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The first Upper Triassic vertebrate fossil tracks are documented from the Zawiercie locality, Kraków–Częstochowa Upland, southern Poland. The most characteristic components of the assemblage are tracks, assig- nable to archosaurs and dicynodonts. The inferred composition of the fauna is comparable to those of much better studied, contemporaneous sites in Italy, Argentina and the USA.
This study describes the palaeoichnology of the Malhao Dune Field (Pleistocene), the first report of vertebrate tracksites from all the Cenozoic from Portugal. At least 14 stratigraphic horizons with mammal and bird foot prints and trackways occur, including those of elephants. Concave epirelief footprints produced by elephants show four feet with four toes imprints on each foot and heteropody in a narrow gauge. The presence of three possibly parallel trackways points to gregarious behavior of sub-adults/fe males of Elephas antiquus. The ichnospecies Proboscipeda panfamilia, found in the Malhao and Pessegueiro sectors, represents possibly the first Pleistocene elephant trackways, and record one of the latest occurrences of E. antiquus in Europe. The new ichnogenus and ichnospecies Leporidichnites malhaoi igen. et isp. nov., interpreted as lagomorph tracks, are also described.
Very large chirotheriid tracks have been discovered in the Early Triassic Wióry Formation (=Labyrinthodontidae and Hieroglyphic Beds), middle part of the Middle Buntsandstein, exposed at Wióry in the northeastern part of the Holy Cross Mountains (central Poland). Hitherto, six small and medium-sized chirotheriid tracks from the Wióry locality have been described. In the present paper two ichnotaxa are proposed: Synaptichnium senkowiczowae ichnosp. nov. and Brachychirotherium kalkowensis ichnosp. nov. Their presumed trackmakers, large Early Triassic (Olenekian) Archosauriformes (Proterosuchidae, Erythrosuchidae), about 5-7 m long, are unknown from the osteological record of this age worldwide. The newly described ichnotaxa represent the oldest known record of large chirotheriid tracks in the Middle Buntsandstein of Poland. The presence of large chirotheriid tracks in the upper part of the Early Triassic deposits is very important for the understanding of the evolution and radiation of early Archosauromorpha, as well as for reconstructing Early Triassic terrestrial palaeoecosystems.
TheMiddle Buntsandstein material of vertebrate tracks has been found at new site in the northern margin of the Holy Cross Mountains (central Poland). Several dozen specimens of Chirotheriidae (Chirotherium cf. barthii, cf. Brachychirotherium sp., Isochirotherium sp., and Chirotheriidae indet.) and Rhynchosauroidae (Rhynchosauroides sp., Rhynchosauroidae indet.) tracks are reported from the deposits of the Samsonów Formation (=Pseudooolithic Beds) at the Pałęgi clay pit located near Mniów. Poorly preserved cf. Capitosauroides sp. and numerous swimming animal traces were also found in this site. Those are the first finds of vertebrate tracks from the uppermost Middle Buntsandstein strata in the Holy Cross Mountains.
The Sołtyków exposure is an old, long time abandoned clay pit. This exposure became known as a classical outcrop of alluvial-lacustrine deposits. Floral remains point to the earliest Jurassic (Lias 1-2) age, and the sequence stratigraphic correlation allows to narrow its age range to the Early Hettangian (Planorbis biochronozone). Sołtyków exposure fits the avulsion-controlled (crevassing- anastomosing) fluvial sedimentation model, however, some features such as laterally-accreted bedding point also to presence of high-sinuosity/meandering streams. Relatively thick and individualised package of lacustrine deposits occurring in the Sołtyków outcrop points to some permanency of the lake/swamp area during deposition of the sediments visible in the outcrop. Palaeosols are both of Podzol and Histosol type. The plant fossils in the Sołtyków exposure are very abundant and well preserved. The list of plants includes Neocalamites, the matoniacean, osmundacean and other indeterminate ferns, as well as pteridosperms, benettitaleans and conifers. Non-marine trace fossils comprise Coprinisphaera, Scoyeniaand aquatic Mermia ichnofacies. Other fossils that occur in Sołtyko?w are represented by Unionidae freshwater bivalve assemblage, insect remains, fresh-water ostracodes and scales of palaeoniscid fish. The Sołtyków exposure is well known Early Jurassic tracksite with numerous dinosaur footprints, mainly left by theropods and sauropods, and early mammalian footprints. The dinosaur nesting ground was also described. Recently, the Sołtyków exposure has been declared a natural reserve. Nature conservation problems are discussed. Due to many unique finds in Sołtyków (the oldest known evidence of gregarious ethology of dinosaurs, the biggest known Early Jurassic theropod footprints, rich and well-preserved invertebrate ichnoforms and plant remains, this exposure should be enlisted on the UNESCO World Heritage List (in geological cathegory). Moreover, the idea of “Kamienna Valley” geopark, comprising Sołtyków and other valuable outcrops in the region, is introduced.
Content available remote Nowe znaleziska tropów kręgowców z pstrego piaskowca Gór Świętokrzyskich
W utworach dolnego pstrego piaskowca Gór Świętokrzyskich odkryto nowe stanowiska z tropami kręgowców. Występują one w utworach fluwialnych najniższego pstrego piaskowca w kamieniołomach Zachełmie i Jaworznia oraz w osadach międzywydmowych piaskowców tumlińskich na Górze Sosnowica. Łącznie w pstrym piaskowcu dolnym Gór Świętokrzyskich zidentyfikowano ichnorodzaje: Batrachichnus, Limnopus, Amphisauropus, Rhynchosauroides, Phalangichnus, Palmichnus, Paradoxichnium, Varanopus, Dimetropus i Chelichnus. Wszystkie te formy znane były dotychczas z utworów permu. Odkryte stanowiska z ichnocenozami kręgowców dostarczają nowych informacji o składzie, zmianach i rozprzestrzenieniu ichnofaun na przełomie permu i triasu na obszarze Gór Świętokrzyskich. Ich obecność potwierdza późnopermski wiek pstrego piaskowca dolnego odsłoniętego w Górach Świętokrzyskich.
New vertebrate tracksites were discovered in the Lower Buntsandstein of the Holy Cross Mountains. Footprints occur in lowermost Buntsandstein fluvial deposits at Zachelmie and Jaworznia localities and in interdune deposits ofTumlin Sandstones at Sosnowica Hill. In the Lower Buntsandstein of the Holy Cross Mountains the ichnogenera: Batrachichnus, Limnopus, Amphisauropus, Rhynchosauroides, Phalangichnus, Palmichnus, Paradoxichnium, Varanopus, Dimetropus and Chelichnus have hitherto been recognized. All these forms have been known from Permian deposits. New tracksites provide additional information concerning temporal composition, changes and diversification of vertebrate ichnofauna near the Permian/Triassic boundary of Poland. Their presence allows to confirm Late Permian age of the Lower Buntsandstein that cropped out in the Holy Cross Mountains.
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