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Content available Muzea : nauka, edukacja, popularyzacja
The purpose of this article is to outline some issues discussed during the conference organized by JuraPark Solec Kujawski as part of the celebrations of the 10th anniversary of its existence. This text is not a report on the agenda of the conference, but is intended to include the content presented in a wider context of the changes in Polish museology in the last decade. These considerations will include such aspects as the attempt to define a contemporary museum, the research activity of these institutions and museum education, and the promotion of knowledge.
Content available remote Jacques Thierry (1941–2014)
The paper presents new data on origin of parallel orientation of modern assemblages of bone remains in dry, terrestrial environment, unaffected by any influence of hydraulic processes. The studies were carried out in the gallery no. 6 of ancient underground millstone quarry situated in forests near the Potok Senderki village, Central Roztocze Upland. The studied material included animal bone remains found in dry gallery, presently inhabited by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes L.). Azimuths of long bone axes as well as strike azimuths o vertical adit walls which confine occurrence of bone clusters, were measured using geological compass. The obtained results make it possible to conclude that linear parallel orientation of bone remains may occur in a dry, terrestrial environment. Such orientation of clusters is formed mainly due to repetitive movement of carnivores along vertical walls of the adit whereas no influence of hydraulic processes is needed here. The presence of a distinct, preferred orientation of the bones requires interaction of two specific factors: the place has to be inhabited by carnivorous animals for a long time (at least for a few months) and the corridor, along which animals move, has to be bounded by steep to vertical walls. Caves are particularly predisposed type of sites, where the occurrence of linear bone orientation may be expected. The studies were dealing with effects of actualistic processes but the described situation and the obtained conclusions may be valid in the case of fossil bone assemblages, for example those of the Pleistocene age.
Artificial neural networks (ANNs), the computer software or systems that are able to "learn" on the basis of previously collected input data sets are proposed here as a new useful tool in paleontological modeling. Initially ANNs were designed to imitate the structure and function of natural neural systems such as the human brain. They are commonly used in many natural researches such as physics, geophysics, chemistry, biology, applied ecology etc. Special emphasis is put on the Kohonen self-organizing mapping algorithm, used in unsupervised networks for ordination purposes. The application of ANNs for paleontology is exemplified by study of Late Cretaceous belemnites. The Kohonen networks objectively subdivided the belemnite material] ~ 750 specimens) into consistent groups that could be treated as monospecific. The possibility of transferring these results to the language of classical statistics is also presented. Further development and possibility of use of ANNs in various areas of paleontology, paleobiology and paleoecology is briefly discussed.
The results of micropaleonthological studies of the Sarmatian (upper Miocene) Krakowiec Clays from primary deposit as well as re-deposited ones were applied to the analysis of the stratigraphic profile of the Sopot valley fills. The study site was at the break section of the Sopot River valley in a contact zone of southern escarpment between the central part of the Roztocze and Sandomierz Basin regions (SE Poland). Species of fossil microfauna (foraminiferans, radiolarians), sponges and mollusks, as well as residual deposits were used. The documented, even if apparently small change in the lithostatigraphic profile of the Sopot valley fills, i.e., the presence of pre-Pleistocene deposits in its floor, is very important for the valley history and for interpreting other problems of river breaks and the Roztocze escarpment zone itself, e.g., sclae of the Holocene movements elevating the Roztocze Region, and their effect on expected intensity of deep fluvial erosion. In the sub-scarp zone of the Tomaszów Roztocze subregion the Krakowiec Clays occur rather shallowly. In the Sopot valley (‘Czartowe Pole’landscape preserve) they are in contact with calcareous formations. In two levels of natural clays’exposures, a dozen or so foraminiferan taxa were found. They were also below the primary deposit on the floor levels of the Sopot valley fills. The residuum of the studied strata consists of glauconite and pre-Pleistocene quartz sands, without silicate and alumosilicate, typical for postglacial formations. The Sarmatian clays present in residue were redeposited at least in the pre-Pleistocene. From the clays top up to the surface of valley fills, are Holocene deposits. The study revealed that: (1) during the Holocene and earlier the Sopot valley fills were not removed completely; (2) the floor of the valley is made not of the youngest, Holocene strata, but much older; (3) the presence of the Sarmatian microfauna in the alluvia allows to date the studied deposits as pre-Pleistocene (Pliocene?); (4) fine quartz sands and glauconite (a specific form of hydromica) both forming the residuum of the studied valley fill levels, together with the absence of other silicates and alumosilicates that are common in the Pleistocene formations, exclude the studied Krakowiec Clays from the group of glacial or fluvioglacial (Pleistocene) formations; (5) the youngest (latest Pleistocene –Holocene) movements elevating the Roztocze Region and the resulting deep fluvial erosion do not correspond with shallow occurrence of the pre-Pleistocene valley fills; this requires further discussion.
Conodont fauna recovered from pelagic nodular limestone sequence exposed near Santa Olaja de la Varga precisely dates the upper part of the Alba Formation in the Esla area of the Cantabrian Mountains. In terms of goniatite stratigraphy, the formation ranges into the early Namurian E2 interval which has been identified by the occurrence of the conodont Gnathodus bollandensis. The investigated conodont fauna includes exclusively deep-water forms and is dominated by species of Gnathodus and Lochriea. The former genus is represented primarily by the bilineatus lineage, in which a new species Gnathodus cantabricus sp. nov. has been recognized and is described herein. Representatives of the another gnathodontid girtyi lineage,generally present in the late Visean/early Namurian deep-water faunas, are extremely rare. The vertical succession of Lohriea species is closely comparable to those recognized in Northern England, Poland andUkraine. The Visean/Namurian boundary is thus placed at the first occurrence of Lochriea cruciformis, 4.7 m below the top of the Alba Formation.
The candidate Global Standard Stratotype-section and oint for the base of the Coniacian Stage, the Salzgitter-Salder section, Germany, and the Słupia Nadbrzeżna section, central Poland, provide together a continuous record of the inoceramid succession and events across the Turonian/Coniacian boundary interval, that can be correlated throughout Europe and beyond. The Turonian/Coniacian boundary interval marks a radical change from the Upper Turonian Mytiloides/Inoceramus - dominated fauna to the Cremnoceramus-dominated fauna of the tompost Turonian and Lower Coniacian. The Cremnoceramus clade is basically composed of three lineages: waltersdorfensis, with subspecies waltersdorfensis (ANDERT) and hannovrensis (HEINZ); deformis, with subspecies erectus (MEEK), dobrogensis (SZASZ) and deformis (MEEK); and crassus, with subspecies inconstans (WOODS) and crassus (PETRASCHECK). Rare Inoceramus species range throughout the boundary interval, and in the middle Lower Coniacian representatives of the genus Tethyoceramus SORNAY (non HEINZ) appear. Twelve species and/or subspecies of these genera are described and illustrated. The inoceramids provide the basis for the subdivision of the uppermost Turonian - Lower Coniacian boundary interval into 7 inoceramid zones. The upper Upper Turonian is divided into the Mytiloides scupini Zone and the Cremnoceramus waltersdorfensis Zone. In the Lower Coniacian the following zones are distinguished, in ascendin order: Cremnoceramus deformis erectus, C. waltersdorfensis hannovrensis, Cremnoceramus crassus inconstans, Cremnoceramus crassus + C. deformis deformis and Inoceramus gibbosus. The inoceramid marker proposed for the base of the Coniacian, formerly referred to as Cremnoceramus rotundatus (sensu TROGER non FIEGE) is a synonym of Cremnoceramus erectus (MEEK), and its first appereance marks the base of the deformis erectus Zone and the base of the Coniacian Stage. The Salzgitter-Salder section, despite some problems concerning a possible hiatus or condensation at the boundary represents the best avaiable potential stratotype for the Turonian/Coniacian boundary.
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