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EN
The Lagrange-Sylvester formula is applied to the computation of the solutions of state equations of fractional continuous-time and discrete-time linear systems. The solutions are given as finite sums with their numbers of components equal to the degrees of the minimal characteristics polynomials of state matrices of the systems. Procedures for computations of the solutions are given and illustrated by numerical examples of continuous-time and discrete-time fractional linear systems.
EN
Linear megastructures, apart from megastructures in general, are one of several types of concepts in context of linear urban development. The term refers to various compact architectural, infrastructural and transportation plans in linear form. With their daunting massive scale these concepts are often attributed to utopian attempts of pursuing an ideal city and therefore doomed to remain unrealized. This paper examines several models created throughout the course of history in terms of their emergence motivation, socio-economic circumstances and relation to urban sustainability. Through the analysis, it is argued that linear megastructures are often unjustly rejected without acknowledgement of their underlying beneficial features in terms of mitigating challenges to sustainable urban development.
EN
Generalized Frobenius matrices and their inverses are applied in analysis of the linear electrical circuits. The basic properties of generalized Frobenius matrices are analyzed. It is shown that if the state matrix of electrical circuit has generalized Frobenius form then its inverse system matrix has also generalized Frobenius form. The notion of an angle between state matrices of linear electrical circuits is proposed and its basic properties are investigated.
PL
Zaproponowane w tej pracy uogólnione macierze Frobeniusa oraz ich odwrotności zostały zastosowane w analizie liniowych obwodów elektrycznych. Zostały zbadane podstawowe własności tych macierzy. Wykazano między innymi, że macierze odwrotne uogólnionych macierzy Frobeniusa mają również postać uogólnionych macierzy Frobeniusa .Wprowadzono pojęcie kąta między macierzami stanu liniowych obwodów elektrycznych oraz zbadano ich podstawowe własności.
EN
The invariant properties of the stability, reachability, and transfer matrices of positive linear electrical circuits with integer and fractional orders are investigated. It is shown that the stability, reachability and transfer matrix of positive linear systems are invariant under their integer and fractional orders.
EN
Sufficient conditions are given under which the controllability and observability of linear electrical circuits is independent of their resistances. In some particular cases the observability depends only on the capacitances or inductances of the electrical circuits.
EN
The stability of positive linear continuous-time and discrete-time systems is analyzed by the use of the decomposition of the state matrices into symmetrical and antisymmetrical parts. It is shown that: 1) The state Metzler matrix of positive continuous-time linear system is Hurwitz if and only if its symmetrical part is Hurwitz; 2) The state matrix of positive linear discrete-time system is Schur if and only if its symmetrical part is Hurwitz. These results are extended to inverse matrices of the state matrices of the positive linear systems.
EN
The positivity of fractional descriptor linear continuous-time systems is investigated. The solution to the state equation of the systems is derived. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the positivity of fractional descriptor linear continuous-time systems are established. The considerations are illustrated by numerical examples.
8
Normal positive linear systems and electrical circuits
EN
The notion of normal positive electrical circuits is introduced and some their specific properties are investigated. New state matrices of positive linear systems and electrical circuits are proposed and their properties are analyzed. It is shown that positive electrical circuits with diagonal state matrices are normal for all values of resistances, inductances and capacitances.
PL
W artykule zaproponowano pojęcie dodatniego obwodu elektrycznego oraz przeanalizowano specjalne własności dodatnich układów i obwodów elektrycznych. Wykazano, że dodatnie obwody elektryczne z diagonalnymi macierzami stanu są zawsze normalne dla wszystkich wartości rezystancji, indukcyjności i pojemności.
9
EN
The notion of normal positive electrical circuits is introduced and some their specific properties are investigated. New state matrices of positive linear systems and electrical circuits are proposed and their properties are analyzed. It is shown that positive electrical circuits with diagonal state matrices are normal for all values of resistances, inductances and capacitances.
PL
W artykule zaproponowano pojęcie dodatniego obwodu elektrycznego oraz przeanalizowano specjalne własności dodatnich układów i obwodów elektrycznych. Wykazano, że dodatnie obwody elektryczne z diagonalnymi macierzami stanu są zawsze normalne dla wszystkich wartości rezystancji, indukcyjności i pojemności.
10
EN
The positive linear continuous-time systems by the use of the Caputo and conformable fractional calculus are analyzed. The conditions for internally positive systems are presented. For the established electrical circuit, a solution fractional order state-space equation was developed for system with Caputo and conformable fractional derivative (CFD) definition.
EN
The analysis of the positivity and stability of linear electrical circuits by the use of state-feedbacks is addressed. Generalized Frobenius matrices are proposed and their properties are investigated. It is shown that if the state matrix of electrical circuit has generalized Frobenius form then the closed-loop system matrix is not positive and asymptotically stable. Different cases of modification of the positivity and stability of linear electrical circuits by state-feedbacks are discussed and necessary conditions for the existence of solutions to the problem are established.
EN
In this paper, the second-generation CMOS currentcontrolled-current-conveyor based on differential pair of operational transconductance amplifier has been researched and presented. Since the major improvement of its parasitic resistance at x-port can be linearly controlled by an input bias current, the proposed building block is then called “The Second-Generation Electronically-tunable Current-controlled Current Conveyor” (ECCCI). The applications are demonstrated in form of both 2 quadrant and 4 quadrant current-mode signal multiplier circuits. Characteristics of the proposed ECCCII and its application are simulated by the PSPICE program from which the results are proved to be in agreement with the theory.
EN
It is shown that the convex linear combination of the Hurwitz polynomials of positive linear systems is also the Hurwitz polynomial. The Kharitonov theorem is extended to the positive interval linear systems. It is also shown that the interval positive linear system described by state equation x ̇ = Ax, A ϵ ℜn×n, A1 ≥ A ≤ A2 is asymptotically stable if and only if the matrices Ak = 1, 2 are Hurwitz Metzler matrices.
EN
A new method for determination of positive realizations of given transfer matrices of linear continuous-time linear systems is proposed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of positive realizations of transfer matrices are presented. A procedure for computation of the positive realizations is proposed and illustrated by an example.
EN
The analysis of the positivity and stability of linear electrical circuits by the use of state-feedbacks is addressed. Generalized Frobenius matrices are proposed and their properties are investigated. It is shown that if the state matrix of an electrical circuit has generalized Frobenius form then the closed-loop system matrix is not positive and asymptotically stable. Different cases of modification of the positivity and stability of linear electrical circuits by state-feedbacks are discussed and necessary conditions for the existence of solutions to the problem are established.
16
EN
The notions of monomial generalized Frobenius matrices is proposed and the reachability and observability of positive discrete-time linear systems with positive and negative integer powers of the state matrices is addressed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the reachability of the positive systems are established.
EN
The minimum energy control problem for the positive descriptor discrete-time linear systems with bounded inputs by the use of Weierstrass-Kronecker decomposition is formulated and solved. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the positivity and reachability of descriptor discrete-time linear systems are given. Conditions for the existence of solution and procedure for computation of optimal input and the minimal value of the performance index is proposed and illustrated by a numerical example.
EN
A new method for computation of positive realizations of given transfer matrices of fractional linear continuous-time linear systems is proposed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of positive realizations of transfer matrices are given. A procedure for computation of the positive realizations is proposed and illustrated by examples.
EN
The problem of calculation of the characteristic equations of the standard and descriptor linear electrical circuits of integer and fractional orders is addressed. It is shown that the characteristic equations of standard and descriptor linear electrical circuits are independent of the method used in their analysis: the state space method, the mesh method and the node method. The considerations are illustrated by examples of standard and fractional linear electrical circuits.
EN
The modification of the stability and positivity of standard and descriptor linear electrical circuits by state feedbacks is investigated. It is shown that: 1) There is a class of nonpositive and unstable R, L, e circuits that can be stabilized and modified to positive ones by state feedback; 2) There is a class of nonpositive and stable R, L, e circuits that can be modified by state feedback to positive ones without loss of stability. The modification of stability and positivity of linear descriptor electrical circuits is addressed. Considerations are illustrated by examples of linear electrical circuits.
PL
W pracy rozpatrzono problem modyfikacji stabilności i dodatniości standardowych i deskryptorowych liniowych obwodów elektrycznych poprzez sprzężenie zwrotne od wektora stanu. Pokazano, że: 1) Istnieje klasa niedodatnich i niestabilnych obwodów typu R, L, e, które mogą zostać ustabilizowane i zmodyfikowane do obwodów dodatnich; 2) Istnieje klasa niedodatnich i stabilnych obwodów typu R, L, e, które mogą zostać zmodyfikowane do obwodów dodatnich bez utraty stabilności. Rozpatrywany problem uogólniono dla klasy układów deskryptorowych. Rozważania zilustrowano przykładami obwodów elektrycznych.
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