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EN
Improperly treated heavy metal wastewater discharged into water sources could cause a serious issue for the environment. The aim of this study was to bioaccumulate iron (Fe) using native bacteria isolated from the laboratory drainage water containing a high concentration of iron. The experiment was conducted in 250 mL conical flasks containing 150 mL Fe solution in concentrations of 25, 100, and 250 mg/L, respectively. Approximately 10% of bacteria inoculum was cultivated in each Fe concentration for 24 and 48 hours. The results showed that Pseudomonas hibiscicola was identified as an effective iron-accumulating species of bacteria. The species could remove Fe up to 82% (25 mg/L), 77.8% (100 mg/L) and 32% (250 mg/L). This promising result indicates that the native bacteria isolated from the environment pose a great potential for the remediation of wastewater containing iron.
EN
The use of heavy metals in the manufacturing industry over the past few decades has eventually contributed to a rise in the flow of metallic compounds into wastewater and has raised significant ecological and health threats to living things. Adsorption is an excellent way to treat solid waste effluent, offering significant benefits such as affordability, profitability, ease of operation and efficiency. However, the price of commercial adsorbent namely activated carbon has soared due to its high demand. There is also a green improvement in this method by turning the commercial adsorbent into agricultural waste. In Malaysia, the oil palm waste is such suitable material that can be utilized for making activated carbon, since they are ample and easy to find. Additionally, part of them is agricultural waste that cannot be consumed (i.e. leaves and fronds). Hence, this study aimed to analyse the potential of activated carbon from agricultural waste, namely oil palm waste, in reducing the levels of heavy metals in industrial wastewater.
EN
Heavy metals in the environment circulate among the different compartments and can accumulate, convert into organic complexes and biomagnify in the food chain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of heavy metals and arsenic in inland wetlands using multivariate statistical methods. Samples of water, sediment and aquatic vegetation were collected at 48 sampling sites established in the Paca and Tragadero lagoon wetlands. The determination of heavy metals and arsenic was carried out using the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. The decreasing order of heavy metal and arsenic concentration in sediment was Fe>Zn>Pb>As, in water it was Zn>Fe>Pb>As and in S. californicus it was Zn>Fe>Pb>As. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that there are significant differences in heavy metal and arsenic concentrations in sediment between ponds and between sampling sites. Generalized linear model (GLM) analysis on vegetables indicated that the concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic in the vegetable increase as a function of their concentration in sediment.
EN
Paronchia argentea is traditionally being used for medicinal purposes in Jordan. The current investigation was designed to check the in vitro efficacy of in vitro and ex vitro P. argentea against selected bacterial and fungal strains. The antimicrobial properties of in vitro plantlets and field (ex vitro) plant extracts of P. argentea were investigated against both bacteria and fungi, after and before heavy metals stress used. In this study, four bacterial species were used: Listeria monocytogen and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive bacteria) Salmonella typhimurum and Coronobacter sakazakii (Gram negative bacteria) and Calvularia lunata as a mold. The obtained results revealed that the in vitro grown plantlets with the supplemented of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) or Cobalt (Co) with methanol and aqueous extract showed significant inhibitory activities within zones of inhibition ranging between 6.7-30.0 mm. All extracts of P. argentea had activity against the fungi and bacteria tested. The maximum inhibition zone was found in Staphylococcus aureus (30 mm inhibition zone) in medium supplemented with 0.3 mg/L Cu followed by Calvularia lunata (30.0 mm inhibition zone). The methanolic and aqueous P. argentea extract indicate that the solvent plays an important role in the solubility of the antimicrobial substance and also affects the activity of the microbe. Both field (ex vitro) and tissue culture plant extract showed similar antimicrobial activity. The present study could be used as an approach for the development of new, alternative and cheap antimicrobial drugs, particularly against the infections caused by the tested microbes through the tissue culture technology.
EN
This paper presents a statistical analysis of concentrations for selected metals in groundwater samples collected from 15 sites located in the Wielkopolska National Park in four periods of 2017. Concentrations of such metals as B, Ba, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and Zn were analysed. Statistical analysis identified two groups of metals in terms of similarity in their concentrations in groundwater. One group is composed of Ba, Ca, K, Mg and Na, while the other comprises B, Fe, Mn and Zn. The analyses showed also considerable variation of investigated elements between various well locations. Three types of location were distinguished: situated nearby open water bodies, situated in the lowest parts of relief and located in the upper and middle parts of slopes.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono statystyczną analizę stężeń wybranych metali w próbkach wody gruntowej pobieranych w roku 2017 w 15 miejscach na terenie Wielkopolskiego Parku Narodowego. Analizie poddano stężenia następujących metali: B, Ba, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na i Zn. Obliczenia statystyczne pozwoliły wydzielić dwie grupy pierwiastków wykazujące podobną zmienność stężeń. Do pierwszej zaliczono Ba, Ca, K, Mg i Na, podczas gdy do drugiej zaliczono B, Fe, Mn i Zn. Analizy wykazały również znaczącą zmienność stężeń badanych metali wynikającą z położenia miejsca poboru próbki w rzeźbie terenu. Wydzielone trzy typy lokalizacji to: położone w bezpośrednim sąsiedztwie wód powierzchniowych, położone w najniższych partiach terenu oraz położone w górnych i środkowych partiach zboczy.
6
EN
The geochemical fractionation of heavy metals, including Mn, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Ni, collected from the surface sediments of the Jeddah coastal zone of the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia was determined using a sequential extraction technique. The data obtained from the five fractions indicated that the concentration of metals varies among different locations in the study area. The total metal concentrations (%) in the exchangeable (F1), carbonate (F2), reducible (F3) and organic-bound (F4) fractions were measured to determine the mobility of each studied metal. The sum of the two fractions F3 and F4 represented 70% of the Cu, 72% of the Zn and 36% of the Pb. However, the sum of the three fractions F2, F3 and F4 represented 76%, 74%, 68% and 58% of the Cd, Ni, Fe and Mn, respectively. Approximately 46% of the total copper was related to organics, which could reflect a high mobility of copper in these sediments. The maximum mobility of metals in the sediments was confirmed by the bioavailability factor (BF), which was within the ranges of 0.47-0.93, 0.34-0.92, 0.62-0.95, 0.69-0.95, 0.24-0.82, 0.54-0.98, and 0.60-0.95 for Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, and Ni, respectively. Based on the BF, the metals exhibited the following order: Cu ≈ Zn > Cd ≈ Ni ≈ Fe > Mn > Pb. The high levels of BF for the studied metals could reflect the potential for toxic metals to be easily released into the marine environment. The risk assessment code for Cd showed a medium risk in five sediment samples of the northern and southern regions and a high risk to the aquatic environment in the other sediment samples. However, the speciation of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni in the studied sediments exhibited low to medium risks to the aquatic environment.
EN
This study presented a self-designed prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) model and used Fluka simulation to simulate the heavy metals (Mn, Cu, Hg, Ni, Cr, Pb) in soil samples. The relationship between the prompt gamma-ray yield of each heavy metal and soil thickness, content of heavy metals in the soil, and source distance was obtained. Simulation results show that the prompt gamma-ray yield of each heavy metal increases with the increase in soil thickness and reaches saturation at 18 cm. The greater the proportion of heavy metals in the soil, the greater the prompt gamma-ray yield. The highest content is approximately 3%, and the change in distance between the neutron source and soil sample does not affect the prompt gamma-ray yield of heavy metals.
EN
The aim of this study was to look at the risk of community around the battery recycling plant in terms of the exposure to lead dust. The number of respondents amounted to 60 people from an industrial area and a residential area. The sample of the industrial area included 30 respondents with a composition of 15 men and 15 women. The same number of respondents was also examined in the residential area as a control area, located 5 km from the industrial area. Respirable dust was measured using a personal dust sampler, the concentration of lead in dust was measured using GF-AAS, while as a biomarker of exposure, the lead content in urine was measured using GF-AAS. The average values for respirable lead in industrial and residential areas are 0.92 μg/m3 and 0.92–1.34 μg/m3. The analysis of the lead content in urine for the industrial and residential areas produced an average value of 119 ppb and 123 ppb. The average value of HI for the lead exposure on the industrial and residential areas are in danger (HI > 1) which is 3.6 ± 1.94 and 2.18 ± 1.49. The OR values for the respondents in the industrial area compared to the residential areas amounting to 1.17 for the category of HI lead exposure and 1.22 for the category of lead in urine.
EN
The Daphnia magna Straus (1820) crustaceans are used in many countries to assess the quality of the environment. Researchers are guided more often by the mortality of individuals. However, the sublethal effects contribute to the development of biological early warning systems (BEWS). A visual method for recording the motor activity of D. magna was proposed. This method has advantages over automated analogs. It is simple, accessible to performers and does not require the use of special instruments. The method was tested under conditions of modeling the lethal and sublethal effects of heavy metal salts (Cu and Zn). The diagnosis of lethal doses is possible after 1 hour of exposure, whereas the death of crustaceans can occur in 3–4 days of the experiment. The effect of sublethal doses of heavy metals becomes statistically significant after 24 (p < 0.05). The sensitivity of the method was confirmed in the studies of the aqueous extracts from the soils contaminated with various heavy metals (heavy metal processing area). The method showed good results in assessing the toxic effect of the waters anthropogenically contaminated with the mineral forms of nitrogen (NH4+and NO3-) in the region of fertilizer production. The maximum inverse correlation between the motor activity and the concentration of ammonium ions in water (-0.83) was shown after 24 hours. Thus, the method of visual assessment of motor activity can be used in environmental monitoring.
EN
The presented work introduces a simple modification of coal fly ash (FA) with 30% solution of H2O2, used as a new efficient sorbent for the removal of organic dye crystal violet (CV) in the presence of Cu(II) ions in single- and bi-component systems Cu(II)-CV. FT-IR, TG, SEM-EDS, and XRD suggested that the mechanism of Cu(II) and CV sorption onto FA-H2O2 includes ion-exchange and surface adsorption process. Comparing the values of the reduced chi-square test (χ2/DoF) and the determination coefficient R2 obtained for CV of the considered isotherms, the fitting degree follows the sequence: Jovanović > Langmuir > Elovich > Freundlich > Redlich-Peterson (R-P) > Tóth > Halsey > BET. Sorption of Cu(II) ions in a single system by means of FA-H2O2 was well fitted by the Langmuir and R-P model. The studies of equilibrium in a bi-component system by means of extended Langmuir (EL), extended Langmuir-Freundlich (ELF), and Jain-Snoeyink (JS) models were analysed. The estimation of parameters of sorption isotherms in a bi-component system Cu(II)-CV has shown that the best of fit calculated values of experimental data for both sorbates have been the EL model and the JS model, but only in the case of a CV dye. The sorption kinetic of Cu(II) and CV onto FA-H2O2 was discussed by means of the PFO, PSO, and intra-particle diffusion models.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono prostą modyfikację popiołu lotnego węglowego (FA) za pomocą 30% roztworu H2O2 oraz wykorzystanie go jako nowego skutecznego sorbentu do usuwania barwnika organicznego fioletu krystalicznego (CV) w obecności jonów Cu(II) w układzie jedno- i dwuskładnikowym Cu(II)-CV. Badania FT-IR, TG, SEM-EDS i XRD potwierdziły, że mechanizm sorpcji Cu(II) i CV na FA- H2O2 obejmuje proces wymiany jonowej i adsorpcji powierzchniowej. Porównując wartości zredukowanego testu chi-kwadrat (χ2/DoF) i współczynnika determinacji R2 uzyskane dla rozpatrywanych izoterm CV, stopień dopasowania odpowiednich modeli odpowiada następującej kolejności: Jovanović > Langmuir > Elovich > Freundlich > Redlich-Peterson (RP) > Tóth > Halsey > BET. Sorpcja jonów Cu(II) w układzie jednosładnikowym za pomocą FA-H2O2 została dobrze opisana za pomocą modelu Langmuira i R-P. Przeanalizowano badania równowagi w układzie dwuskładnikowym wykorzystując rozszerzony model Langmuira (EL), rozszerzony Langmuira-Freundlicha (ELF) i Jain-Snoeyinka (JS). Estymacja parametrów izoterm sorpcji w układzie binarnym Cu(II)-CV wykazała, że najlepsze dopasowanie wartości obliczonych do danych doświadczalnych dla obu sorbatów posiada model EL oraz model JS, ale tylko w przypadku barwnika CV. Kinetykę sorpcji Cu(II) i CV na FA-H2O2 przeanalizowano za pomocą modeli PFO, PSO i dyfuzji wewnątrzziarnowej.
EN
The incineration of municipal sewage sludge causes the formation of ash, which needs further utilization. The literature gives only few examples of the chemical sewage sludge ash conversion with the hydrothermal method. The effect of conversion depends on the properties of the raw material and the process parameters. According to the domestic and foreign test results of the conversion of fly ash from coal, the fusion method is more effective. The aim of the paper was to evaluate the impact of chemical sewage sludge ash conversion with the fusion method on the chosen properties of the obtained material. The applied conversion parameters were the ratio of sewage sludge ash:NaOH, the concentration of NaOH, the activation time and temperature as well as the crystallization temperature and time. In some of the samples, the introduction of the fusion caused the formation of the following, e.g. (hydroxy)sodalite, zeolite X and zeolite Y, zeolite P, (hydroxy)cancrinite. The temperature of the thermal treatment of sludge, the ratio of ash:NaOH and the crystallization time were the parameters having a statistically significant impact on the effect of zeolitization and the properties of the obtained material, but the changes of their values had little effect on the tested features of the modified ash. On the basis of the leaching of Cd, Cr and Ni from the samples after the conversion it was proven that a higher temperature of the thermal treatment of sewage sludge was favourable for the formation of permanent structures.
EN
This study was focused on forward osmosis batch and forward osmosis flowing processes to remove heavy metal (Co+2 ions) from wastewater. Cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane was used as flat sheet for forward osmosis process. Potassium chloride KCl with different concentrations was used as draw solutions. The experimental work was divided into two parts. Forward osmosis flowing process as first part, was discussed under different operating parameters studied, such as the concentration of draw solutions 10–20 g/l, concentration of feed solutions 15–150 mg/l, temperature of feed and draw solutions 20–50 ºC, pH of feed solution from 2 to 10, feed and draw flow rate were maintained at 50 l/h, and pressure was maintained at 0.25 bar gauge. Forward osmosis batch process as second part, was discussed under different operating parameters, such as the concentration of draw solutions 10–120 g/l, concentration of feed solutions 15–150 mg/l, temperature of feed and draw solutions 20–50 ºC, and pH of feed solution from 2 to 10. The results showed that the water flux increased along with the draw solution concentration, and temperature of feed and draw solutions and decreased with the increasing operating time of experiment, concentration and pH of feed solution. The value of rejection efficiency after 4hrs reached 81.19% for the FO flowing process and 73.19% for the FO batch process.
EN
The cause of the histological damage of Faunus ater (gastropod mollusk) gonad has been identified in the samples from two rivers, namely Bale River and Reuleng River which flow through residential, agricultural and industrial areas. The heavy metal concentration within the tissue of Faunus ater was analyzed with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Shimadzu AA 630). Meanwhile, the histological damage on gonads was observed microscopically. Afterwards, the damage levels obtained from the two respective rivers were compared and analyzed with t-test. The results confirm the histological damage that occurred in the gonads of Faunus ater collected from the two rivers. The gonadal damage of female Faunus ater from both rivers was found not to be significantly different, observed by the number of developed and damaged oocytes. It was also found that the gonads of male Faunus ater collected from Bale Riverl, have higher quantity of spermatogenic cells, in which they experience greater necrosis than the ones from Reuleng River.
EN
In this study, the ability of hexane (HSE), chloroform (CSE), ethyl acetate (EASE) and methanolic (MSE) stems extracts from Phragmites australis or EDTA (as standard) to chelate iron using ferrozine method or zinc and copper using the murexide method is carried out in vitro. When the increased volumes of the HSE studied were taken from a stock solution of a fixed concentration 1 mg/ml at 25–175 μl for the iron and zinc chelating assay, 1–7 mg/ml for the copper chelating assay gave a significant (p≤ 0.01) activity. The obtained results showed that the HSE have the highest capacity to chelate ferrous ions below the EDTA (standard chelator) with absorbance arrive to the lesser extent 0.24±0.005, 0.04±0.013 which expresses 86% and 97% (compared to the control) of inhibition, respectively. For the murexide chelation, the results obtained also showed that the HSE and EDTA have a good (p≤ 0.01) chelating dose dependent effect towards zinc and copper ions with increased absorbance 0.45±0.02 and 0.42±0.02 with 54% and 56% of inhibition, respectively, for the zinc chelation and 0.66±0.03, 0.13±0.005 represent 44% and 88% for copper chelation. In contrast to the antioxidant capacity, the extract of hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol from leaves, stems and roots of the Phragmites australis plant have a very low scavenger effect to the radical DPPH where the maximum inhibition is approximately 13.79%, obtained with the maximum volume. Finally, the HPLC analysis of effective extract (HSE) confirmed the presence of oxalic, citric, malic, succinic, fumaric, formic, acetic, propionic and butyric or iso butyric acid.
EN
The purpose of this study was to determine the total content of cadmium, lead, nickel, copper, zinc and their fractions in organic soils of Podlasie used as permanent grassland. The research material were samples taken from 30 soils of the Podlasie province in 2011-2013. The samples were taken from the determined layer to depth of 0-30 cm. Basic physicochemical properties were determined in the taken soil samples: organic carbon content, pH in 1 M KCl potentiometrically. The total content of metals after mineralization in aqua regia was determined, and cadmium fractions were determined with a modified BCR method. The measurements were conducted by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy with electrothermal atomization using Varian AA-100 spectrometer. It was found that only 2 soils can be included in the soils with first pollution degree due to the cadmium content. The content of other metals was at geochemical background level. The distribution of investigated metals in the fractions in studied organic soils was different comparing to mineral soils. Most of the analyzed elements were present in the fraction associated with organic substance, which limited their mobility, as evidenced by their low share in the available and potentially available fraction. The proportion of metals in the residual fraction was low, which is typical for organic soils. The share of studied metals in particular fractions varied depending on the sampling date, which may be related to the climatic conditions course in the study period and the treatments performed on these soils.
EN
Polluted mine waters contain chemical substances, heavy metal ions, solid suspensions, a very low pH, and are discharged into the hydrographic network, often above cross-border levels. Regardless of the aggregation state, the residues of the mining industry affect all components of the environment: soil, water and air. The emphasis in the past on achieving high production levels and neglecting environmental impacts has in the meantime led to the accumulation of serious environmental damage. As a result of the cross-border effect of pollution, environmental problems have overtaken local character, being pursued by local, regional and global stakeholders. The paper aims to find solutions to the use of aquatic vegetation for the treatment of mine acid waters.
PL
Zanieczyszczone wody kopalniane zawierają substancje chemiczne, jony metali ciężkich, zawiesiny stałe, bardzo niskie pH i są odprowadzane do sieci hydrograficznej, często powyżej poziomów transgranicznych. Niezależnie od stanu skupienia pozostałości przemysłu wydobywczego wpływają na wszystkie elementy środowiska: glebę, wodę i powietrze. Nacisk na osiągnięcie wysokich poziomów produkcji i zaniedbanie wpływu na środowisko doprowadził do poważnych szkód w środowisku. W wyniku oddziaływania transgranicznego problemy zanieczyszczenia środowiska przyjęły charakter lokalny, problem zanieczyszczenia jest rozwiązywane przez lokalne, regionalne i globalne zainteresowane strony. Artykuł pokazuje możliwości znalezienia rozwiązań w zakresie wykorzystania roślinności wodnej do oczyszczania kwaśnych wód kopalnianych.
EN
The water pollution by toxic elements is one of the major problems threatening human health as well as the quality of the environment. Sorption is considered a cost-effective method that is able to effectively remove heavy metals. During past few years, researches have been researching usage of low-cost adsorbents like bark, lignin, chitosan peat moss and sawdust. This paper deals with the study of copper, zinc and iron adsorption by adsorption of spruce sawdust obtained as a by-product from locally used wood. Raw spruce sawdust was used to remove heavy metal ions from the model solutions with ion concentration of 10 mg/L during 24 hours or 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 120 min, respectively. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was applied to determine functional groups of sawdust. Sorption efficiency was higher than 67% in short-time experiments and higher than 75% for one day experiments in all tested cations.
18
PL
Wykazano doświadczalnie jakie są główne czynniki decydujące o wpływie dwóch tlenków metali ciężkich: ołowiu oraz wanadu na wiązanie cementu portlandzkiego. Głównymi czynnikami decydującymi o wpływie tych metali są: a) stężenie jonów siarczanowych w fazie ciekłej zaczynu cementowego, b) szybkość rozpuszczania się metali ciężkich w fazie ciekłej zaczynu, c) postać w jakiej dodawane są metale ciężkie w przypadku występowania różnicy w szybkości rozpuszczania metalu i jego tlenku. Gdy stężenie jonów siarczanowych jest małe w pierwszych 20 minutach od dodania wody, szybko rozpuszczający się ołów hamuje tworzenie się warstewki ettringitu na ziarnach C3A, co powoduje szybkie wiązanie „ettringitowe”. W przypadku małej szybkości rozpuszczania metali i ich niewielkiego stężenia w roztworze, warstewka ettringitu tworzy się na kryształach C3A i metale te nie mają praktycznie żadnego wpływu na początek wiązania. Tak jest w przypadku wanadu, natomiast ma on opóźniający wpływ na koniec wiązania.
EN
It was proved experimentally in the work what are the main factors governing the influence of two heavy metals: lead and vanadium on the setting of Portland cement. The main factors governing the behaviour of these metals are as follows: a) concentration of sulphate ions in the cement paste liquid phase, b) the rate of dissolution of heavy metals in this liquid phase, c) the form of heavy metals addition, in the case when there is a high difference in the rate of dissolution between metal and its oxide. When the concentration of sulphate is low in the first 20 minutes after addition of mixing water the quick dissolution lead is preventing the formation of ettringite layer on C3A and the quick “ettringite” setting takes place. When the metals have low dissolution rate and low concentration in solution the ettringite layer is formed on C3A crystals and these metals have practically no influence on the initial setting time. There is the case of vanadium, but it has retarding effect on the final setting time of cement.
EN
Contamination of soil with heavy metals has become a worldwide environmental problem, and receives great attention. In this study, we aim to investigate soil pollution level affected by an industrial district nearby. The total amount of typical heavy metals in the soils (Hengyang Songmu Industrial Park, Hunan Province, China) was analyzed. In addition, the fraction analysis and laboratory simulation leaching via different pH rainwater was carried out to study the migration and transformation of heavy metals. The main results show that the contents of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd in the samples were higher than the soil background values in Hunan Province. The heavy metals forms, analyzed by sequential extraction method, show that the proportion of the unstable form of Cd, Zn and Pb was more than 50%. Igeo values indicate that the heavy metal pollution degree of soil sample #5 at the investigated area is recorded in the order of Cd(6.42), Zn(2.28), Cu(1.82), Pb(1.63), and Cr(0.37). Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd in this area could pose a potential leaching risk to the environment which may affect the food chain and constitute a threat to human health. It would be necessary to take steps to stabilize and monitor the heavy metals in soil.
PL
Świadomie kształtowane tereny zieleni powinny być nie tylko atrakcyjne wizualnie, lecz również bezpieczne dla użytkowników. W pracy przedstawiono analizę stanu zieleńców uniwersyteckich zlokalizowanych na campusie A Uniwersytetu Zielonogórskiego. Badania obejmowały właściwości fizyczno-chemiczne gleb, w tym analizę zawartości form ogólnych i biodostępnych wybranych metali ciężkich. Stwierdzono, że gleba na terenach zieleni wykazuje znaczne przekształcenia antropogeniczne, jednak zawartość metali ciężkich nie przekracza obowiązujących limitów.
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