Purpose: Due to the growing interest and multitude of possible applications, zinc oxide nanowires, including those doped with ZnO nanoparticles, can became, alongside carbon nanotubes, a very desirable material which use is predicted in the construction of nanogenerators, dye sensitized solar cells, optoelectronics or ultrasensitive gas detectors. Design/methodology/approach: The electrospinning process allows for low-cost and scalable production of fibrous mats with diameters from a few to several hundred nanometers. What is more, electrospinning method has gained popularity also due to its versatility, now it is possible to produce fibres from almost every known polymer and the simplicity and lack of any additional functionalization of the obtained nanomaterials. The application of the calcination process to remove the polymer matrix from the obtained nanofibres results in the creation of ceramic nanofibres. Findings: Among the existing methods for the production of ceramic nanostructures, including the hydrothermal, physical and chemical vapour deposition methods, nanolithography or molecular self-assembly, the electrospinning process creates the possibility of fabricating one-dimensional nanostructures with unprecedented properties, good quality, no additional functionalization and purification. Research limitations/implications: Due to ongoing research on the potential applications of zinc oxide nanostructures, including photovoltaics, sensorics and electronics, the most predictable behaviour and properties of ZnO nanowires characterize those nanomaterials that exhibit a periodic structure of the crystal lattice. Considering the optimization of the parameters of the method of producing ceramic zinc oxide nanowires doped with crystalline ZnO nanoparticles, it is worth analysing the thermal treatment parameters of nanofibres. Practical implications: Although amorphous structure, hybrid ZnO nanofibres could be used as humidity sensors with much higher sensing properties than crystalline ZnO nanostructures. Originality/value: Low-cost, scalable production of ceramic nanofibres for most technical applications.