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EN
The effect of graphene (0.01, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 wt%) on the mechanical properties and thermal stability of rigid PVC was investigated. The morphology and thermal properties were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric thermal analysis (TGA). Additionally, tensile properties, impact strength and hardness were determined. It was found that the addition of graphene can increase the impact strength and hardness and extend the thermal stability time of PVC.
PL
Zbadano wpływ grafenu (0,01; 0,1; 0,5 i 1% mas.) na właściwości mechaniczne i stabilność termiczną twardego PVC. Strukturę i właściwości termiczne analizowano za pomocą skaningowej mikroskopii elektronowej (SEM) i termograwimetrycznej analizy termicznej (TGA). Ponadto określono właściwości mechaniczne przy rozciąganiu, udarność i twardość. Stwierdzono, że dodatek grafenu może zwiększyć udarność i twardość oraz wydłużyć czas stabilności termicznej PVC.
EN
This paper presents the results of static strength tests carried out, i.e. tensile, bending and compression tests. The tests were performed on the basis of ISO 527, ISO 178 and ISO 604 standards. The study used a photo-curable resin with the trade name MED610, which meets a number of biocompatibility requirements and can be used for medical applications. PolyJet Matrix 3D printing technology was used to produce the test samples. The study showed a clear anisotropy of mechanical properties due to the printing orientation, particularly noticeable for the tensile and bending tests.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki przeprowadzonych statycznych prób wytrzymałościowych, tj.: próby rozciągania, zginania i ściskania. Badania wykonano w oparciu o normy ISO 527, ISO 178 oraz ISO 604. W badaniu zastosowano żywicę fotoutwardzalną o nazwie handlowej MED610, która spełnia wiele wymagań dotyczących biokompatybilności i może być stosowana w aplikacjach medycznych. Do produkcji próbek wykorzystano technologię druku 3D PolyJet Matrix. Badanie wykazało wyraźną anizotropię właściwości mechanicznych, zauważalną zwłaszcza w testach rozciągania i zginania.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono analizę wpływu wysokiej temperatury na wybrane właściwości mechaniczne drobnokruszywowego mineralnego kompozytu ze stalowym zbrojeniem rozproszonym. Zaprojektowany fibrokompozyt charakteryzuje się właściwościami zbliżonymi bądź lepszymi niż beton zwykły i może być z powodzeniem wykorzystany do wykonywania nośnych elementów żelbetowych. Zmianę wytrzymałości na ściskanie i wytrzymałości resztkowych na rozciąganie przy zginaniu fibrokompozytu określono w temperaturze pokojowej i wyznaczonej wg krzywej pożarowej imitującej narastanie temperatury w trakcie rzeczywistego pożaru. Program badawczy obejmował także ocenę ubytku masy próbek fibrokompozytu wygrzewanych w piecu. Badania wykazały, że dodatek włókien stalowych do mieszanki kompozytu w ilości 1,2% przyczynia się do zachowania jego właściwości mechanicznych po wystawieniu na działanie temperatury do 550°C z powodu pożaru, a tym samym jest w stanie poprawić jego stabilność strukturalną w wysokiej temperaturze. Włókna stalowe znacznie poprawiają ognioodporność drobnokruszywowego kompozytu.
EN
The paper presents an analysis of the influence of high temperature on selected mechanical properties of finely aggregated mineral composite with dispersed steel reinforcement. The designed fibrecomposite has properties similar to or better than ordinary concrete and can be successfully used to make load-bearing reinforced concrete elements. The change in compressive strength and residual tensile strength during bending of the fibrecomposite was determined at room temperatures and determined according to the fire curve imitating the temperature build-up during a real fire. The research program also included the assessment of the weight loss of fibrecomposite samples annealed in the furnace. Studies have shown that the addition of steel fibers to the composite mix in the amount of 1.2% contributes to the preservation of its mechanical properties when exposed to temperatures up to 550°C due to fire, and thus is able to improve its structural stability at high temperature. Steel fibers significantly improve the fire-retardant properties of the fine-aggregate composite.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono koncepcję wykorzystania materiałów z recyklingu do wytwarzania elementów wibroizolacyjnych stosowanych w budowie dróg szynowych. Granulaty recyklingowe charakteryzują się stabilnymi parametrami mechanicznymi, co pozwala na ich wykorzystanie w produkcji materiałów do budowy torowisk w terenach zurbanizowanych. W artykule omówiono technologię wytwarzania tego typu materiałów oraz wstępne badania podstawowych właściwości mechanicznych. Zaprezentowane wyniki pozwalają na wybór technologii produkcji mat wibroizolacyjnych z materiałów recyklingowych w zależności od obszaru zastosowania. Określenie poziomu energii dyssypowanej w trakcie obciążenia dynamicznego umożliwiło skalowanie właściwości produktów podczas produkcji. Przedstawione badania pozwalają na wykorzystanie granulatów polimerów PET oraz PiB.
EN
The article presents the concept of using recycled materials to produce vibration-isolating elements used in the construction of railroads. Recycling granulates are characterized by stable mechanical parameters, which allows them to be used in the production of materials for the construction of tracks in urban areas. This work discusses the technology of producing this type of materials and preliminary research on the basic mechanical properties. The presented results allow the selection of a technology to produce vibration-insulating mats from recycled materials depending on the area of application. Determining the level of energy dissipated during dynamic loading made it possible to scale the properties of products during production. The presented research allows the use of PET and PiB polymer granulates.
EN
In this present study, the fused deposition modeling (FDM) method was used to fabricate the composites. Before three-dimensional (3D) printing, samples were designed according to the ASTM D256, D790 and D3039 standards for impact, flexural and tensile tests, respectively, using Onshape software before conversion to an STL file format. Afterward, the digital file was sliced with infill densities of 60%, 80%, and 100%. The composite samples contained chopped carbon fiber (cCF) and poly lactic acid (PLA), as reinforcement and matrix, respectively. The cCF/PLA (simply called cCFP) filaments were printed into various cCFP composite (cCFPC) samples, using a Viper Share bot 3D machine with different infill densities before the aforementioned mechanical testing. The tensile strength of cCFP were obtained as 25.9MPa, 26.9MPa and 34.75MPa for 60%, 80% and 100% infill density cCFP samples, respectively. Similarly, the flexural strength of cCFP were obtained as 11.8MPa, 12.55MPa and 18.4MPa and impact strength was 47.48kJ/m2, 48.45kJ/m22 for 60%, 80% and 100% infill density cCFP samples, respectively. The fractured/tested samples were examined and analyzed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to investigate the presence of fiber and void in the tensile sample. Based on the experimental results, it was evident that a high infill density of 100% with the highest reinforcement exhibited maximum impact strength, tensile and flexural strengths and moduli when compared with other lower carbon content of cCFPC samples. Therefore, the optimal 3D-printed cCFPC sample could be used for engineering application to benefit from properties of the polymer matrix composite materials and possibilities through additive manufacturing (AM).
EN
The purpose of this work was to carry out comparative studies of WC-Co-Cr coatings deposited using the high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) method onto two types of substrate material: structural steel S235 and magnesium alloy AZ31. The influence of the substrate material type on the microstructure, phase composition, crystallite size, porosity, Vickers microhardness, instrumental hardness (HIT), Young’s modulus (EIT), and fracture toughness was investigated. For both substrates, the deposited coatings deposited were characterized with fine-grained and compact microstructure. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed presence of following phases: WC, W2C, Co0.9W0.1, and Co3W9C4. The WC phase was the most desirable and stable one with crystallites were below 100 nm. On the other hand, the size of the W2C crystallites was below 30 nm. The coatings obtained showed porosity values equal to 2.3 ± 0.4 vol% and 2.8 ± 0.7 vol% for AZ31 and S235, respectively. The average Vickers microhardness for both types of sample was appproximately 1200 HV0.3. The average HIT values for carbide particles and metallic matrix were around 29 GPa and 6.5 GPa, respectively. In the case of EIT, it was around 620 GPa and 190 GPa for WC and Co-Cr, respectively. The differences between coatings were negligible. The EIT value for both coatings was equal to 344 ± 11 GPa. The fracture toughness was around 4.5 MPa · m1/2 in both cases. The investigations revealed that it is possible to replace steel substrate material with a much lighter equivalent, in this case AZ31 alloy, without deterioration of the coating properties.
EN
Elements of the railway infrastructure are subject to difficult weather conditions, as well as changing dynamic loads resulting from the operation of a given part of the infrastructure. The following article presents an analysis of the internal macro and microstructure of a polymer railway sleeper made of reinforced polyethylene. The aim of the research was to obtain the results of structure, analysis of hardness measurements and identification of structure inconsistencies and the presence of other structural components in recycled polyethylene substrates. In terms of the tested material properties of the polyethylene sleepers, no significant changes in strength and plastic stability were found for the samples made of polyethylene tested before and after exposure to varying atmospheric conditions in the climatic chamber.
EN
Landfilling is the most common and cheapest method of waste management practice in India. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (MSWL) became a nuisance affecting the health, hygiene, sanitation and aesthetics of the surrounding area. Aggregates occupy almost 70% of concrete, so replacing waste materials with them could be a rewarding choice. In the current work, an experimental investigation is being carried out to test the addition of MSWL as a substitution with fine aggregate for concrete production. Out of the different aged samples available at the dumpsite, the most aged sample is chosen for experimental investigations according to the basic physical properties. Concrete mixes, with 0%, 4%, 5%, 7% and 10% partial replacement of fine aggregate with MSWL are tested for mechanical properties such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength, and non destructive test and have proved to be a partial substitute for fine aggregate. Durability studies such as water absorption, acid attack and sulphate attack also gave better experimental proof for the sustainable reuse of this waste material. The research reveals 5% replacement is the optimum considering all the test result values. The paper leads to advanced research for the suitability of the material in the construction industry.
EN
Glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) is a promising energetic binder for solid propellants, but it suffers from poor mechanical properties compared to hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). This paper reviews the main factors affecting the mechanical properties of GAP-based binders, such as molecular weight and functionality, and discusses some possible strategies on how it could be improved. The equation of Carother is used for the theoretical consideration of the functionality of the GAP prepolymer.
EN
Microstructure, mechanical, and corrosion properties of as-cast pure zinc and its binary and ternary alloys with magnesium (Mg), and copper (Cu) additions were investigated. Analysis of microstructure conducted by scanning electron microscopy revealed that alloying additives contributed to decreasing average grain size compared to pure zinc. Corrosion rate was calculated based on immersion and potentiodynamic tests and its value was lower for materials with Cu content. Moreover, it was shown that the intermetallic phase, formed as a result of Mg addition, constitutes a specific place for corrosion. It was observed that a different type of strengthening was obtained depending on the additive used. The presence of the second phase with Mg improved the tensile strength of the Zn-based materials, while Cu dissolved in the solution had a positive effect on their elongation.
EN
The present work investigates the effect of modifying an epoxy resin using two different modifiers. The mechanical and thermal properties were evaluated as a function of modifier type and content. The structure and morphology were also analyzed and related to the measured properties. Polyurethane (PUR) was used as a liquid modifier, while Cloisite Na+ and Nanomer I.28E are solid nanoparticles. Impact strength (IS) of hybrid nanocomposites based on 3.5 wt% PUR and 2 wt% Cloisite or 3.5 wt% PUR and 1 wt% Nanomer was maximally increased by 55% and 30%, respectively, as compared to the virgin epoxy matrix, exceeding that of the two epoxy/nanoparticle binaries but not that of the epoxy/PUR binary. Furthermore, a maximum increase in IS of approximately 20% as compared to the pristine matrix was obtained with the hybrid epoxy nanocomposite containing 0.5 wt% Cloisite and 1 wt% Nanomer, including a synergistic effect, due most likely to specific interactions between the nanoparticles and the epoxy matrix. The addition of polyurethane and nanoclays increased the thermal stability of epoxy composites significantly. However, DSC results showed that the addition of flexible polyurethane chains decreased the glass transition temperatures, while the softening point and the service temperature range of epoxy nanocomposites containing nanofillers were increased. FTIR analysis confirmed the occurrence of interaction between the epoxy matrix and added modifiers. All SEM micrographs showed significant roughness of the fracture surfaces with the formation of elongated platelets, explaining the increase in mechanical properties of the epoxy matrix.
EN
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of manufacturing conditions on the mechanical properties and structure of ABS parts. Two sets of samples with the same geometric characteristics were produced by fused deposition modelling (FDM) and injection molding (IM). The molding pressure and cooling rate were found to have a significant effect on shaping the mechanical properties and structure of ABS products. The manufacturing method and adopted process parameters have a significant impact on the degree of packing of macromolecules in the volume of the product and thus determine its density. Selected mechanical properties were determined and compared with their specific gravity. The research was carried out using tools and machines, i.e. injection molds of unique design and standard measuring stations. Tensile and bending strengths and Young’s modulus were related to the density of products obtained under different process conditions and having gradient and solid structures. The results provide useful information for engineers designing products using FDM technology. Relating tensile and flexural strength and Young’s modulus to the specific gravity of the product. It was found that the value of product properties is closely related to various process conditions, which further provides a true description of the products.
EN
The purpose of the study was to evaluate selected mechanical properties and structural characteristics of samples manufactured using composite filament fabrication (CFF) technology from Onyx material, whichwas filled with continuous glass fiber. Selected mechanical properties were correlated with the density of the resulting composite to determine the specific strength of the fabricated parts. The test specimens were manufactured on a Mark Two Enterprise machine (Markforged, USA) using composite filament fabrication (CFF) technology. The material used was polyamide 6.6 with a 20% short carbon fiber content with the trade name Onyx. Continuous glass fiber was used to reinforce the fabrication. The density of the manufactured samples was determined using a hydrostatic method. Methanol was used as the liquid. By determining the density of the samples, it was possible to estimate through appropriate calculations what specific strength and specific modulus the obtained composites would have. Determination of tensile and flexural strengths was carried out in accordance with ISO 527-1:2012 and ISO 178:2003. Determination of the impact tensile strength of the samples was carried out in accordance with ISO 8256, the beams were tested using the A method. Due to the high impact tensile strength, two 1 mm notches with an angle of 45°were made on the specimens. The image of the sample structure obtained by the CFF method was recorded using a CT scanner. A thermogravimetric test (TG) of the Onyx matrix material was carried out. The samples were tested approximately 72 hours after fabrication. Filling the samples with continuous glass fiber above 50% leads to a slight increase in impact resistance. The density of the composite increased by only 16% relative to the reference samples, resulting in a 389% increase in the maximum average flexural strength. Despite significant discontinuities in the structure of the produced composite, it was possible to record an increase in tensile strength and Young’s modulus by 606% and 370%, respectively.
EN
The work presents the effect of the addition of graphite from recycled graphite electrodes on the mechanical properties of metal matrix composites (MMC) based on the AlMg10 alloy. A composite based on the AlMg10 alloy reinforced with natural graphite particles was also tested. Further, tests of the mechanical properties of the AlMg10 alloy were performed for comparative purposes. Composites with a particle content of 5, 10 and 15 percent by volume were produced by adding introduction of particles into the liquid matrix while mechanically mixing molten alloy. The composite suspensions were gravitationally cast into metal molds. Samples for the Rm , R 0.2, A and E tests were made from the prepared castings. Photos of the microstructures of the materials were also taken. The research shows that the addition of graphite to the matrix alloy causes minor changes in tensile strength (Rm) and yield strength (R 02), regardless of the type of graphite used. The results of the relative elongation tests showed that the introduction of graphite particles into the matrix alloy had an adverse effect on the elongation values in the case of each of the tested composites. The introduction of graphite particles into the AlMg10 alloy significantly increased the Young’s modulus value, both in the case of composites with flake graphite (natural) and graphite from ground graphite electrodes.
EN
Tensile test under quasi-static loads conditions is usually used to determine the mechanical strength of thermoplastic starch films. This kind of test does not fully illustrate the load conditions for packaging films, which, under the conditions of use, are succumb to dynamic loads. Thus, the aim of the study was to present the possibilities of using a patented soft tissues measurement testing station to analyze the mechanical strength of thermoplastic starch (TPS) films under impact loading conditions. Two groups of film specimens containing the addition of psyllium husks (TPS/PH) and psyllium flour (TPS/PF) were used for the measurements. The casting method was applied, and glycerol was used as a plasticizer. Microstructure of the specimen surface was analyzed by stereoscopic microscopy. Specimens with the addition of psyllium flour had a more uniform microstructure. The maximum breaking forces obtained during impact tests for these films were 5 times higher than specimens containing psyllium seed husk. The same behaviour was found with respect to stresses with average values of 48.6 MPa for TPS/PF and 20.2 MPa for TPS/PH. Moreover, research confirms usefulness of patented soft tissues measurement testing station to analyse the mechanical strength of thermoplastic starch films.
EN
The technological parameters of 3D printing have an influence on the mechanical properties of the manufactured components. The purpose of the article was to study the comparative influence of the technological parameter of the number of shells variable in two stages (2 and 10) on selected mechanical properties. The maximum tensile stress for the number of shells 10 was 39.80 MPa, which is higher compared to the number of shells 2: 30.98 MPa. In the case of the maximum bending stress for the number of shells 10, an average value of 61.02 MPa was obtained, which is higher compared to the number of shells of 2: 37.46 MPa. Furthermore strong fit of the Kelvin-Voight model was obtained, as confirmed by the values of the 𝐶ℎ𝑖2:0.0001 and 𝑅2:0.997 coefficients.
EN
In this paper, an attempt to estimate the stage of the fatigue process using the Barkhausen noise method is studied. First, microstructural and static tensile tests were carried out and, subsequently, fatigue tests up to failure were conducted. After determination of the material behaviour in the assumed static and dynamic conditions, the interrupted fatigue tests were performed. Each specimen was stressed up to a different number of cycles corresponding to 10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% of fatigue lifetime for the loading conditions considered. In the next step of the experimental programme, the specimens were subjected to the Barkhausen magnetic noise measurements. Various magnetic parameters coming from the rms Barkhausen noise envelopes were determined. The linear relationship betweenthe full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the Barkhausen noise envelope and the number of loading cycles to fracture was found. Specimens loaded up to a certain number of cycles were also subjected to a tensile test to assess an influence of fatigue on the fracture features.
EN
The study is devoted to the explanation of the influence of hot plastic deformation on the properties of railway wheels. The shape of individual elements of the wheel provides for a different degree of hot compression, which determines the mechanism for the development of the recrystallization at austenite. With a decrease in the degree of the hot deformation, a certain proportion of grains with a low energy of linear stretching are formed in austenite. As a result, of the low mobility of such boundaries, the likelihood of preservation of part of the substructural state of the austenite increases, which should affect the formation of a colony of perlite during the cooling of the carbon steel. Against background preservation and a dependence of strength properties on the dispersion of the pearlite colony, the appearance in austenite of grain boundaries with a low energy of linear tension leads to a qualitative change in the plastic properties of railway wheel steel. The increase in plasticity of carbon steel with an increase in dispersion of the pearlite colony is due to a decrease in the effect of solid solution hardening and an increase in the role of the ferrite-cementite interface in the development processes of strain hardening carbon steel. The results obtained can be useful for improving the technology of manufacturing all-rolled railway wheels.
EN
The aim of the research was to determine the basic strength properties of orthotropic composites in terms of their use in the repair of aircraft airframes. The objects of the tests were three types of composites reinforced with carbon fibers: producedusing the wet method with a thickness of 2.5 mm, commercial with a thickness of 2 mm and commercial with a thickness of 7.3 mm. Specimens cut out from the first two types of materials were subjected to a static tensile test with a force applied in the direction of the fibers and at an angle of 45°, whichenabled the determination of tensile strength and modulus of elasticity. Specimens made of 7.3 mm thick composite were subjected to four-point bending and tensile tests to determine Young's modulus, compression and impact strength, also taking into account two directions of load application. The values of stresses and Young's modulus determined in this way indicate much lower strength and stiffness of orthotropic composites apart from the reinforcement fibers’ directions, which is the basis for replacing them with quasi-isotropic composites in repairs of aircraft airframes.
PL
Celem badań było wyznaczenie podstawowych właściwości wytrzymałościowych kompozytów ortotropowych w aspekcie wykorzystania ich w naprawach płatowców statków powietrznych. Obiektami badań były trzy rodzaje kompozytów zbrojonych włóknami węglowymi: wytworzony metodą na mokro o grubości 2,5 mm, komercyjny o grubości 2 mm oraz komercyjny o grubości 7,3 mm. Próbki wycięte z dwóch pierwszych rodzajów materiałów poddano statycznej próbie rozciągania siłą przyłożoną w kierunku ułożenia włókien oraz pod kątem 45°, co umożliwiło wyznaczenie wytrzymałości na rozciąganie oraz modułów sprężystości podłużnej. Próbki wykonane z kompozytu o grubości 7,3 mm poddano czteropunktowemu zginaniu oraz próbom rozciągania w celu określenia modułu Younga, ściskania oraz wytrzymałości udarnościowej także z uwzględnieniem dwóch kierunków przyłożenia obciążenia. Wyznaczone w ten sposób wartości naprężeń oraz modułów Younga wskazują na znacznie mniejszą wytrzymałość i sztywność kompozytów ortotropowych poza kierunkami ułożenia włókien zbrojenia, co stanowi podstawę do zastąpienia ich kompozytami quasi-izotropowymi w naprawach płatowców statków powietrznych.
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