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The paper deals with the impact the charging railway infrastructure access has on the competitiveness of railway transport in the selected European countries. It researched into the development of indicators that indicate the competition in the railways transport market, such as volume of transport, traffic performances, and number of trains of private railway operators compared with national operators. It used the new approach for research of the share of railway transport in the transport market. The research was based on a comparative analysis of models of charging railway infrastructure, subsidies to rail infrastructure, and development of transport performances of all rail operators. The results of research are presented in terms of freight and passenger railway transport.
Content available Operational problems of 2+1 bypass road sections
The paper presents several problems of designing trunk-road bypasses of towns, which can be very helpful in improving their traffic performance. Such roads perform supplementary functions to the operation of network of motorways and express-roads constructed in Poland over the last decade. These problems include: selection of the cross section, selection and design of intersections and interchanges on bypasses, safety and traffic operation problems. The authors highlight the advantages of bypasses and point out some errors, which can be seen in the operation stage, basing on research and observation of 8 bypasses. In the paper traffic operation and road safety analyses for Zyrardow bypass are presented. The final part of the paper gives conclusions and recommendations for 2+1 bypass use and design.
The research into the use of less costly modifications of road links and networks, and changes in the service of road surroundings aimed at ensuring an improvement of through traffic performance in suburban areas, and on roads passing through built-up areas as small localities, with application of simulation model, is presented in this paper. From among possible designs, the authors investigated and presented the effectiveness of two, i.e. implementation of an additional multifunctional median lane in the road cross-section, and construction of service roads with different locations of intersections (end or middle of the road section). The analysis is focused on the impact of such changes on traffic performance and road safety. The authors analysed travel speed, delay and share of platoon traffic on a uniform sections of the road for different types of road surroundings service. The study presents the results of analyses of road network before and after modification, and the assessment of: impact of access points density and level of their use on road traffic performance, impact of driving through road sections in built-up area on building platoon traffic, impact of change in the cross-section type on traffic performance.
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