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1
EN
This article describe Polish coastal dunes and the factors influencing their development. The Polish coast is 500 km long and mainly exposed for a northerly direction. It is a part of the southern Baltic shore. The Polish coast is composed of mostly loose sand, till and peat. Because the coast hardiness is so weak, it is under constant threat from storm surges as well as human impact caused by rapid infrastructure development and the coastal protection measures put in place to try and protect it. These protection measures destabilize the natural coast dynamics and rebuilding process. Almost 85% of the shoreline is built up by sandy aeolian deposits and covered by different dune types. Among them are typical foredunes or inland dunes in eroded coastal areas. The second type of dune coasts are built up by land dunes, which appear on the coast as a result of sea erosion causing land regression. Sometimes dunes can be found over moraine deposits or in front of moraine old cliffs. Nowadays these habitats are heavily threatened by storm surges and human activity. In some places there is an accumulation that leads to new ridge developments. This article describes these issues with an emphasis on the present dynamics of Poland’s coastal areas.
2
Content available remote Storm-surges Indicator for the Polish Baltic Coast
EN
Storm surges appear in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea and, depending on row of factors, have different sizes, specifically characteristic for each region of the sea-coast. Observed climate changes are characterized with greater dynamics of weather phenomena. To compare the risk of storm surges to different areas, a new method had to be developed. Storm-surges indicator is used to compare the risks to the South Baltic water areas, varied along with conditions therein and the hydro meteorological and local conditions. The studies on the relations between the parameters and the occurrence of storm surges were carried out as well. The storm surges indicator “W” is related to the number of storm surges observed at the stations in the particular regions, the maximal wind velocity and the max sea level occurring during the same storm surges. The storm surges indicator was calculated for the period of 1955-2008 for the Polish coastal zone. The inten-tion is to use this indicator for research and forecasting purposes. Assessment of the tendencies and variability of the regional phenomena indicators in timescale prove occurrence of certain regional changes of hydrome-teorological conditions.
EN
In this work long-term probability of occurrence of maximum sea levels in some points of Polish Baltic Sea coast, was determined. Use was made of multi-year series of measurement data on maximum yearly sea levels, and their probability distributions were determined. To the analysis Gumbel’s distribution and Pearson distribution of 3rd type as well as quantile methods and the highest credibility method, were applied. Kolmogorov test was used to examine conformity of the theoretical distributions with real random variable distribution. As results from the analysis, the highest sea levels of 1000- year return period can be expected in Polish ports of the west part of the coast , i.e. Kolobrzeg (750, 2 cm , i.e. 2,5 m above the average sea level) and Swinoujscie (723,6 cm) . Lower sea levels of the same return period can be expected in Ustka (720,2 cm), Wladyslawowo (709,7 cm) and Gdansk (716, 7 cm), respectively.
PL
Korzystając z dawnych i nowych opracowań geologicznych oraz własnych danych petrograficznych i stratygraficznych, autorzy przedstawili swoje poglądy na temat litologii i wieku osadów mineralnych budujących klify pomiędzy Jarosławcem a Dębiną. Najnowsze dane odbiegają od zakorzenionych w literaturze poglądów.
EN
New views about lithology and age of deposits building coastal cliffs between Jarosławiec and Dębina, diverging from the models rooted in the literature, are presented by the authors. The revision is based on critical re-assessment of older and more recent geological reports and new results of petrological and stratigraphic research. The oldest glacial deposit exposed in cliff sections is grey till. Petrological data and TL dating results indicate clearly that it was deposited during the Świecie stadial. At Jarosławiec site, the till is enriched in Tertiary organic material and divided into two layers based on colour. However, petrology and TL age determinations do not differ between these layers. In the cliffs investigated, as well as in the other coastal cliffs in the eastern Pomorze region, older tills do not occur. Likewise, tills from the main stage of the last glaciation have not been recognized. The Świecie stadial till is overlain by outwash, glacilimnic and limnic deposits, the latter dated for the Grudziądz interstadial. Almost everywhere the near-surface layer is built of late Holocene aeolian sand with palaeosols.
EN
Estuaries are areas where river and sea waters meet. Therefore, the hydrodynamical, hydrochemical, and hydrobiological processes in the estuaries are typical for both environments. The most important processes, which play leading roles in estuaries include the dynamics of water flow, water quality, and the mixing of water of different biochemical characteristics. This paper is divided into two parts. In the first, basic hydrodynamical processes are described and analytical and numerical methods of evaluating them are presented. Part two illustrates these processes using experimental data and the results of mathematical modeling for some estuaries along the Polish Baltic coast.
EN
The new method of a detailed morphodynamic registration of sandy beaches has been presented. The digital oriented photograms have been taken from a stabilised point at least once a day. Occasionally also more often, for example every hour during a storm cycle. The analyses of the photograms are performed in digital mode using special computer software. This digital beach monitoring of the Polish Baltic coast was initiated in summer 2002. The test fields in Polanka Redłowska within Gdynia and Chłapowo near Władysławowo were selected. The beach areas of the length of about 200 m along the shore were registered there. Selected examples of short-term changes of the beach relief were presented. A range of spatiotemporal transformations related to different periods (hours, days, months etc.) was demonstrated.
EN
Morphology of sea bottom of the Władysławowo area, from Karwia to Chałupy, has been studied based on the detailed digital bathymetric map prepared in a scale of 1:25 000 with isobaths every 0.25 m. A significant differentiation of the bottom relief has been observed, with the level changes up to 1-3 metres, mostly connected with the occurrence of specific systems of ridges and runnels. They are probably partly relict forms (fluvial and/or coastal?), changed to certain degree during the rapid stage of the Litorina transgression, and in partly forms created by the recent waves. Several types of the sea bottom surface, differing in pattern of morphological forms, have been recognised within inshore, near shore, and open sea (above 16 m depths) areas. The full knowledge of the origin and development of these relief forms requires further specialised research, currently carried out. Nonetheless, the already obtained picture of the sea bottom relief indicates an intensified abrasion of the offshore sea bottom, and an intensive, irreversible sweeping out of the sediments from the shore to the open sea, most probably by rip currents, at a distance up to several kilometres from the shore. It is in accordance with the results of a former large-scale (1:500) study of the sea bottom at the test field at Chłapowo, performed with the use of an integrated system of non-invasive and direct methods.
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