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EN
Corrosion is a worldwide problem, posing a threat to the safe operation of machinery and equipment. In this article has been analyzed the problem of corrosion on selected elements of the aircraft engine. At the beginning, are discussed the types of corrosion, as well as the materials from which were made the examined parts. The sensitive kinematic vapor from the jet engine was examined in three different galvanic coatings and in the state without any anti-corrosion coating in order to check the effectiveness of galvanic coatings. The results of the NSS tests were then illustrated and discussed. On the basis of the obtained test results, were formulated final conclusions.
PL
Korozja jest problemem ogólnoświatowym, stwarzającym zagrożenie bezpiecznej eksploatacji maszyn i urządzeń. W niniejszym artykule problem korozji przeanalizowano na wybranych elementach silnika lotniczego. Na początku omówiono rodzaje korozji, a także materiały, z których zostały wykonane badane detale. Zbadana została newralgiczna para kinematyczna z silnika odrzutowego w trzech różnych pokryciach galwanicznych oraz w stanie bez żadnego pokrycia antykorozyjnego w celu sprawdzenia skuteczności pokryć galwanicznych. Następnie zobrazowano i omówiono wyniki badań metodą NSS. Na podstawie uzyskanych wyników badań sformułowano wnioski końcowe.
EN
Graphite/talcum powder double-coated glass fibre felt composites were prepared using glass fibre felt as the base material, graphite as the surface absorbing agent, talcum powder as the underlying absorbing agent, epoxy resin E44 as the adhesive and low molecular 650 polyamide as the curing agent. The influences of the surface graphite content and underlying talcum powder content on the dielectric properties and conductivity of glass fibre felt composites were the main focus of the investigation. Results showed that when the frequency is less than 103 Hz, the values of the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant for double-coated glass fibre felt composites are largest when the surface graphite content is 50%. When the frequency is larger than 106 Hz, the value of the real part of the conductivity is largest when the graphite contents are 40% and 50%. When the frequency is less than 104Hz, the real part of the dielectric constant of the glass fiber mat composites is the largest when the talc content is 40%, and when talc content is 60%, the imaginary part of dielectric constant of glass fiber mat composites is the largest. The maximum loss tangent value for the composites occurs when the talcum powder content is 40%. When the frequency is larger, the value of the real part of the conductivity increases gradually.
PL
W pracy przygotowano podwójnie powlekane kompozyty filcu z włókna szklanego w postaci grafit/talk. Użyto filcu z włókna szklanego jako materiału bazowego, grafitu jako powierzchniowego środka pochłaniającego, talku jako podstawowego środka pochłaniającego, żywicy epoksydowej E44 jako kleju i poliamidu 650 o niskiej masie cząsteczkowej jako środek utwardzającego. Głównym przedmiotem badań było określenie wpływu zawartości grafitu powierzchniowego oraz zawartości proszku talku na właściwości dielektryczne i przewodność kompozytów z filcu z włókna szklanego. Wyniki wykazały, że gdy częstotliwość jest mniejsza niż 103 Hz, wartości części rzeczywistej i urojonej stałej dielektrycznej dla podwójnie powlekanych kompozytów z filcu z włókna szklanego są największe, gdy zawartość grafitu powierzchniowego wynosi 50%. Gdy częstotliwość jest większa niż 106 Hz, wartość rzeczywistej części przewodnictwa jest największa, gdy zawartość grafitu wynosi 40% i 50%. Maksymalna wartość tangensa strat dla kompozytów występuje, gdy zawartość talku wynosi 40%. Gdy częstotliwość jest większa, wartość rzeczywistej części przewodnictwa stopniowo wzrasta.
EN
Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings serve as protective layers and are frequently exposed to aggressive wear, corrosion, or high-temperature environment. Currently, alumina and alumina-titania are some of the most popular protective ceramic composite coatings used in the industry. The present work deals with the investigation of the influence of TiO₂ content in the feedstock powder on the resulting microstructure and properties of Al₂O₃, Al₂O₃ + 3 wt% TiO₂, Al₂O₃ + 13 wt% TiO₂ and Al₂O₃ + 40 wt% TiO₂ coatings developed via atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). Specifically, the phase composition, morphology, and microstructure, as well as the mechanical and tribological performance of the coatings were examined. Results revealed that higher content of TiO₂ induced the transformation of phases, leading to the formation of intermediary Al₂TiO₅ and Al₂- xTi₁- xO₅ phases. Also, the dominant α–Al₂O₃ to γ–Al₂O₃ transformation confirmed the formulation of well-melted lamellas within the coating structure. It was also shown that the increase in TiO₂ content decreased the micro-hardness of the coatings due to the formation of the intermediary phases as mentioned above and thus, affected their tribological performance. The lowest volumetric wear, equal to 7.2×10⁻⁵ mm³/(N ∙ m), was reported for Al₂O₃ + 13 wt% TiO₂ coating.
EN
In this study, NiCrBSi-B4C (wt. %5, %10 ve %15 B4C) powder mixtures are coated on the stainless steel surface of AISI304 by tungsten inert gas (TIG) method. We use optic microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the coating layer analysis, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) for element distribution analysis and X-ray diffractogram (XRD) for the analysis of phase components. The measurements of hardness are determined by the microhardness tester. Based on the results obtained by the examination of microstructure and phases, it has been observed that while B and C elemets are more intense in the middle and upper parts of the coating layer, the parts close to the interface have a higher intensity of Ni and Fe. Moreover, there are phases such as Cr7C3, γ – Ni, CrFeB, Ni3B, CrB ve Fe2B are formed in the coating layer. The increasing ratio of B4C results in increasing on the measurement values of microhardness. The maximum hardness value (430,8 HV0.2) is obtained from the coating layer of S4 sample while the minimum value (366,9 HV0.2) is observed from the NiCrBSi coated sample
EN
In this study, energetic behaviors of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-coated zirconium (Zr) powders were investigated using thermogravimetric analyzer-differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC). PVDF-coated Zr powder had 1.5 times higher heat flow than ZrO2-passivated Zr powder. PVDF-coated Zr powder had a Zr-F compound formed on its surface by its strong chemical bond. This compound acted as an oxidation-protecting layer, providing an efficient combustion path to inner pure Zr particle while thermal oxidation was progressing at the same time. PVDF coating layers also made thermal reaction start at a lower temperature than ZrO2-passivated Zr powder. It was obtained that the surface PVDF coating layer evaporated at approximately 673 K, but the surface oxide layer fully reacted at approximately 923 K by DSC analysis. Hence, Zr powders showed enhanced energetic properties by the PVDF-coated process.
EN
Chromium low alloyed steel substrate was subjected to aluminizing by hot dipping in pure aluminium and Al-Si eutectic alloy at 750°C and 650°C respectively, for dipping time up to 45 minutes. The coated samples were subjected for investigation using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Cyclic thermal oxidation test was carried out at 500°C for 72 hours to study the oxidation behaviour of hot-dipped aluminized steel. Electrochemical corrosion behavior was conducted in 3wt. %NaCl aqueous solution at room temperature. The cyclic thermal oxidation resistance was highly improved for both coating systems because of the formation of a thin protective oxide film in the outermost coating layer. The gain in weight was decreased by 24 times. The corrosion rate was decreased from 0.11 mmpy for uncoated specimen to be 2.9 x10-3 mmpy for Aluminum coated steel and 5.7x 10-3 mmpy for Al-Si eutectic coated specimens. The presence of silicon in hot dipping molten bath inhabit the growth of coating intermetallic layers, decrease the total coating thickness and change the interface boundaries from tongue like shape to be more regular with flatter interface. Two distinct coating layers were observed after hot dipping aluminizing in Al bath, while three distinct layers were observed after hot dipping in Al-Si molten bath.
7
EN
The article presents the results of the preliminary research of tribological properties of flame sprayed nickel and aluminum coatings reinforced with carbon nanotubes made on the structural steel S235J0 substrate. The carbon material – carbon nanotubes Nanocyl NC 7000 (0.5 wt.% and 1 wt.%) was used for structural reinforcement. The properties evaluation was made by the use of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, microhardness measurements, and by means of abrasion and erosion resistance laboratory tests. The obtained results were compared with pure nickel powder coatings 2N5 (Ni 99.5%) and with pure aluminum powder coatings (EN AW 1000 series). It was proved that the flame spraying of nickel and aluminum coatings reinforced with particles carbonaceous material can be an effective alternative for other more advanced surfacing technology. The preliminary test results will be successively extended by further experiments to contribute in the near future to develop innovative technologies, that can be implemented in the aviation industry and the automotive. The presented research is a continuation of the work previously published.
EN
This study aims to investigate the influence of adding a coating layer of austenitic stainless steel type 316L on Ti6Al4V alloy on corrosion behaviour. Samples of 316L, Ti6Al4V, and 316L on Ti6Al4V were prepared by hot-press sintering of their powders. The potentiodynamic polarization technique was used to characterize the corrosion behaviour of the samples in 0.9 and 3.5 wt. % NaCl concentrations. The corrosion potential (Ecorr.), current density (icorr) and corrosion rate (CR) of the sintered samples were compared in this study. The results showed that 316L samples had the best corrosion resistance, although micropits were observed on the surface, while Ti6Al4V samples had the lowest. This corrosion behaviour of sintered 316L samples can be interrelated to the existence of a passive layer on stainless steel alloys that can be attacked by chloride ions and causing localized corrosion. In general, the CR values of Ti6Al4V samples coated by 316L were between the 316L and Ti6Al4V samples. The CR values of the samples, in 0.9 wt. % NaCl, did not show significant changes with increasing time, as the CR for 316L values were around 0.003 mm/year, while for Ti6Al4V the CR values changed noticeably from 0.018 mm/year of 0 hr, to 0.015 mm/year for 24 hours. However, the changes were less than that of Ti6Al4V. For 3.5 wt. % NaCl solution, although the same order of CR remained, i.e., the CR values of coated Ti6Al4V samples were between 316L (lowest) and Ti6Al4V (highest), the overall CR values for the samples were higher than 0.9 wt. % NaCl.
9
EN
The paper describes the method of producing a zinc coating on steel by electro-spark deposition technology. The technology of applying electro-spark zinc to the surface was presented. Microscopic observations and corrosion resistance tests were made. The possibilities of practical application of this type of coatings in the process of repairing zinc coatings, either damaged or with manufacturing defects, were analyzed.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań przebiegu procesu suszenia wybranych powłok ochronnych oraz jego kinetykę. Badaniom została poddana alkoholowa powłoka ochronna oraz wodna powłoka ochronna. Powłoki nakładano na powierzchnie „zewnętrzne” i „wewnętrzne” rdzeni przygotowanych z masy ze spoiwem furanowym na osnowie piasku kwarcowego o średniej wielkości ziarna . Na rdzenie nanoszono powłokę o lepkości kinematycznej: v=16 · 10-6 ; v=61 · 10-6 ; v=122 · 10-6 m2 /s; co odpowiada lepkości umownej wynoszącej 10, 20 i 30 sekund. Aby wyznaczyć kinetykę przebiegu procesu wysychania powłok ochronnych zastosowano technikę grawimetryczną. Pomiar szybkości odparowania rozcieńczalnika prowadzono w sposób ciągły i rejestrowano go na bieżąco w komputerze. Pomiary zostały przeprowadzone przy stałych warunkach temperatury (T=24°C) (wilgotności (42%) i ruchu powietrza. W toku prowadzonych badań został wyznaczony przebieg procesu wysychania wodnej i alkoholowej powłoki ochronnej nałożonej na powierzchnie „wewnętrzne” i „zewnętrzne” rdzenia. Ponadto rdzenie poddane badaniom posiadały różne wysokości (3/3 H, 2/3 H i 1/3 H) oraz kształt (kwadratowy, cylindryczny), by zbadać wpływ smukłości i kształtu rdzenia na przebieg i kinetykę procesu suszenia alkoholowego i wodnego pokrycia ochronnego. Co więcej określono czas „całkowitego” wysuszenia dla pierwszej i drugiej warstwy pokrycia i oceniono jakość wysuszonej warstwy powłoki.
EN
Results of investigations of the courses and kinetics of drying processes of the selected protective coatings are presented in the hereby paper. The alcohol protective coating as well as the water protective coating was subjected to inve¬stigations. These coatings were deposited on 'external' and 'internal' surfaces of cores prepared of a moulding sand with a furan binder on the matrix of quartz sand of the average grain size L=0,28 mm. Coatings of a kinematic viscosities: v=16 · 10-6 ; v=61 · 10-6 ; v=122 · 10-6 m2 /s, which corresponds the conventional viscosities being 10,20 and 30 seconds, were deposited on the cores. In order to determine the kinetics of the drying process of protective coatings the gravimetric technique was applied. The evaporation rate of the diluent was continuously measured on -line by the computer. Measurements were performed at constant conditions of a temperature (T=24°C), humidity (42%) and air movement. During the performed tests the courses of drying processes of water and alcohol protective coatings deposited on 'internal'and 'external' surfaces of the core, were determined. In addition, the cores subjected to investigations had various heights (3/3 H, 2/3 H and 1/3 H) and shapes (square, cylindrical), to enable testing the influence of slenderness and shape of the core on the course and kinetics of the drying process of alcohol and water protective coatings. What's more, the time of 'complete' drying of the first and the second layer of the coating was determined and the quality of dried coating layers was assessed.
EN
This study aimed at synthesis, preparation, and physicochemical properties investigation of undoped polysiloxane-based coatings deposited on the glass supports. The other goal was to test the effectiveness of their hydrophobization with hexamethyldisilazane at an elevated temperature using a bubbler. The coatings were obtained in a sol-gel process by acid-assisted hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane and they were applied to the glass supports using the dip coating technique with various withdrawal speeds. The synthesized composition was scanned using TurbiscanLAB and its particle size was determined by means of the dynamic light scattering technique. The obtained surfaces were examined based on the water wettability measurements, photoacoustic spectroscopy, and transmittance measurements. It was found that the stability of the sol did not change during the dip-coating. Smooth, homogeneous, uniform, hydrophobic, and transparent coatings on the glass supports were obtained. Their wettability was determined by the contact angle in the range from 83.5 to 95.2 degrees and very low contact angle hysteresis. The hydrophobic effect obtained by modification with hexamethyldisilazane appears to be permanent – the contact angles do not change significantly after 7 days. The synthesized sol composition appears to be a good starting point for its chemical and physical modification for hydrophobicity increase and surface properties modification. Moreover, the hydrophobization of the coatings with hexamethyldisilazane at an elevated temperature using the bubbler did not have the desired effect.
EN
Chromates and phosphates have traditionally been used in order to protect metallic surfaces from corrosion processes. Due to their high toxicity and carcinogenicity, silane- based thin films are now successfully tested as an alternative pre-treatment for various metals and their alloys. The silane film deposition procedure is easy applicable by several methods such as conventional dip-coating, electro-assisted deposition, spin-coating or by spraying and wiping. The protective properties of silane film (structure, stability in time, compactness, resistance to corrosion attack) are related to the parameters of the silane solution (type of silane, composition and concentration, pH) as well as application method and drying process at a fixed temperature of the deposited film. The paper discusses the influence of the parameters of the deposition process on the protective properties of silane films.
PL
Chromiany i fosforany były tradycyjnie stosowane w celu ochrony powierzchni metalowych przed procesami korozji. Ze względu na ich wysoką toksyczność i rakotwórczość, cienkie warstwy na bazie silanów są obecnie z powodzeniem testowane jako alternatywna obróbka wstępna różnych metali i ich stopów. Procedura osadzania filmu silanowego jest łatwa do zastosowania za pomocą kilku metod, takich jak konwencjonalne powlekanie zanurzeniowe, osadzanie elektrolityczne, powlekanie wirowe lub natryskiwanie i wcieranie. Własności ochronne powłok silanowych (struktura, stabilność w czasie, szczelność, odporność na korozję) są związane z parametrami roztworu silanu (typ silanu, skład i stężenie, pH), a także ze sposobem aplikacji i procesem suszenia w określonej temperaturze osadzanej powłoki. W artykule omówiono wpływ parametrów procesu osadzania na własności ochronne powłok silanowych.
EN
ZnO, ZnO/Alginate coatings were obtained on the pre-anodized Ti6Al4V substrates by the thermal substrate deposition method (TSD). In the frame of this work, the TSD method was at first applied for obtaining ZnO coating from aqueous alginate-containing and alginate-free solutions on a metal surface. XRD, SEM analyses show that the biopolymer has a significant influence on the formation of the coating, their morphology, texture, structure of ZnO nanoparticles. The average rate of ZnO deposition from alginate containing solution is 30 μm/min, while from alginate-free solutions – 6 μm/min. In the presence of alginate, spherical particles with flower-shaped inclusions are formed, while from the polymer-free solution, single crystals in the form of tetrahedral were obtained. Zone of inhibition test against Gram-positive S. aureus ATCC 25923 and Gram-negative E. coli ATCC 25922 proves the antibacterial activity of the ZnO/Alg coatings.
EN
Wear resistance, which is one of the main technological quality features of machine parts and tools, is determined by the properties of their surface layer. The demand for high-quality products forces manufacturers to use modern structural and tooling materials as well as efficient and cost-effective methods of their treatment. The paper presents the results of research on selected properties of tools made of tool steels and sintered carbides, as well as parts made of aluminum alloy subjected to selected surface treatment processes, such as mechanical (grinding, turning, milling, burnishing) and thermo-chemical (nitriding, sulfonitriding) processes, and physical vapor deposition (PVD) of coatings. The presented results, including analyses of the surface geometric structure, microstructure, and microhardness, as well as tribological and machining properties of selected materials, indicate the possibility of improving the functional quality of tools and machine parts.
EN
In this paper, an orthogonal experiment of 3 factors and 3 levels was firstly designed to prepare PAN pre-oxidised fibre felts with good thermal insulation properties; the range method was used to analyse the result of the orthogonal experiment, and finally the tensile properties and thermal stability were tested. Finally, pre-oxidised fibre felt composites for the coating of silica aerogel were prepared using the coating process to compound silica aerogel on re-oxidised fibre felts. Firstly, the influence of the content of silica aerogel on the heat insulation performance of the coated composite materials was analysed, and then a test of the coefficient of thermal conductivity, an experiment on the back temperature, and characterisations of the tensile properties and thermal stability of the composite coating of pre-oxidised fibre felt composites of the coating of silica aerogel were carried out. Results showed that through analysis of the orthogonal experiment, we can state that the best preparation process of pre-oxidised fibre needled felts was as follows: needle number – 2, needle depth – 8 mm, and needle frequency – 140 times/min. The transverse tensile strength of PAN pre-oxidised fibre needled felts prepared by crossly webbing of PAN pre-oxidised fibres was superior to the longitudinal tensile strength; thermogravimetric analysis showed that the pre-oxidised fibre needled felts had excellent thermal stability. The coefficient of thermal conductivity of the aerogel coating of the composites firstly decreased and then increased with an increase in the content of aerogel. Coated composites had the lowest coefficient of thermal conductivity when the aerogel content was 4% wt. At temperatures of 100 °C, 150 °C and 200 °C, the heating rate of the transient-state back temperature and the steady-state average temperature were both the lowest when the aerogel content was 6% wt.
PL
W artykule zaprojektowano ortogonalny eksperyment z 3 czynnikami i 3 poziomami w celu przygotowania wstępnie utlenionych filców PAN o dobrych właściwościach termoizolacyjnych; do analizy wyników eksperymentu ortogonalnego zastosowano metodę zakresu, a na koniec przetestowano właściwości rozciągania i stabilność termiczną. Najpierw przeanalizowano wpływ zawartości aerożelu krzemionkowego na właściwości izolacji cieplnej powleczonych materiałów kompozytowych, a następnie wykonano test współczynnika przewodności cieplnej, przeanalizowano też charakterystykę właściwości rozciągania i stabilności termicznej powłoki kompozytowej wstępnie utlenionych kompozytów filcowych. Wyniki pokazały, że poprzez analizę eksperymentu ortogonalnego można stwierdzić, że najlepszy proces przygotowania filców igłowanych charakteryzuje się następującymi parametrami: liczba igły – 2, głębokość igły – 8 mm i częstotliwość igły – 140 razy/min. Wytrzymałość poprzeczna na rozciąganie igłowanych filców z włókien PAN była lepsza niż wytrzymałość na rozciąganie wzdłużne; analiza termograwimetryczna wykazała, że igłowane filce z wstępnie utlenionego włókna miały doskonałą stabilność termiczną. Współczynnik przewodności cieplnej powłoki aerożelowej kompozytów najpierw zmniejszył się, a następnie wzrósł wraz ze wzrostem zawartości aerożelu. Powlekane kompozyty miały najniższy współczynnik przewodności cieplnej, gdy zawartość aerożelu wynosiła 4% wag. W temperaturach 100, 150 i 200 °C szybkość ogrzewania i średnia temperatura w stanie ustalonym były najniższe, gdy zawartość aerożelu wynosiła 6% wag.
17
EN
In recent years, individual protection has attracted much attention in the area of personal safety, especially stab resistant clothing. Nowadays, fabrics of high performance fibre are often used in stab-resistant clothing. Therefore, in this paper ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene(UHMWPE) fibre fabrics were used to explore their distribution of boron carbide(B4C) particles. The effect of different processing techniques on stab resistance was discussed. Finally, it was found that when the particle dimension was 5 microns, the coating thickness 100 microns, the coating temperature 64 °C and the particle and binder ratio 2:3, the stab-resistance performance of the fabrics was best. The stab resistance of multi-layer fabrics was also discussed, and it was found that the relationship between energy absorber and the number of layers was changed by hard particles.
PL
W ostatnich latach ochrona indywidualna przyciągnęła wiele uwagi w zakresie bezpieczeństwa osobistego, zwłaszcza w przypadku odzieży odpornej na przebicie. W dzisiejszych czasach tkaniny z wysokowydajnych włókien są często stosowane w odzieży odpornej na przebicie. Dlatego w artykule wykorzystano tkaniny z włókien polietylenowych o ultra wysokiej masie cząsteczkowej (UHMWPE) do zbadania ich rozkładu cząstek węglika boru (B4C). Omówiono wpływ różnych technik przetwarzania na odporność na przebicie. Stwierdzono, że w przypadku wymiaru cząstek równemu 5 mikronom, grubości powłoki 100 mikronów, temperaturze powlekania 64 °C i stosunku cząstek i spoiwa 2:3, odporność na przebicie tkanin była najlepsza. Omówiono również odporność na przebicie tkanin wielowarstwowych i stwierdzono, że zależność między pochłoniętą energią a liczbą warstw uległa zmianie przez twarde cząstki.
EN
In order to endow cotton fabric with the electromagnetic shielding property while preserving comfort and softness, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were coated onto NaOH pretreated fabrics via a binder-free dip-coating approach. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Infrared spectroscopy were utilised to investigate the surface morphology and modification of the CNT functionalised fabrics. The effects of the number of dip-coatings, the concentration of carbon nanotubes, and the impregnation temperature on electrical conductivity, electromagnetic (EM) shielding effectiveness (SE), and wave absorbing efficiency of cotton fabrics were evaluated, respectively. The SE value of the CNT functionalised cotton fabrics increased with the dip-coating time and reached 16.5 dB after CNT dip-coating ten times, which indicates that 97.76% of the electromagnetic wave was shielded. Meanwhile, by adding layers of stacking fabrics, the SE of CNT coated fabrics was further improved to 26.4 dB. The shielding mechanism was also studied by comparing its reflection and absorption behaviour, which demonstrates that 65.7% of the electromagnetic wave was absorbed.
PL
Aby nadać tkaninie bawełnianej właściwości ekranowania elektromagnetycznego przy jednoczesnym zachowaniu komfortu i miękkości, najpierw zastosowano obróbkę tkaniny z zastosowaniem NaOH, a następnie nałożono na nią powłokę z nanorurek węglowych (CNT). Za pomocą skaningowej mikroskopii elektronowej (SEM) i spektroskopii w podczerwieni zbadano morfologię powierzchni tkanin funkcjonalizowanych CNT. Oceniono wpływ liczby powłok zanurzeniowych, stężenia nanorurek węglowych i temperatury impregnacji na przewodność elektryczną, skuteczność ekranowania elektromagnetycznego (EM) (SE) oraz efektywność pochłaniania fal przez tkaniny bawełniane. Stwierdzono, że wartość SE funkcjonalizowanych tkanin bawełnianych CNT wzrastała wraz z czasem powlekania zanurzeniowego i osiągnęła 16.5 dB po dziesięciokrotnym powlekaniu zanurzeniowym CNT, co wskazało, że 97.76% fali elektromagnetycznej było ekranowane. Poprzez dodanie warstw tkanin, współczynnik SE tkanin powlekanych CNT został dodatkowo poprawiony do 26,4 dB. Zbadano również mechanizm ekranowania, porównując jego właściwości odbijania oraz pochłaniania i stwierdzono, że 65.7% fali elektromagnetycznej zostało zaabsorbowane.
EN
In this study, pine and beech sapwood samples coated with 12 different waterborne acrylic resin coating systems were exposed to natural weathering in Trabzon, Turkey. The natural weathering test continued for 18 months. In these coating systems, water in different proportions, boric acid, two different acrylic resins and three different UV absorbers supplied by BASF were used. The aim was to compare the durability of 12 different coating systems in natural weathering in terms of colour change, surface roughness and macroscopic evaluation. These test methods were used to evaluate the appearance and physical properties of the coatings after the natural weathering test. The results led to the selection of the best coating formulation for wood durability in natural outdoor conditions. The appearance and physical values after 18 months of the weathering test showed that boric acid increases the durability of the coating for use in outdoor conditions. Additionally, the coating formulation containing especially acrylic resin and Tinuvin 400 DW provided the highest durability against outdoor conditions.
20
Content available ZrO2 Gelcast Foams Coated with Apatite Layers
EN
In this work, gel-casting of foams method was used to produce ZrO2 porous ceramics. The obtained foams with total porosity of 89.5 vol% were composed of approximately spherical cells having the mean diameter of 537 ± 153 μm interconnected by circular cell windows having the mean diameter of 152 ± 82 μm. Next, the ZrO2 foams were coated with fluorapatite (FA) and hydroxyapatite (HA) layers by slurry infiltration. The intermediate fluorapatite (FA) layer was introduced to prevent the chemical reactions between ZrO2 and HA at high temperatures during sintering process. The ZrO2 samples containing only HA coatings, were also tested, for comparison. The obtained ceramic biomaterials were subjected to in vitro tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. The results show that the ZrO2 foams with FA/HA layers possessed better bioactivity than the foams with the HA/HA coating.
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