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1
Content available Globalna gospodarka energetyczna na przykładzie USA
PL
Artykuł jest skoncentrowany na analizie gospodarki energetycznej USA pod względem zaspokajania potrzeb i zaopatrzenia w energię elektryczną przemysłu oraz społeczeństwa. Pokazuje alternatywne metody rozwiązania problemu energetycznego oraz porównuje koszty generowania energii elektrycznej pozyskanych z różnych źródeł. Zawiera również analizę szans i zagrożeń związanych z uzależnieniem sektora energetycznego od poszczególnych źródeł energii. Artykuł ocenia wpływ sprawności energetycznej urządzeń na gospodarkę energią. Zawiera praktyczne wnioski i rekomendacje dla gospodarki energetycznej w skali globalnej.
EN
The article focuses on the analysis of the USA energy economy in terms of meeting the needs and the demands for electricity by industry and society. It shows alternative methods of solving the energy problem and compares the costs of generating electricity obtained from various sources. It also includes an analysis of opportunities and threats related to the dependence of the energy sector on individual energy sources. The article assesses the impact of energy efficiency of the equipment on energy management. It contains practical conclusions and recommendations for the energy economy on a global scale.
EN
Physiological parameters analysis allows for a precise quantification of energy expenditure of transfemoral amputees with different prosthetic knees. Comparative physiological parameters analysis that indicate the functional characteristics of knee joints is essential to the choice of transfemoral amputee. The aim of this study was to propose a microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee (i-KNEE) and conducted physiological parameters (energy cost, gait efficiency and relative exercise intensity) comparison of transfemoral amputees with C-leg, Rheo Knee and Mauch under different walking speeds. Methodsː A microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee with hydraulic damper (i-KNEE) was developed. A two-factor repeated measurement experiment design was used. Each subject was instructed to accept the same treatments. The two factors were type of prosthetic knees (the i-KNEE, the C-Leg, the Rheo Knee and the Mauch) and speed (0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1.1, 1.3 m/s). The energy cost, gait efficiency and relative exercise intensity of ten transfemoral amputees were measured. Resultsː For all the prosthetic knees, the energy cost increased along with walking speed. There was no significant difference between three microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knees in energy cost. The gait efficiency of Mauch was always less than or equal to other three microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knees in specific walking speed. The relative exercise intensity increased with speed for all the prosthetic knees. More effort was needed for the transfemoral amputees with Mauch than other three microprocessorcontrolled prosthetic knees in the same walking speed. Conclusionsː The use of the microprocessor-controlled knee joints resulted in reduced energy cost, improved gait efficiency and smaller relative exercise intensity.
3
Content available remote Efektywność energetyczna przemysłu i przedsiębiorstw
PL
Ze względu na coraz wyższe koszty energii, ryzyko blackoutu czy chęć redukcji emisji CO2 wiele przedsiębiorstw staje przed wyzwaniem redukcji i optymalizacji zużycia energii. Nie jest to proste zadanie, i nie ma uniwersalnej receptury, jak to zrobić, ale poniżej postaram się przybliżyć nieco tę tematykę i opisać kilka przykładów optymalizacji kosztów energii i powodów, dla których warto ją przeprowadzić.
EN
This paper attempts to determine the influence of various climate conditions on energy consumption for heating and cooling of residential buildings. Ecological and economic aspects were also analysed. A single-family building erected in energy quality variants was considered. Its energy performance as well as heating and cooling costs in two locations in Poland were examined. The impact of predicted climate changes on energy consumption and costs related to these changes were also analyzed. It was found that climate conditions and their predicted changes have a significant impact on energy consumption for heating and cooling of buildings, and consequently on the costs associated with maintaining adequate indoor air quality.
EN
This study has been investigated influence of type of footwear and foot strike on selected kinematics and dynamics parameters of human gait. The flagged problem has been focused on energy costs of walking. Significant differences in biomechanics and energy cost of gait, could be caused by specific modifications of structure of shoes.
6
EN
The concept, construction and analysis of a hybrid heating system have been presented for a school building in Wielka Wieś near Wojnicz, district of Tarnów. Because of technical wear of old existing heating system and increasing energy costs it was decided to complete its modernization. In consultation with the ENION energy company in Tarnów, a complex analysis of the possibility and advisability of the use of heat pumps for heating purposes has been made. Favourable environmental conditions in the vicinity of the premises such as available land and shallow ground water reservoir is located, were decisive in the fundamental way of the economic support of the proposed project.
EN
Results of research that compares possibilities of securing transmission from biomedical embedded telemetry devices with elliptic curve cryptography algorithms performed on 8-bit and 32-bit microcontrollers is presented in the paper. The review of possible ways of implementing cryptographic protocols based on elliptic curves in embedded systems with usage of commercial MIRACL library and open-source GMP arithmetic library was performed. We have used MIRACL library to compare time efficiency and energy costs of elliptic curve point multiplication on selected AVR and ARM embedded platforms. Additionally we have implemented basic ECC library based on open-source GMP library for ARM microcontrollers to check efficiency of algorithms based on different number representations. Results obtained during the work showed that despite of the fact that selected ARM microcontroller active supply current is higher than selected AVR device active supply current, total energy cost associated with elliptic point curve multiplication is much smaller in case of ARM microcontrollers.
PL
Celem pracy była analiza możliwości wykorzystania kryptografii opartej na krzywych eliptycznych w wybranych systemach wbudowanych w celu realizacji bezpiecznej transmisji danych biomedycznych W pracy porównano możliwości implementacji algorytmów kryptograficznych bazujących na krzywych eliptycznych w środowisku 8-bitowych mikrokontrolerów AVR oraz 32-bitowych mikrokontrolerów ARM. Za pomocą komercyjnej biblioteki MIRACL zbadano wydajność obliczeniową oraz koszt energetyczny związany z operacją mnożenia punktu na krzywej eliptycznej w środowisku wybranych systemów wbudowanych. Dodatkowo bazując na bibliotece GMP wykonano implementację podstawowych operacji na krzywych eliptycznych dla wybranego mikrokontrolera ARM. Za pomocą wykonanej implementacji porównano wydajność operacji na krzywych eliptycznych realizowanych dla różnej reprezentacji liczb (reprezentacji binarnej i NAF (ang. Non-Adjacent Form)). Wyniki pokazują, iż rozpatrywana rodzina mikrokontrolerów 32-bitowych charakteryzuje się mniejszym kosztem energetycznym operacji mnożenia punktu na krzywej eliptycznej oraz większą wydajnością obliczeniową niż układy 8-bitowe.
EN
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the influence of extremities length improvement in the form of special shoe orthoses on the walking energy cost of the leading Polish representative in race walking. Before a proper study, the aerobic capacity of the subject was evaluated. The test consisted of two walking efforts performed on a mechanical treadmill. The subject was walking for 12 minutes with shoe orthoses at constant speed (12 km/h) and then the rest phase allowed for the total covering of the oxygen debt. Then the trial was repeated without orthoses. Simultaneously with measuring physiological variables, there was made 3D recording of the athlete’s movements on the treadmill applying the Vicon system. There were chosen vertical oscillations of the body center of gravity and work of the subject’s system of motion connected with kinetic and potential energy changes regarding the movements of COM during gait. The energy cost of walking at speed related to anaerobic threshold (starting) using shoe orthoses was slightly lower compared to energy expenditure during gait without improvement. No significant differences were noticed in the range of summary vertical COM oscillations during walking in both variants of the measurement. However, considerable asymmetries appeared in the value of COM kinetic energy changes that were lower for the right leg. This testifies to a strongly fixed asymmetrical scheme of individual athlete’s technique.
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