Purpose: of this paper was comparison of the structure, hardness and erosive wear of aluminium coatings produced on non-alloy structural steel S355JR (EN 10025-2) using the powder flame spraying and wire arc spraying methods. Design/methodology/approach: The latest model of flame powder sprayer and wire arc sprayer was used in the experiments. This provided very reliable spraying conditions. The additional material for flame-spraying was of Metco 54NS-1 pure aluminium powder (EN AW 1100 series). In the arc spraying process the Metco Aluminium (EN AW 1100 series) 1.6 mm diameter pure aluminium thermal spray wire was used. In each spraying technology binding alloy, i.e. Ni-Al, was employed as a primer coating. The used spray processes produced dense, abrasion and erosion resistant coatings approximal 1.0 mm thick. Aluminium coatings were characterized in accordance with ASTM G 76-95 erosion resistance tests, ASTM C 633-01 adhesion strength, HV 0.1 hardness tests and metallographic analyses. The scope of research included: preparation material for spraying, selection of properly process parameters for each sprayed technique based on preliminary technological tests, coatings manufacturing, examining the structure and tribological properties of aluminium coatings, comparison of obtained samples. Findings: The obtained results have proven superior properties of arc sprayed aluminium material coatings and have shown to be promising in industrial applications. Research limitations/implications: The presented test results are a preliminary assessment of the properties of thermally sprayed aluminium coatings. Therefore, further research is required regarding the resistance of aluminium coatings to abrasion and corrosion. Practical implications: The study is focused on selecting the best and most economical technique for manufacturing of wear and corrosion resistance aluminium coatings with a thickness of approximately 1 mm. Originality/value: It has been demonstrated that the use of a Ni-Al primer coating improves the adhesion of flame and arc sprayed aluminium coatings to steel surfaces.