B). Chlorides were developed as polymorphic to giant secondary halites, white, beige to honey and pink, with anhydrite aggregates and dispersed clay matter. Their structures and low bromine content (0 to 42 ppm) indicated deposition in a seasonally evaporated continental lake of the playa system, occupied that time the central Poland area (Fig. 2B) and supplied with salt brines from eroded emerged salt of the Lower Triassic and the youngest Zechstein. The commented Triassic salts became hitherto only preliminary studied because of rare core material (5 boreholes). Their economic value seems low because of a relatively small salt bed thickness (up to 9 m of Röt salts and up to 90 m of Keuper ones) and their deep occurrence (depth >1680 m for Röt salts and 1200-3250 m for the Keuper ones).
EN
The fine-grained autochthonous sedimentation in the deep part of a Late Triassic lake was frequently interrupted by gravity-induced mass flows. Some of these mass flows were so rich in water that they must have represented slurries. This can be deduced from the soft-sediment deformation structures that abound in cores from these lacustrine deposits which constitute the Yanchang Fm., which is present in the Ordos Basin (central China). The flows and the resulting SSDS were probably triggered by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, shear stress of gravity flows, and/or the sudden release of overburden-induced excess pore-fluid pressure. The tectonically active setting, the depositional slope and the high sedimentation rate facilitated the development of soft-sediment deformations, which consist mainly of load casts and associated structures such as pseudonodules and flame structures. Sediments with such deformations were occasionally eroded by slurries and became embedded in their deposits.
EN
Synsedimentary deformation structures have been recognized in Triassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Trutnov Basin, which build a structural and morphological elevation between Červený Kostelec and Upice. Very well preserved sand injection and collapse structures, strike-slip shearings and listric faults occur in the “U Devěti křížů” Quarry. Their shapes and spatial distribution strongly correspond to local tectonic structures within the Intrasudetic Shear Zone (ISZ), especially to the faults which bound the rhomb-shaped depressions and elevations. All these structural sub-units compose the Intrasudetic Basin Suite (IBS). The soft-sediment deformations developed in the shallow subsurface and most likely resulted from the dominantly extensional and strike-slip kinematics within the ISZ.
EN
During the Triassic/Jurassic boundary interval and in the Jurassic, the Triassic carbonate platforms occupying the northern shelf of the Western Tethys were subjected to disintegration. Record of these processes in the Alpine-Carpathian area is incomplete and contains a number of stratigraphic gaps. In the High-Tatric succession of the Tatra Mountains (Central Western Carpathians) stratigraphic gaps expressed by unconformity surfaces occur between the Triassic and the Middle Jurassic. In particular areas, the Triassic is directly overlain by the Dudziniec Formation (Sinemurian-Bajocian), the Smolegowa Formation (Bajocian), the Krupianka Formation (Bathonian) or the Raptawicka Turnia Formation (Callovian-Hauterivian). The occurrence of Bajocian and Bathonian deposits is limited to isolated lenticular bodies or to infillings of neptunian dykes penetrating the Triassic. Spatial relations between particular Jurassic lithosomes and the occurrence of stratigraphic gaps between particular units allow discerning four main unconformities. In the stratigraphical order these are: base of the Dudziniec Format ion (erosional unconformity), base of the Smolegowa Formation (penacordance or parat conformity), base of the Krupianka Format ion (erosional unconformity) and base of the Raptawicka Turnia Formation (drowning unconformity). Following episodes of erosion modified the previously developed unconformity surfaces, which resulted in complex modern architecture of the Triassic/Jurassic contact, as well as between particular Jurassic formations.
EN
The genus Cyathophora Michelin, 1843 (Cyathophoridae) is removed from the suborder Stylinina Alloiteau, 1952 and transferred to the Stylophyllina Beauvais, 1980. Morphologically, it differs from stylinine corals in that rudimentary septa are developed in the form of ridges or spines on the wall and may continue onto the endothecal elements as amplexoid septa. Relics of primary aragonite microstructure, preserved in silicified colonies of Cyathophora steinmanni Fritzsche, 1924 (Barremian–early Aptian) and in a calcified colony of C. richardi Michelin, 1843 (middle Oxfordian), indicate a non-trabecular structure of their skeletons. The sclerenchyme of radial elements is differentiated into fascicles of fibres, and in the form of fascicles or a non-differentiated layer of fibres, it continues as the upper part of endothecal elements and as the incremental layers of the wall. A micro-lamellation of the skeleton corresponds to the accretionary mode of skeleton growth found in Recent corals. A similarity between the septal microstructure of Cyathophora and that of the stylophyllid genera, the Triassic Anthostylis Roniewicz, 1989 and the Triassic–Early Jurassic Stylophyllopsis Frech, 1890, is interpreted as a result of their being phylogenetically related. The microstructure of the Jurassic Stylina gaulardi Michelin, 1843 has been considered for purposes of comparison. The systematics of the genus Cyathophora is formally revised with C. richardi Michelin reinstated as the type species.
PL
Wskazano na potencjalne możliwość gamma spektrometrii w zakresie poszukiwania i oceny jakości złóż. Szczególną uwagę poświęcono złożom surowców skalnych. Na przykładzie triasowych arkoz Sudetów wskazano na możliwość zastosowania przenośnych gamma spektrometrów do poszukiwania skaleni potasowych - surowca przemysłu ceramicznego. Na przykładzie złóż: glin ogniotrwałych w Rusku-Jaroszowie, kaolinu w Nowogrodźcu i surowca kaolinowego z kopalni Turów podjęto próbę porównania wyników pomiarów gamma spektrometrycznych z diagramem klasyfikacyjnym obejmującym pola takich minerałów jak: chloryt, kaolinit, smektyt, montmorylonit, illit, muskowit, skalenie, glaukonit, kwarc.
EN
Potential of gamma spectrometry application for exploration and evaluation of the quality of the mineral deposits was analysed. Particular attention was paid to deposits of rock materials. The application of portable gamma spectrometers for prospecting for K feldspar in the Sudetic Triassic arkose was shown. Comparison of the results of gamma spectrometric measurements in deposits of Rusko-Jaroszów refractory clays, Nowogrodziec kaoline and byproduct kaolin of lignite mine Turow was made with classification diagram covering the fields of minerals such as: chlorite, kaolinite, smectite, montmorillonite, illite, muscovite, feldspar, glauconite, quartz.
EN
Based on quantitative and qualitative analyses of the Triassic miospores assemblages from different regions of Poland climatic changes have been documented. Analyzed material came from the published and archival works of Orłowska-Zwolińska and author and comprised ten palynological zones distinguished in the Triassic of Poland. Two different palynological methods were applied in this study – PPC model and SEG model – to obtain palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmetal data. Xerophytic elements (spores and pollen grains of xerophytic plants), reflecting mainly dry climate conditions, dominated in the palynomorph spectra of the Triassic deposits from Poland. Significant numbers of hygrophytic elements indicating temporary more humid phases occurred in the late Olenekian, Ladinian, the middle Carnian, late Norian and the Rhaetian.
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