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EN
The main goal of paper presented was to evaluate clothing products (including products coated by semi-permeable membranes) in respect of thermal comfort. To achieve this, the thermal-insulating parameters were measured using an Alambeta measuring instrument. The research program introduced a set of diversified materials of different raw material composition, membranes applied, weave, density etc. The test results were analyzed in respect of the thermal-insulating parameters of multilayer products, particularly the membrane effect as a separating and protective layer.
PL
Podstawowy cel prezentowanego artykułu to ocena wyrobów odzieżowych (włącznie z wyrobami z naniesionymi membranami półprzepuszczalnymi) pod kątem komfortu cieplnego. Parametry izolacyjności cieplnej były mierzone za pomocą przyrządu pomiarowego Alambeta. Program badań uwzględnia zestaw zróżnicowanych materiałów o różnych: składzie surowca, zastosowanych membranach, splocie, gęstości itp. Wyniki badań były analizowane z uwagi na parametry izolacyjności cieplnej wyrobów wielowarstwowych, szczególnie wpływ membrany jako warstwy rozdzielającej i ochronnej.
EN
Research on selected anthropometric characteristics of students specialized in selected sports discipline as well as of students who do not compete sports in professional way has been performed. Anthropometric measurements were made using 3D scanner Anthroscan Vitus Smart XXL (Human Solutions) for 92 control students and 41 professional players of various sports (artistic gymnastics, sprints, long-distance, handball). The marked out body dimensions were analyzed in dependence on cultivated sport discipline as well as in control students. A division due the somatic body construction has been made. The basic formula of Rohrer rate was used to define typology type. It has been found that the vast majority, approximately 86% of male students and more than 50 % female students has leptosomatic body construction. In most analyzed sports the leptosomatic type has dominated except handball and artistic gymnastics.
PL
W pracy scharakteryzowano materiały odzieżowe, powleczone membranami pótprzepuszczalnymi pod kątem ochrony organizmu przed utratą ciepła oraz odprowadzania potu. Wyznaczono wartości oporów cieplnego i pary wodnej, co pozwala projektować materiał wyrobów odzieżowych z uwagi na optymalne wypełnianie funkcji użytkowych i zapewnienie odpowiedniego komfortu w warunkach użytkowania. Parametry termofizyczne mierzono za pomocą przyrządu do pomiaru oporu cieplnego i oporu pary wodnej w warunkach stanu ustalonego (metoda pocącej się zaizolowanej cieplnie płyty) przyrządu: Alambeta i Thermo Labo II. Dokonano porównania średnich wartości oporu cieplnego, współczynnika przewodzenia ciepła i maksymalnej gęstości przepływu strumienia ciepła między wynikami uzyskanymi trzema metodami. W pracy przedstawiono rozwiązanie modelu teoretycznego sprzężonego przewodzenia masy i energii cieplnej. Do rozwiązania i wizualizacji wyników wykorzystano program użytkowy ADINA. Dokonano analizy porównawczej zmian parametrów mikroklimatu pododzieżowego: temperatury i wilgotności w fazie spoczynku, wysiłku i odpoczynku podczas testu na cykloergometrze dla trzech kurtek. Testowane kurtki skonfekcjonowano z materiałów o konstrukcji wielowarstwowej posiadających membranę półprzepuszczalną.
EN
The clothing materials, coated by semi-permeable membranes for the protection against a loss of body heat and sweat removal were characterized. The theoretical analysis determines the value of thermal resistance and water vapour, which allows designing of clothing materials due to the optimal fulfilment of utility functions and providing a suitable comfort in the condition of using. The thermo-physical parameters were measured by means of the sweating guarded-hotplate test to measure the thermal resistance and vapour resistance under steady state conditions, and Alambeta and Thermo Labo II devices. A comparison of average values of thermal resistance, thermal conductivity and the maximal heat flux density were made between the results obtained by three methods. The paper presents the solutions of the theoretical model of the coupled mass and heat conduction. To visualize the obtained results the ADINA program was used. The comparative analysis of changes in underclothing microclimate parameters: the temperature and relative humidity under the rest phase, the effort phase and the rest phase after the test on cycloergometer were made for three jackets. The tested jackets were made up from multilayer materials with semi-permeable membranes.
EN
The paper presents results of research works on functional solutions of constructional, material and technological issues of special clothing for disabled persons. The analysis concerned knitted fabrics for underwear and outwear for physical rehabilitation exercises. These knitted fabrics have been made of different raw materials and have had various structural parameters. This study presents garment design having new construction solutions allowing for easy movements and suitable biophysical properties of applied knitwear. The results of the survey defining the needs and preferences of potential users (disabled persons) and the interviews with their assistants formed a background of garments design.
EN
Clothing materials coated with semi-permeable membranes were analysed as products protecting the organism against heat loss as well as ensuring the drainage of sweat. Both physical and mathematical models of the coupled heat and water vapour transfer within the multilayer structures were discussed. Material parameters should be determined for different numbers of layers, compositions of the raw material and thicknesses of the laminate with a membrane. The heat transfer resistance and resistance of the water vapour transfer were determined, which helped to design material for clothing that fulfils the user’s expectations and ensures thermal comfort.
PL
Scharakteryzowano materiały odzieżowe, powleczone membranami półprzepuszczalnymi, pod kątem ich zdolności do ochrony organizmu przed utratą ciepła oraz zdolnością do odprowadzania potu wydzielonego przez człowieka. Wytypowane do badań materiały były zróżnicowane pod względem liczby warstw, składu surowcowego i grubości. Wyznaczono wartości oporu cieplnego i oporu pary wodnej, które stanowią podstawową wiedzę dla projektantów odzieży. Znajomość ta pozwala na świadome projektowanie materiałowe wyrobów odzieżowych, tak aby uzyskać wyrób, który pozwoli z jednej strony na optymalne wypełnianie funkcji określonych charakterem odzieży, z drugiej zaś zapewni użytkownikowi odzieży odpowiedni komfort w warunkach przyszłego użytkowania.
6
Content available remote Analysis of body measurements using a 3D contactless scanning method
EN
This research work concerns analysing the results of tests performed using apparatus for the contactless measurement of human body (Anthroscan 3D VITUS Smart). The applicability of measurement types in clothing design was the criterion of its selection. Traditional ways of measurements use an engaging and laborious manual method. However, 3D scanning of the human body surface can provide more measurements in a significantly shorter amount of time in comparison with the manual method. Moreover, new technologies of the 3D complete body scanning make possible to gain the 3D image of the human body surface. In this paper, we describe the analysis of the human body using a 3D scanner owned by the Textile Research Institute.
EN
The opportunity to apply contactless and spacial measurement opens the way to carry out in Poland current and innovative test measurements of human body. Presently the methodology of body contactless measurement is being developed and gradually implemented.
EN
The research work concerns comparative analysis of results of tests performed using apparatus for contactless measurement of human body – Anthroscan 3D. Tests were performed on a group of students using the set of measurements taken by traditional – manual anthropometric method and contactless scanning method in a 3D chamber. In manual tests – 51 types of measurements were taken such as: length, width, girth. Applicability of a given measurement type in clothing design was the criterion of its selection
EN
By carrying out measurements of the thermoinsulation properties of clothing materials, we can obtain a lot of valuable information regarding the wide characteristics of these materials. Knowing thermoinsulation property values of clothing material, we can start the proper designing of thermoinsulation clothing by selecting and combining fabrics in such a way that we obtain clothing of very good thermal properties. In this paper the results of evaluation of the thermoinsulation parameters of membrane fabrics are presented. Measurements were carried out for 12 different clothing materials with half-permeable membranes for the inner as well as for the outer side of the material. An analysis of results is given.
PL
Przeprowadzając badania właściwości ciepłochronnych materiałów odzieżowych, które sprowadzają się głównie do określenia parametrów izolacyjności cieplnej można uzyskać dużo cennych informacji, które razem tworzą szeroką charakterystykę tych materiałów. Znając wartości parametrów izolacyjności cieplnej materiałów odzieżowych można rozpocząć dopiero wtedy prawidłowe projektowanie odzieży ciepłochronnej dobierając i łącząc materiały tak, aby razem tworzyły odzież o bardzo dobrych właściwościach cieplnych. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań parametrów termoizolacyjności cieplnej wyrobów membranowych. Badania wykonano za pomocą przyrządu Alambeta w klimacie normalnym. Parametry termoizolacyjności cieplnej mierzono dla 12 różnych materiałów odzieżowych z membranami półprzepuszczalnymi zarówno dla strony prawej, jak i dla lewej.
EN
The issue of this article is showing the results of serveying making on the group of companies manufacturing the garment products located in Lodź and the region. The aim of surveying was finding the needs of these companies for garments constructors training. Below, there is presented the research results which enabled to prepare the characteristic of tested sample, describe the number of people employed on the constructor place as well as to precise the training needs of tested subjects taking into account the defferences of production profile. Moreover, there is show also the opinions of manufactures about the occupational preparation of professional and high schools graduates for working with garment constructions.
EN
The possibility of integration of textile miniaturized sensors, electronic systems and feeding elements creates a new stage in the clothing industry. The integration of microelectronic systems with fabrics enables the production of clothing, which can be applied in different branches of economy: in health protection and medicine, in sport and entertainment, in rescuse and communication. Thanks to it clothing industry has new possibilities - changes from the traditional market to the market of new application.
EN
Using of computer technique in the industry is more and more often phenomenon. Usage of three-dimensional pictures allows also to improve the garments designing process. The report contains a description of production preparation computer system with a programme for 3D visualisation. 3D application allows to see clothing that is designed in a space on virtual human shape with parameterised figure. Doubtless, this is a huge turning point in production preparation process in a garment industry. This application has also great research possibilities in the range of usage of men, women and children figures parameterisation as well as of creation and visuaiisation of clothing for people with atypical figures, eg. for women in pregnancy or disabled people. Complete exploitation of this programme can reduce to the minimum an amount of de-sown models before production, significantly shortening a production cycle which guarantees higher elasticity and competitiveness in exacting fashion world.
EN
There is described a method of drapeability measurement.There is presented a method of drapeability measurement by the Cusic's method on the basic of image analysis. The drapeability is characterised by the drape coefficient, node locations and node numbers of fabric. The system of fuzzy-neutral net work, which predicts and visualises the clothing drapeability of different forms and sew from different fabrics is also described.
EN
In the paper there are presented results of a drape coefficient measured according to PN-73/P-04736. The authors examined the behaviour under its gravity of fabrics without a seam or with a seam in a warp, weft direction or diagonal direction. Seams were done according to PN-83/P-84501. The measurements were carried out for different fabrics. On the basis of obtained results, which are presented in tables and figures the influence of raw material, weave and a kind of seam and seam direction on a fabric drapeability was discussed.
EN
In the research they are presented results of thermal insulation parameters measured for Gore-Tex fabrics. The measurements were carried out on the Alambeta device in the normal climate. The thermal insulation parameters were measured for 6 different clothing membrane materials for left as well right side of it. On the basis of measurements presented in figures and the literature the influence of some technological parameters on the values of parameters describing the thermoinsulation properties were discussed. The present publication has been divided into two parts. In the first (PWOS N° 6/2005) the theoretical considerations are presented. Part two comprises the results of experiments.
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