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EN
For studying mechanism of sediment transport in river flows, open channel flow is a prototype. Flow has always three components of velocity for all types of channel geometry and for a time independent uniform flow along streamwise or main flow direction, all the components of velocity are functions of lateral and vertical coordinates. The present study investigates the two dimensional distribution of streamwise (or longitudinal) velocity starting from the Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes equation for a turbulent open channel flow which is steady and uniform along the main flow direction. Secondary flows both along the vertically upward direction and along the lateral direction are considered which are also taken as functions of lateral and vertical coordinates. Inclusion of the secondary current brings the effect of dip phenomenon in the model. The resulting second order partial differential equation is solved numerically. The model is validated for all the cross-sectional, transverse and centreline velocity distribution by comparing with existing relevant set of experimental data and also with an existing model. Comparison results show good agreement with data as well as with the previous model proving the efficiency of the model. It is found that the transverse velocity distribution depends on the formation of circular vortex in the cross-sectional plane and becomes periodic as the number of circular vortex increases for increasing aspect ratios.
EN
The aim of this paper is to numerically investigate the thermal and hydraulic performances of the two heat sinks made ofwavy fins (WFHS). The governing equations fitted with boundary conditions were solved using the finite volume method, and the SIMPLE algorithm for the coupling velocity-pressure. The two-equation model k-ϵ was used to describe the turbulence phenomenon. The effects of wave numbers and the amplitude of wavy fins heat sink on the thermal and flow fields are studied and compared with the plate fin heat sink (PFHS). The results show that the use of wavy fins improves significantly the heat transfer rate, accompanied by a pressure drop penalty.
EN
One of more important elements affecting the efficiency of fish passes is a 3D spatial structure of the flow and the flow velocity. The paper presents an analysis pertaining to the deformations of these elements caused by the modification of the fishway’s partition geometry. It has a crucial meaning for the ability of fish to migrate through the fish pass. The research has a key practical significance as it proves the way the apparent modification of the partition geometry affects the hydraulic conditions within the entire the channel of the fishway. It may have very serious consequences for the design assumptions. The presented results of the experimental research were obtained as a consequence of the site and laboratory tests carried outusing a physical model. The measurements were performedfor 3 components of flow’s instantaneous speed within the indicated measurement sections. The results were developed using Matlab software. It was established that the number of whirls produced in the fishway’s pool depends on the quantity of spillway slots and – what seems to have the greatest impact on the flow structure – on the location of slots. The size of whirls is determined by the geometry of spillway slots. The presence of additional spillway slots in the pool, except for the huge main migration slot, contributes to the generation of more whirl structures within the recirculation zone. The more whirls produced in each of the whirl zones, the smaller their diameter. Thisshould create more favourable conditions for the fish migration.
EN
This paper deals with the numerical simulation of a turbulent flow around two-dimensional bodies by the finite volume method with non-orthogonal body-fitted grid. The governing equations are expressed in Cartesian velocity components and solution is carried out using the SIMPLE algorithm for collocated arrangement of scalar and vector variables. Turbulence is modeled by the turbulence model and wall functions are used to bridge the solution variables at the near wall cells and the corresponding quantities on the wall. A simplified pressure correction equation is derived and proper under-relaxation factors are used so that computational cost is reduced without adversely affecting the convergence rate. The numerical procedure is validated by comparing the computed pressure distribution on the surface of NACA 0012 and NACA 4412 hydrofoils for different angles of attack with experimental data. The grid dependency of the solution is studied by varying the number of cells of the C-type structured mesh. The computed lift coefficients of NACA 4412 hydrofoil at different angles of attack are also compared with experimental results to further substantiate the validity of the proposed methodology.
EN
CFD modelling of momentum and heat transfer using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach hasbeen presented for a Kenics static mixer. The simulations were performed with the commercial codeANSYS Fluent 15 for turbulent flow of three values of Reynoldsnumber,Re=5 000, 10 000 and18 000. The numerical modelling began in the RANS model, where standardk−εturbulence modeland wall functions were used. Then the LES iterations started from the initial velocity and temperaturefields obtained in RANS. In LES, the Smagorinsky–Lilly modelwas used for the sub-grid scalefluctuations along with wall functions for prediction of flowand heat transfer in the near-wall region.The performed numerical study in a Kenics static mixer resulted in highly fluctuating fields of bothvelocity and temperature. Simulation results were presented and analysed in the form of velocity andtemperature contours. In addition, the surface-averaged heat transfer coefficient values for the wholeinsert length were computed and compared with the literature experimental data. Good compliance ofthe LES simulation results with the experimental correlation was obtained.
EN
The study of flow around obstacles is devised into three different positions: above the obstacle, upstream of the obstacle, and downstream of the latter. The behaviour of the fluid downstream of the obstacle is less known, and the physical and numerical modelling is being given the existence of recirculation zones with their complex behaviour. The purpose of the work presented below is to study the influence of the inclined form of the two upper peaks of a rectangular cube. A three-dimensional study was carried out using the ANSYS CFX calculation code. Turbulence models have been used to study the flow characteristics around the inclined obstacle. The timeaveraged results of contours of velocity vectors , cross-stream and stream wise velocity and streamlines were obtained by using K-ω shear -stress transport (SST), RANG K-ε and K-ε to model the turbulence, and the governing equations were solved using the finite volume method. The turbulence model K-ω SST has presented the best prediction of the flow characteristics for the obstacle among the investigated turbulence models in this work.
7
Content available 3D Simulation of Chlorine Dispersion in Rrural Area
EN
Prediction of hazardous substances dispersion resulting from accidental leakage in environment is essential for risk analysis and emergency response. Different numerical tools are applied for description of dispersion process. Development of numerical algorithms has enabled the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models to be used extensively in indoor dispersion studies. Numerical methods based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) may facilitate the precise investigation of the hazardous substances dispersion. Therefore, the aim of the study was to prepare a transient CFD model describing the phenomena of chlorine dispersion in a dynamic setup including different environmental factors. Reliable computational description of dispersion process still represents one of the most challenging applications. Therefore, we aimed to prepare a transient 2D and 3D numerical models of chlorine dispersion from a ground source in a dynamic setup. For 2D simulation a Degadis model was used, while for 3D approach a multiphase Volume of Fluid model (VOF) was applied. For both analyzed cases area of investigation was equal to 0.1 km2. Furthermore, for 3D simulations height was equal to 50 m. For the reconstruction of atmospheric conditions Pasquill stability classes and one-direction wind were applied. Analysis of chlorine concentration in function of wind intensity indicated extension of chlorine cloud with decrease of concentration. Moreover, comparison of constant and dynamic setup indicated high impact of wind. In case of windless conditions circular profile of chlorine concentration around dispersion source was noticed. Wind directed the chloride cloud which dispersed accordingly to the wind direction. As expected chloride concentration decreased with altitude. 2D model allowed prediction of polluted cloud in horizontal direction, while 3D model allowed description of horizontal and vertical distribution of chlorine. It was observed that with increase of Pasquill stability class the area of chlorine dispersion had similar character for horizontal model as well as for horizontal and vertical model (3D). For the windless case circular profile of chlorine concentration around dispersion source was observed. Additionally, for the wind application the main chlorine concentration moved ahead the source of dispersion. Analysis of chlorine concentration in function of height resulted in decrease of chlorine appearance in upper level of mathematical domain.
PL
Predykcja dyspersji substancji niebezpiecznych z przypadkowych wycieków jest niezbędna w analizie ryzyka. W tym celu do opisu procesu dyspersji stosowane są różne numeryczne narzędzia. Rozwój matematycznych algorytmów umożliwia stosowanie m.in. techniki CFD na szeroką skalę. Tym samym celem niniejszej pracy było opracowanie dwuwymiarowego i trójwymiarowego modelu opisującego zjawisko dyspersji chloru z naziemnego źródła. Dla dwuwymiarowego podejścia zastosowano model Degadisa. Natomiast dla trójwymiarowego podejścia wielofazowy model VOF. Dla obu przypadków powierzchnia analizowanego obszaru wynosiła 0.1 km2. Co więcej, dla trójwymiarowego podejścia wysokość analizowanej domeny obliczeniowej wynosiła 50 m. W celu rekonstrukcji parametrów atmosferycznych uwzględniono klasy stabilności Pasquilla oraz wpływ wiatru. Dwuwymiarowy model umożliwiał analizę procesu dyspersji w płaszczyźnie poziomej, podczas gdy model trójwymiarowy umożliwiał analizę zarówno w płaszczyźnie poziomej jak i pionowej. Analiza obu modeli wskazuje, iż wzrost intensywności wiatru wydłuża zasięg chmury chloru, z jednoczesnym spadkiem jego stężenia. Co więcej, w przypadku nieuwzględnienia przepływu wiatru obserwowano kołowy profil stężenia chloru dookoła źródła dyspersji. Natomiast przepływający wiatr powodował zmniejszenie koncentracji chloru wraz z wysokością. Również zaobserwowano, iż uwzględnienie klas stabilności Pasquilla miało porównywalny efekt w przypadku podejścia dwuwymiarowego i trójwymiarowego. Uwzględnienie wiatru powodowało przemieszczenie maksymalnej wartości stężenia chloru znad źródła dyspersji. Co więcej, analiza stężenia chloru w funkcji wysokości wskazuje na zmniejszenie zawartości chloru w górnej części domeny matematycznej.
PL
W artykule omówiono temat modelowania zjawisk turbulentnych w kopalniach podziemnych. Kopalnie podziemne ze względu na technologię wydobycia posiadają skomplikowaną sieć wentylacyjną. Dotychczas stosowane w wentylacji przemysłowej i nie tylko półempiryczne modele turbulencji posiadają stałe, które zostały określone w wyniku badań podstawowych dla geometrii odbiegających od tych spotykanych w górnictwie. Zastosowanie tego typu modeli umożliwia poszukiwanie rozwiązań dla wielu zagadnień, jednak kosztem konieczności sprawdzenia, czy dany model jest w stanie wystarczająco dobrze opisywać wybrane zagadnienia. Dla wentylacji kopalń podziemnych tego typu walidacje przeprowadzono w bardzo ograniczonym zakresie i nie wystarczają one do pełnej reprezentacji zjawisk występujących w wyrobiskach kopalnianych. W związku z tym pojawiła się potrzeba uaktualnienia lub rozszerzenia istniejących wartości stałych stosowanych w modelach numerycznych odpowiednich do geometrii wyrobisk górniczych. W artykule przeprowadzono przegląd dotychczas stosowanej metodyki określania stałych w wybranych modelach turbulencji na podstawie wyników badań eksperymentalnych typowych zagadnień przepływowych. Określono zarys analogicznego programu badań w zakresie wybranych zagadnień przepływowych charakterystycznych dla wentylacji kopalń.
EN
Paper presents discusses about turbulent phenomena modelling in underground mining which, due to the mining technology, has complicated ventilation network. So far, in industrial ventilation semi-empirical turbulence models have been used. These models use constants, which were determined as a result of basic research on geometries of shapes, which in most cases are different from the shapes of workings of underground mines. The use of this type of models helps in searching solutions for many problems, but results of numerical calculations should be checked if the given model is able to describe to selected issues well enough. For underground mine ventilation systems, the validations have been carried out to a very limited extent and they are not sufficient to fully represent phenomena occurring in mine drifts. Therefore, it is necessary to update or extend the existing constants values used in turbulence models to customize them to specific conditions of trhe flow in the workings of underground mines. Paper conatins a review of used methodology for determining constants in selected turbulence models based on results of typical flow problems investigations and an outline of planned studies.
EN
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the blade shape on the characteristic of the flow patterns in a stirred tank. A new impeller blade design has been proposed. It is characterized by a converging hollow. The investigations of the flow structure generated in the vessel are made by using the computer code ANSYS CFX (version 16.0). The analysis has shown that the converging hollow blade yields highly radial flows which gave an increase in the radial velocity by 35% with less power consumption than the flat blade. Also, the effectiveness of the energy dissipation and the quality of mixing has been obviously noted. A validation test of our predicted results with other literature data was done, and a satisfactory agreement has been found.
PL
Transport hydrauliczny rurociągami należy do najbardziej niezawodnych i ekonomicznie uzasadnionych rodzajów transportu. Z uwagi na jego walory ekologiczne i estetyczne, jest także preferowanym rozwiązaniem w inżynierii środowiska. Przesyłanie rurociągami mieszanin zawierających znaczne ilości zawiesin wymaga określenia ich właściwości reologicznych, na podstawie których można przyjąć odpowiedni model reologiczny. Wyznaczony na podstawie badań model reologiczny pozwala z kolei na poprawne obliczenie strat hydraulicznych podczas przepływu danej mieszaniny w instalacji przemysłowej. Jednym z istotnych problemów występujących podczas przepływu mieszanin w rurociągach jest ustalenie momentu przejścia ruchu laminarnego w turbulentny, bowiem transport odbywający się w zakresie tego ruchu charakteryzuje się znacząco większym zapotrzebowaniem na energię. W pracy przedstawiono rezultaty badań przepływu mieszaniny węglowo-wodnej (pył węgla kamiennego z wodą) o stężeniu objętościowym 43÷53% i gęstości 1 176÷1 217 kg/m3 w rurociągach o średnicy 21÷47 mm. Badana mieszanina miała cechy reologiczne, które opisuje dwuparametrowy model Binghama. Rezultaty badań eksperymentalnych były następnie podstawą do analizy zachowania się mieszaniny w czasie przejścia z ruchu laminarnego do turbulentnego w rurociągach o średnicach 21 mm i 29 mm podczas przepływu mieszaniny węglowo-wodnej o stężeniu objętościowym wynoszącym 43%. W tym celu przeprowadzono analizę porównawcza kilku metod określenia prędkości krytycznej przejścia ruchu laminarnego w turbulentny, przy czym do określenia wartości prędkości krytycznej zaproponowano wykorzystanie różnych definicji liczby Reynolsdsa. Na tej podstawie obliczono wartości prędkości krytycznej ze wzorów różnych autorów oraz przy założeniu, że strefa przejściowa pomiędzy przepływem laminarnym i turbulentnym zawarta jest w przedziale wartości liczby Reynoldsa od 2000 do 4000.
EN
Pipeline hydrotransport belongs to the most reliable and economically justified modes of transport. Due to its ecological and aesthetic values, it is also the preferred solution in environmental engineering. Transport of mixtures with significant amounts of suspensions requires determination of their rheological properties to adopt an appropriate rheological model. The rheological model determined on the basis of research allows then for the correct calculation of hydraulic losses during the flow of a given mixture through industrial installation. One of the major challenges regarding the flow of mixtures through pipelines is determination of transition point at which laminar traffic changes into turbulent, because transport under turbulent flow is characterized by significantly higher energy demand. The flow study results for the coal-water mixture (bituminous coal dust) with volume concentration of 43–53% and 1 176–1 217 kg/m3 density in the pipelines of 21–47 mm diameter were presented. The rheological features of the mixture under testing were described by the Bingham two-parameter model. Results of the experiments were the basis for analyzing the behavior of the coal-water mixture with 43% volume concentration in 21 and 29 mm pipelines during transition from laminar to turbulent flow. For this purpose, a comparative analysis of several methods for determining critical velocity of the laminar-turbulent transition was carried out. In order to determine the critical velocity value, application of various definitions of Reynolds number was proposed. On this basis, the critical velocity value was calculated from the formulas by different authors and with the assumption that transition zone between laminar and turbulent flow was in the range of Reynolds number from Re = 2000 to Re = 4000.
EN
The article presents the modelling of the combustion process of liquid fuels using professional ANSYS FLUENT software. This program allows modelling the dynamics of compressible and incompressible, laminar and turbulent flows as well as heat exchange phenomena with occurrence and without chemical reactions. The model presented in the article takes into account the influence of the gas phase on the liquid phase during the fuel combustion process. The influence of velocity and pressure of the flowing gas and the type of flow has a significant impact on the combustion of liquid fuels. The developed model is fully reliable and the presented results are consistent with experimental research. The occurrence of a laminar sublayer in a turbulent flow was confirmed, and the thickness of this layer and the turbulent layer significantly influences the course of the combustion process. The use of the flat flow model reflects the basic phenomena occurring during the combustion of liquid fuels under turbulent conditions. The use of the program for flows with different flow velocity profiles is justified. It gives important information about the processes taking place during the combustion of liquid fuels. The results of numerical tests are presented graphically. The article presents graphs of velocity field, absolute pressure, power lines, temperature and density.
PL
Artykuł dotyczy ultradźwiękowej metody pomiaru przepływu cieczy. Metoda ta w ostatnich latach zyskała dużą popularność z uwagi dużą dokładność pomiarów oraz bezinwazyjność. Problemem w zastosowaniu tej metody często jest brak możliwości zachowania wymaganych w normach odcinków prostych rurociągu – zwłaszcza wtedy, gdy pomiary wykonywane są na rurociągach o dużych średnicach. Wykonane pomiary mają na celu określić jakiego rzędu błędy pomiarowe będzie generowało zainstalowanie przepływomierza ultradźwiękowego za przeszkodą bez zachowania wymaganych w normach odległości. Otrzymane wyniki badań wykonywanych za przeszkodą w postaci przepustnicy pozwoliły wyciągnąć wnioski dotyczące wpływu odległości miejsca pomiarowego od przeszkody na dokładność otrzymanych wyników.
EN
The article concerns the ultrasonic method of measuring the flow of liquids. This method in recent years has gained great popularity due to the high accuracy of measurements and non-invasive. The problem in using this method is often the lack of the possibility of maintaining the required straight sections of the pipeline – especially when measurements are made on pipelines with large diameters. The measurements were to answer the question of whether you can perform flow measurements in non-standard measurement conditions (without observing the distance required in the standards)? Obtained results of tests performed behind an obstacle in the form of a throttle allowed to draw conclusions regarding the influence of the distance of the measuring place from the obstacle on the accuracy of the obtained results.
EN
The production of thermal energy from solar energy by flat collectors finds nowadays many applications due to their innumerable economic and environmental interests. Currently, conservation of energy resources has become a global priority. On the other hand, given the dizzying demand for energy, has led specialists to find new techniques, such as renewable energies (solar, wind and geothermal). The present work is a contribution, by numerical simulation, to the study of heat transfer in flat solar collectors. On the basis of some experimental data, several simulation calculations have been carried out in order to determine the influencing parameters allowing better performance of the sensors and ensuring a good homogeneity of the temperature distributions. Based on the observation that, due to the low thermophysical properties of the air used as heat transfer fluid, solar air collectors rather give poor yields. It has been found very useful to have ‘baffling’ obstacles of various shapes and forms in the solar collector duct. This increases the thermal transfer of a coolant, which clearly improves the thermal efficiency of the solar air collector. This article consists mainly of studying the effects on heat transfer of turbulent forced convection by baffles of zigzag shapes, placed in a rectangular channel, using the finite volume method. The pressure-velocity coupling has been processed by the SIMPLEC algorithm. The results are presented in terms of the average Nusselt number and temperature field for different positions.
EN
The flow field of many practical open channel flow problems, e.g. flow over natural bed forms or hydraulic structures, is characterised by curved streamlines that result in a non-hydrostatic pressure distribution. The essential vertical details of such a flow field need to be accounted for, so as to be able to treat the complex transition between hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic flow regimes. Apparently, the shallow-water equations, which assume a mild longitudinal slope and negligible vertical acceleration, are inappropriate to analyse these types of problems. Besides, most of the current Boussinesq-type models do not consider the effects of turbulence. A novel approach, stemming from the vertical integration of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, is applied herein to develop a non-hydrostatic model which includes terms accounting for the effective stresses arising from the turbulent characteristics of the flow. The feasibility of the proposed model is examined by simulating flow situations that involve non-hydrostatic pressure and/or nonuniform velocity distributions. The computational results for free-surface and bed pressure profiles exhibit good correlations with experimental data, demonstrating that the present model is capable of simulating the salient features of free-surface flows over sharply-curved overflow structures and rigid-bed dunes.
15
Content available remote 3D Incompressible Turbulent Flow in a Parallelipipedic Cavity
EN
This work investigates the turbulent flow in a ventilated cavity by means of numerical simulations. In particular, simulations are performed using a parallel compact fourth-order spatial discretization and the sub-grid scale (SGS) model Wall Adapting Local Eddy (WALE). Results focuses on the turbulence statistics and are validated against experimental data, for which a good agreement is observed. So, this contribution illustrates how compact schemes can be used to combine high-order accuracy with complex flow.
EN
Thermo-anemometer is one of the most helpful devices used to measure turbulent flow. It can quickly and easily measure air velocity or volumetric flow, as well as air temperature.
EN
The present study focuses on the time-averaged turbulence characteristics over a highly spatially-heterogeneous gravel-bed. The timeaveraged streamwise velocity, Reynolds shear and normal stresses, turbulent kinetic energy, higher-order moments of velocity fluctuations, length scales, and the turbulent bursting were measured over a gravel-bed with an array of larger gravels. It was observed that the turbulence characteristics do not vary significantly above the crest level of the array as compared to those below the array. The nondimensional streamwise velocity decreases considerably with a decrease in depth below the array. Below the array, the Reynolds shear stress (RSS) deviates from the gravity-law of RSS distributions. Turbulence intensities reduce below the crest level of the gravel-bed. The third-order moments of velocity fluctuations increase below the crest level of the gravel-bed and give a clear indication of sweeps as the predominating event which were further verified with the quadrant analysis plots. The turbulent length scales values change significantly below the crest level of the gravel-bed.
EN
The results of numerical investigations of flow through axial thrust balance holes in impeller of low specific speed pump were presented. The results were compared with available empirical investigations. It is a lack of numerical analyses in foregoing literature on flow through rotating holes. The issue is important for designing rotodynamic pumps. There are difficulties in solving the problem of precisely computing the flow in balance holes analytically.
EN
Curved pipes are very often used in hydraulic systems facilitating compact, lightweight designs. But they can also be the cause of complex secondary flows as the curvature brings change of velocity profile, generation of vortices and production of hydraulic losses. In the present study, turbulent single phase flows through circular 90˚ curved bend for different curvature ratio (Rc/D = 1 to 5), defined as the bend mean curvature radius (Rc) to pipe diameter (D) is investigated numerically for different Reynolds number (Re) ranging from 1×105 to 10×105. The purpose of this study is to simulate numerically the flow pattern and characterize the swirling secondary flow in 90˚ bends. Flow simulation using CFD techniques are performed to understand these phenomena. The k − " model with SIMPLE method is used for present study. After validation of present model with published experimental data, a detail study has been performed to characterize the flow separation and the dependency of swirl intensity on Reynolds number and curvature ratio in 90˚ pipe bend for single phase turbulent flow.
20
Content available remote Numerical method effect on pressure drop estimation in the Koflo® static mixer
EN
Pressure drop determines the power required to pump the fluid through the mixer and enables the selection of proper pumping device. In the presented paper there was an attempt to determine the pressure drops over a static mixer using CFD methods and to validate the developed model upon the vendor’s correlation. The study involved one-phase flow in the turbulent regime (Re = 1000÷5000). The numerical and experimental approach was obtained using the Koflo® Static Mixer consisted of 12 motionless mixing inserts installed in a pipe. It can be an interesting alternative to the commonly used Kenics type mixers, due to its simpler geometry and much smaller price. In order to perform numerical simulations a suitable model was created and then covered by generated mesh with an optimized number of elements on basis of the Grid Convergence Index (GCI). Turbulence model and other Fluent-solver settings were also selected. Analyzing the resulting data, a good accuracy between the numerical data and pressure drops calculated from manufacturer’s correlation was observed.
PL
Wartość spadku ciśnienia określa moc niezbędną do przetłoczenia płynu przez mieszalnik i umożliwia dobór odpowiedniego urządzenia pompującego. W pracy określono spadki ciśnienia w mieszalniku statycznym metodami CFD oraz dokonano walidacji opracowanego modelu na podstawie korelacji podawanej przez producenta. Rozpatrywano przepływ jednofazowy w reżimie burzliwym (Re = 1000÷5000). Wykorzystano konstrukcję mieszalnika Koflo®, zawierającą 12 nieruchomych elementów mieszających. Stanowi alternatywę dla powszechnie stosowanych mieszalników typu KENICS, ze względu na prostszą geometrię oraz znacznie niższą cenę. Stworzono odpowiedni model obrazujący geometrię mieszalnika i nałożono siatkę numeryczną posiadającą zoptymalizowaną na podstawie współczynnika GCI (Grid Convergence Index) liczbę elementów. Dokonano także doboru modelu turbulencji i pozostałych ustawień solvera Fluent 15. Analizując uzyskane dane zaobserwowano, że spadki ciśnienia uzyskane na drodze symulacji numerycznych są bliskie wartościom obliczonym w oparciu o wzór producenta.
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