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PL
W artykule zaprezentowano wyniki doświadczeń dotyczących wpływu modyfikacji podłoża na energię i zdolność kiełkowania nasion lucerny i koniczyny czerwonej. Do badań wykorzystano podłoża naturalne wykonane z włókien bambusowych, bez i po modyfikacji. Zaproponowano zastosowanie tkanin pokrytych cienką warstwą srebrną otrzymaną w procesie fizycznego osadzania próżniowego, jako procesu zapewniającego dobrą adhezję cząstek metalu do włókien. W efekcie uzyskano zwiększenie zdolności kiełkowania nasion o około 20%.
EN
The article presents the results of experiments on the impact of substrate modification on energy and germination ability of lucerne and red clover seeds. Natural substrates made of bamboo fibers were used for the tests, without and after modification. It has been proposed to use fabrics covered with a thin silver layer obtained in the process of physical vacuum deposition as a process ensuring good adhesion of metal particles to fibers. As the result of research, the germination ability of seeds increased by about 20%.
EN
The solar photovoltaic technology is one of the renewable technologies with the potential to shape a future-proof, reliable, scalable and affordable electricity system. It is important to provide better resources for any upcoming technology. CdS/CdTe thin films have long been considered as one enticing option for reliable and cost-effective solar cells to be developed. N-type CdS as a transparent window layer in heterojunction structures is one of the best choices for CdTe cells. In a solar cell structure, window layer material plays a very crucial role to improve its performance. For this reason, this review focuses on the basic and significant aspects such as importance of the window layer thickness, degradation effect, use of nano-wire arrays, and an ammonia-free process to deposit the window layer. Also, an attempt has been made to analyze various processes improving window layer properties. Necessary discussions have been included to review the impact of solar cell parameters on the above aspects. It is anticipated that this review article will fulfill the requirement of knowledge to be used in the fabrication of CdS/CdTe solar cells.
3
Content available remote Study of Ho doped Ag2S thin films prepared by CBD method
EN
Ho doped Ag2S thin films were grown on the glass substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at room temperature. The bath contained aqueous solution of silver nitrate, thiourea, EDTA, ammonia and holmium nitrate. Silver nitrate was used as a silver (Ag+) ion source; thiourea as sulfur (S−) ion source, EDTA was a complexing agent while ammonia was used to maintain pH, Ho(NO3)3 was taken as a source of Ho ions. The optical absorption edge of undoped (pure) and Ho doped silver sulfide films was determined between 324 nm and 298 nm showing blue shift as compared to bulk Ag2S. Band gaps calculated from Tauc plot also showed an increase in values for doped samples. The increase in band gap indicates reduced particle size in the prepared Ho doped films. The photoluminescence emission peaks were observed at around 578 nm to 601 nm wavelength and excitation peaks were found at 351 nm to 294 nm for undoped and doped films. The SEM micrograph consists of globular ball type and flower type structures observed in the prepared films of Ho doped Ag2S.
EN
The development of transparent conducting oxide materials has gained an increased interest in the scientific community for developing efficient low cost optoelectronic devices. The effect of Cd precursor on structural and optical properties of sol-gel synthesized Zn0.9Cd0.1O nanostructured films has been studied by using XRD, AFM, optical absorption and emission spectroscopic techniques. X-ray diffraction confirms the hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure of the deposited films and the relative intensity of diffraction peaks has been observed with different cadmium salts. The granular surface morphology of the synthesized films has been observed from AFM measurements. The optical transmission, band gap and luminescence intensity was found to change for different cadmium salts. These results are very important for developing new materials for optoelectronic applications.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań i analizy właściwości cienkich warstw tlenków wolframu wytworzonych metodą rozpylania magnetronowego. Proces wytwarzania przeprowadzono przy zmiennych warunkach technologicznych, takich jak proporcja mieszaniny gazów O2:Ar oraz odległość target-podłoże. Zwiększenie przepływu argonu w mieszaninie gazów O2:Ar podczas procesu spowodowało zmianę właściwości elektrycznych cienkich warstw z dielektrycznych na półprzewodnikowe. Ponadto, wyniki pomiarów współczynnika transmisji światła wykazały, że wraz ze wzrostem przepływu argonu przezroczystość warstw ulega pogorszeniu. Mniejsze odległości target-podłoże skutkowały zwiększeniem szybkości nanoszenia warstw. Wszystkie naniesione warstwy charakteryzowały się małą chropowatością oraz właściwościami hydrofilowymi powierzchni.
EN
The aim of the presented work is investigation of the properties of tungsten oxide thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering. The process was performed with use of various technological properties such as O2:Ar gas mixture ratios and target-substrate distance. Increase of argon content in O2:Ar gas mixture during process caused change of electrical properties of thin films from dielectric to semiconducting. Moreover, measurements of light transmission coefficient showed that thin layer transparency decreased with increase of argon content. Decrease of target-substrate distance resulted in an increase of deposition rate. All deposited thin films had low roughness and hydrophilic properties.
PL
W niniejszej pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań właściwości termoelektrycznych cienkich warstw tlenków miedzi (CuxO). Metodą rozpylania magnetronowego wytworzono powłokę cienkowarstwową składającą się z krystalitów metalicznej miedzi oraz Cu2O. Wygrzewanie poprocesowe w temperaturach 200°C, 300°C i 350°C spowodowało zmiany składu fazowego powłoki. Rezystywność cienkiej warstwy CuxO tuż po naniesieniu wynosiła 1,9•10-4Ωcm, natomiast powłoki wygrzanej w temperaturze 200°C wynosiła 3,2 Ωcm. Dalszy wzrost temperatury wygrzewania powodował spadek wartości rezystywności. Na podstawie pomiarów współczynnika Seebecka stwierdzono, że wszystkie wytworzone warstwy charakteryzowały się dziurowym typem przewodnictwa.
EN
This paper provides the results of research on the thermoelectric properties of copper oxides (CuxO) thin films. Produced by magnetron sputtering method CuxO thin film consists of metallic copper and Cu2O crystallites. Post-process annealing at 200°C, 300°C and 350°C resulted in the modification of coating phase composition. The resistivity of the as-deposited CuxO thin film was equal to 1.9•10-4Ωcm, while the resistivity thin film annealed at 200°C was equal to 3.2 Ωcm. A further increase in the annealing temperature resulted in a decrease of resistivity value. Based on Seebeck coefficient measurements, it was found that all coatings were characterized by p-type conductivity.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań i analizy wpływu składu materiałowego spiekanych targetów wytworzonych metodą SPS (ang. Spark Plasma Sintering), z których zostały naniesione powłoki, na ich właściwości antystatyczne. Cienkie warstwy zostały wytworzone za pomocą metody rozpylania magnetronowego. Pomiary oraz analizę przeprowadzono dla sześciu różnych próbek. Trzy z nich wytworzono ze spiekanych targetów Ti:Co o składzie materiałowym 95:5, 85:15 i 50:50. Z kolei pozostałe trzy uzyskane były z targetów na bazie Ti:W o takim samym składzie materiałowym jak warstwy z kobaltem. Analiza wyników badań wykazała, że spośród wielu zmierzonych próbek, tylko dwie były antystatyczne, gdyż dla kryterium 10% miały czasy rozpraszania ładunku statycznego na powierzchni krótsze niż 2 s. Były to cienkie warstwy wytworzone ze spiekanych targetów na bazie tlenków Ti-W o składzie materiałowym (Ti0,5W0,5)Ox oraz (Ti0,85W0,15)Ox.
EN
This paper provides research investigation results and analysis of influence of the material composition of sintered targets produced by the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) method , from which the thin layers were applied, on their antistatic properties. The thin layers were deposited by the magnetron sputtering method. Measurements and analysis were performed on six different coatings. Three of them were made of sintered Ti:Co targets with a material composition of 95: 5, 85:15 and 50:50. In turn, the remaining three were obtained from Ti:W based targets with the same material composition as the layers with the cobalt. The analysis of the research results showed that among many measured samples, only two were antistatic, because for the 10% criterion, the static charge dissipation times on the layer surface were shorter than 2 s. These were thin layers made of sintered targets based on Ti-W oxides with the material composition (Ti0,5W0,5) Ox and (Ti0,85W0,15) Ox.
EN
In this paper we present the results of an extensive Monte Carlo lattice simulation of two dimensional dense athermal polymer solutions using the Cooperative Motion Algorithm (CMA). Simulations were performed for a wide range of polymer chain length N which varies from 32 to 1024 and for high concentration of polymer. Our results were compared with those obtained by means of molecular dynamics [1].
EN
The aim of this work was to produce a thin SnO2 film by a technique combining the sol-gel method and electrospinning from a solution based on polyvinylpyrrolidone and a tin chloride pentahydrate as a precursor. The spinning solution was subjected to an electrospinning process, and then the obtained nanofiber mats were calcined for 10 h at 500°C. Then, the scanning electron microscopy morphology analysis and chemical composition analysis by X-ray microanalysis of the manufactured thin film was performed. It was shown that an amorphous-crystalline layer formed by the SnO2 nanofiber network was obtained. Based on the UV-Vis spectrum, the width of the energy gap of the obtained layer was determined.
EN
Thin films of crystallized LaCoO3 were grown on Si substrate by Pulsed Laser Deposition at different temperatures (750°C, 850°C and 1000°C). The structural characterization of the LaCoO3 thin films was done by combining several techniques: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction (GIXRD). The thin films crystallized in the expected rhombohedral phase whatever the deposition temperature, with an increase of crystallite size from 70 nm at 750°C to 100 nm at 1000°C, and an average thickness of the thin films of less than 200 nm. At 850°C and 1000°C, the thin films are crack-free, and with a lower number of droplets than the film deposited at 750°C. The grains of LaCoO3 film deposited at 850°C are columnar, with a triangular termination. At 1000°C, an intermediate layer of La2 Si2 O7 was observed, indicating diffusion of Si into the deposited film.
EN
In vestigation of influence of TiN thin film morphology on deformation inhomogeneities is an overall subject of the research. Numerical modelling approach that was selected for the study is based on the digital material representation concept, which gives an opportunity to directly replicate columnar microstructure morphology of an investigated thin film. Particular attention in this paper is put on the discussion of the influence of cellular automata neighbourhood on thin-film digital morphologies and their further deformation behaviour. Additionally, an evaluation of representativeness aspects of the digital models, in particular, the analysis of the influence of a number of columns, their dimensions and variations in their properties on the material behaviour during compression tests is also presented. The non-periodic boundary conditions are assumed during the investigation. Obtained data in the form of equivalent stress distributions as well as homogenized stress-strain curves from analyzed case studies are presented and discussed within the paper.
EN
In this work, nickel oxide was deposited on a glass substrate at by spray deposition technique; the structural, optical and electrical properties were studied at different NiO concentrations (0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mol.l-1). Polycrystalline NiO films with a cubic structure with a strong (111) preferred orientation were observed at all sprayed films with minimum crystallite size of 11.97 nm was attained of deposited film at 0.1 mol.l-1. However, α-Ni(OH)2 was observed at 0.15 mol.l-1. The NiO thin films have good transparency in the visible region, the band gap energy varies from 3.54 to 376 eV was affected by NiO concentration, it is shown that the NiO thin film prepared at 0.05 mol.l-1 has less disorder with few defects. The NiO film deposited at 0.15 mol.l-1 has the electrical conductivity was 0.169 (Ω.cm)-1.
EN
In this work, we have prepared new materials of the nickel sulfide thin films by using the spray pyrolysis technique for promising co-catalyst to improve the photocatalytic performance or superconductivity. The effect of deposition temperature (523, 573 and 623 K) on structural, optical and electrical properties was investigated. The XRD diffraction shows that the prepared nickel sulfide at 523, 573 and 623 K having an orthorhombic, hexagonal and hexagonal structure, which were Ni3S2, Ni17S18 and NiS2, respectively. The minimum value of crystallite size (45,9 nm) was measured of deposited film at 573K. The thin films prepared at 523 and 573 K have an average transmittance is about 20 %. The prepared Ni1S2 thin film at T=623 K has the lowest calculated optical band gap and Urbach energy. The Ni1S2 thin film also has the best calculated of the refractive index and the extinction coefficient. The FTIR spectrums of the nickel sulfide have various bands such as Ni-S, C-H, O-H, N–H and C-S. The maximum electrical conductivity is 4,29x105 (Ω.cm)-1 was obtained at 573K of the Ni17S18. The nickel sulfide thin films sprayed at 573K have good structural, optical and electrical properties.
EN
CdS thin films with (1 1 1) orientation were prepared by chemical bath deposition technique at 80±5 °C using the reaction between NH4OH, CdCl2 and CS(NH2)2. The influence of annealing temperature varying from 150 °C to 250 °C was studied. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the films are polycrystalline in nature with cubic structure. Various parameters, such as dislocation density, stress and strain, were also evaluated. SEM analysis indicated uniformly distributed nano-structured spherically shaped grains and net like morphology. Optical transmittance study showed the wide transmittance band and absence of absorption in the entire visible region. I-V characterization of p-Si/n-CdS diode and photoluminescence studies were also carried out for the CdS films.
EN
The present work reports on the optimization of substrate temperature, molar concentration and volume of the solution of nickel oxide (NiO) thin films prepared by nebulizer spray pyrolysis (NSP) technique. NiO films were optimized and characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, UV-Vis and I-V measurements. Based on XRD analysis, the molar concentration, volume of solution and substrate temperature of the prepared NiO films were optimized as 0.20 M, 5 mL and 450 °C for P-N diode applications. The XRD pattern of the optimized NiO film revealed cubic structure. The surface morphological variations and elemental composition were confirmed by SEM and EDX analysis. The optical properties were studied with UV-Vis spectrophotometer and the minimum band gap value was 3.67 eV for 450 °C substrate temperature. Using J-V characteristics, the diode parameters: ideality factor n and barrier height Фb values of p-NiO/N-Si diode prepared at optimum conditions, i.e. 450 °C, 0.2 M, 5 mL, were evaluated in dark and under illumination.
EN
Thin films of Ge10–xSe60Te30Inx (x = 0, 2, 4 and 6) were developed by thermal evaporation technique. The annealing effect on the structural properties of Ge10–xSe60Te30Inx (x = 0, 2, 4 and 6) films has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results indicate amorphous nature of the as-prepared films whereas crystalline phases in annealed films were identified. Structural parameters such as average crystallite size, strain, and dislocation were determined for different annealing temperatures. Effect of annealing on optical constants of prepared films has been explored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 400 nm to 1000 nm. Various optical constants were determined depending on annealing temperature. It has been noticed that the film transparency and optical bandgap Eg have been reduced whereas the absorption coefficient α and extinction coefficient k increased with increasing annealing temperature. It was found that the prepared samples obey the allowed direct transition. The reduction in optical bandgap with annealing temperature has been described by Mott and Davis model. Due to annealing dependence of the optical parameters, the investigated material could be utilized for phase change memory devices.
PL
W artykule omówione są różne sposoby przeprowadzania obliczeń dla techniki odbiciowej wysokoenergetycznej dyfrakcji elektronowej, nazywanej zwykle techniką RHEED. Technika ta w chwili obecnej często znajduje zastosowanie m.in. do monitorowania wzrostu cienkich warstw przy użyciu metody PLD, czyli osadzania z wykorzystaniem lasera impulsowego. Artykuł poświęcony jest różnym aspektom teoretycznym opisu dyfrakcji typu RHEED. W przypadku, gdy sieć krystaliczna badanego materiału jest niemal idealna, natężenia wiązek elektronów odbitych od powierzchni powinny być wyznaczane przy użyciu dynamicznej teoria dyfrakcji, czyli z pomocą równań różniczkowych cząstkowych właściwych dla ruchu falowego. W przypadku osadzania cienkich warstw, ułożenie atomów jest jednak zwykle dalekie od idealnego i dlatego stosowanie teorii uproszczonych może być pomocne. W ogólności problem przeprowadzania symulacji komputerowych dla dyfrakcji elektronów, dla częściowo uporządkowanych struktur wciąż jest otwarty.
EN
Different methods of executing calculations for reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) are discussed in the article. Currently, RHEED is often applied among others to monitor preparation of thin films with the use of pulsed laser deposition. The article is devoted to different theoretical aspects of description of the diffraction phenomenon for electrons. For the case of the material with a nearly ideal crystal lattice, intensities of electron beams reflected from the surface should be determined with the employment of the dynamical diffraction theory, i.e. with the use of partial differential equations proper for the wave motion. However, for the case of the deposition of thin films, the arrangement of atoms is usually far from the ideal one and because of this reason the employment of simplified theoretical approaches may be profitable. In general, the problem of the faithful carrying out computer simulations for electron diffraction, for partially ordered structures is still open.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badania wpływu struktury na właściwości elektryczne oraz optyczne cienkich warstw na bazie tlenków tytanu i miedzi. Cienkie warstwy tlenku miedzi oraz dwuwarstwy TiO₂/CuxO o różnej grubości TiO₂ na powierzchni CuxO były naniesione metodą rozpylania magnetronowego. Wytworzone dwuwarstwy TiO₂/CuxO o różnej grubości TiO₂ były nanokrystaliczne o jednoskośnej strukturze tlenku miedzi II (CuO). Średni rozmiar krystalitów był w zakresie od 10 nm do 14 nm. Stwierdzono, że rezystywność dla cienkiej warstwy CuO była równa 0,7•103 Ω•cm, natomiast dla struktur TiO₂/CuO była w zakresie 0,8•103 ÷ 1,5•103 Ω•cm. W przypadku powłok dwuwarstwowych TiO₂/CuO średnia wartość współczynnika transmisji światła wynosiła ponad 80%.
EN
This paper provides research investigation results and analysis of influence of the structure on electrical and optical properties of thin films based on the titanium and copper oxides. CuxO and TiO₂/CuxO thin films with different thickness of top TiO₂ layer coatings were deposited by the reactive magnetron sputtering method. TiO₂/CuxO bilayers with different thickness of top TiO₂ layer were nanocrystalline and had monoclinc structure of CuO. The crystallite sizes were in the range of 10 nm to 14 nm. It was found that the resistivity for the CuO film was equal to 0.7•103 Ω•cm, and for TiO₂/CuO structures was in the range of 0.8•103 ÷ 1.5•103 Ω•cm. As-prepared bilayers were well transparent, average transparency was above 80%.
PL
W niniejszej pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań wpływu rodzaju podłoża na właściwości cienkich warstw ITO, takich jak chropowatość powierzchni, zwilżalność, rezystywność oraz współczynnik odbicia światła. Analizie poddano warstwy ITO o grubości 70 nm, naniesione metodą rozpylania magnetronowego na podłoża z krzemionki amorficznej (SiO₂), krzemu (Si), poliwęglanu (PC) oraz poli(tereftalanu etylenu) (PET). Badania wykazały istotny wpływ ukształtowania powierzchni podłoża na właściwości naniesionej cienkiej warstwy ITO. Uzyskana rezystywność warstw ITO wykazała różnice nawet o kilka rzędów wielkości dla zastosowanych różnych podłoży. Cienkie warstwy ITO wykazały właściwości hydrofilowe na każdym badanym podłożu, natomiast największą wartością kąta zwilżania charakteryzowała się warstwa ITO/SiO₂. Najmniejszą wartość współczynnika odbicia światła dla długości fali 550 nm wykazała warstwa tlenku indowo-cynowego na podłożu krzemowym i wynosiła ok. 3,2%.
EN
This paper presents the results of research on the influence of substrate type on the properties of ITO thin films, such as surface roughness, wettability, resistivity and light reflectance. ITO 70 nm thick coatings were deposited using magnetron sputtering to amorphous silica (SiO₂), silicon (Si), polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. The research showed a significant influence of the surface roughness of the substrate on the properties of the deposited ITO thin film. The obtained resistivity of ITO thin films varied even by several orders of magnitude for the various substrates used. Investigated materials showed a hydrophilic properties on each substrate, but the ITO/SiO₂ layer was characterized by the highest value of the contact angle. The lowest value of the reflectance at the wavelength of 550 nm showed the indium-tin oxide thin film deposited on the silicon substrate and was about 3.2%.
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