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EN
The specificity of navigation in the Baltic Sea means that intensive ship traffic occurs on the main shipping routes. Therefore, there is a high risk of a collision that will result in an oil spillage; the Baltic Sea is an area that is very sensitive to this type of accident. In addition, there are sensitive Natura 2000 areas that require special protection. A case study of a potential oil spill in the Słupska Bank area has been carried out in this paper; the results of the oil spill simulations and their analyses are presented in this article. The simulations were carried out in the PISCES II oil spill simulator. The spread of oil pollutants in typical weather conditions, the size of the threatened areas and the oil’s impact time have been analyzed. Based on the results obtained from the simulations, the most adverse weather conditions for the simulated oil pollution accident in the TSS Słupska Bank region have been determined.
EN
In this article, a systematic solution for mitigating the DFG (Derelict Fishing Gear) problem has been presented using an example of a DFG wreck operation. The planning process has been described in detail and the influence of ghost net recovery on the marine environment has been shown. The research was performed on selected wrecks found in the Polish economic zone and the method consisted of scanning the sea bottom using 2D sonar. Based on the information obtained by the sonar, the ghost nets were later retrieved using a creeper (in cases where the ghost nets were lying on the sea bottom) or with the help of divers (in cases where the nets were sitting on the wrecks). The results have shown that, taking into consideration the research area of the Baltic Sea, the presented method will be satisfactory in most cases.
EN
Marine passenger ports are integrated into the transport systems of cities and regions today. If there are sufficient developed mathematical forecasting models in the class of polynomial models, probability series, and a number of others, then the models describing the influence of the external environment on ferry market are not sufficient. The developed scheme of interaction between the participants of the cruise market and the mathematical model of the port as a technical system is presented in this research. The article substantiates new purposes to use the logistic function to assess the external environment. A mathematical model and the derivation of the new basic equation of the logistic function for ferry market are given. Analytical data were collected on the ports and terminals of the Adriatic Sea and the Baltic Sea, and data were selected of ship calls at the passenger port St. Petersburg “Marine Facade” (2019-2020). The article proposes the consideration of new various proportionality factors that will determine the demand for cruise transportation modeling in the short-term forecasting interval. A complete mathematical model is given taking into account the real schedule of the sea passenger port. The logistic function proposed in the article allows us to solve the forecasting problem in a new way in relation to the selection and evaluation of a cruise product. Moreover, it allows us to solve a group of economic problems related to promotion problem for particular cruise product on the market, allows us to evaluate the activity of passengers when they are choosing a cruise product, and allows us to make adjustments to the planned port working schedules and to make timely adjustments. The main advantage of the proposed model is an analytical assessment of the effect of the external environment, both on passenger ports and on ferry and cruise companies.
EN
Technological innovations gives the opportunity to create so-called Smart Ports. However, determining which technologies to choose, how to implement them remains a challenge. The research problem presented in the article is: Is the constant introduction and implementation of the concept of intelligent ports an irreversible trend determining the direction of development of modern seaports? The aim of the article is also to analyze projects introduced in the ports of the North Sea and Baltic Sea which are successively implementing the concept of a Smart Port. The article uses the method of analysis - mainly current analysis and prospective analysis.
EN
The determination of the height in the vertical reference frame in force in Poland is based both on national regulations (Council of Ministers Regulation, 2012) and on the resolution adopted by the EUREF subcommittee in Tromsø (Resolution No. 5, EUREF Symposium, 2000). Currently, the PL-KRON86-NH vertical reference frame is in use in Poland – a normal height system referred to a quasi-geoid of the average level of the Baltic Sea determined by the zero level of the mareograph in Kronstadt. According to the Regulation, by the end of 2019, Poland will adopt the PL-EVRF2007-NH vertical reference frame, i.e. a normal height system referred to the zero level of the mareograph in Amsterdam. The authors present a method of determining normal heights of seabed referred to the zero level of the mareograph in Amsterdam for coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. This method uses GNSS measurements, the EGM 2008 model and depth measuring methods typical for underwater mining.
PL
Gospodarka niewykorzystanymi i przeterminowanymi lekami wymaga zrewidowania w całym regionie Morza Bałtyckiego. Zastosowanie różnych środków w celu zmniejszenia emisji do środowiska aktywnych składników farmaceutycznych (z ang. active pharmaceutical ingredients – APIs) oraz udoskonalenie procedur odbioru i przetwarzania zebranych farmaceutyków, uważane jest za łatwo osiągalny cel.
EN
The article aims to analyze the chances and challenges related to the military security of states surrounding the Baltic Sea. Notably, the problem of the protection of maritime traffic and other sea-related economic activities shall be described. Particular attention shall be given to possible scenarios of “hybrid warfare.” Based on possible threats characteristics, several aspects of changes in organizations and ways of employment of naval forces, border, and coast guard forces and special operations forces.
PL
Tematem artykułu jest analiza szans i wyzwań związanych z bezpieczeństwem militarnym państw otaczających Morze Bałtyckie. W szczególności opisano problem bezpieczeństwa transportu morskiego oraz innej działalności gospodarczej związanej z morzem. Szczególna uwaga została zwrócona na możliwe scenariusze „wojny hybrydowej” w tym regionie. W oparciu o możliwą charakterystykę zagrożeń istotnymi aspektami są postulowane zmiany w organizacji oraz sposobach wykorzystania sił morskich, formacji granicznych oraz wojsk specjalnych.
EN
The following paper covers the policy of the Russian Federation (RF) on maritime transport in the broader context of the strategic regulations on transport. On the one hand, the strategic regulations of the Russian Federation on the development of transport was brought closer. While on the other hand, the focus was on the maritime transport issues of the RF in the Baltic Basin and the implementation of the transport strategy between 2008-2019 in the context of the Russian maritime policy activities, with a particular focus on the Baltic Sea.
EN
The effectiveness of two artificial habitat collectors, crab condo (HC1) and habitat crate (HC2), providing a refuge for small mobile fauna, was tested along with two commercial baited traps, Chinese box trap (BT1) and Gee's Minnow trap (BT2) recommended for only single deployments under a harmonized survey of the Baltic and the North-East Atlantic. Our objective was also to determine whether a multi-deployment of baited traps in the growing season increases the diversity and abundance of collected mobile epifauna. Nineteen species of benthic mobile epifauna, including six non-indigenous species (NIS), were collected between May and October 2014 using all tested types of traps in the Port of Gdynia (southern Baltic Sea). Crustaceans, represented by 16 taxa, constituted the group with the highest diversity and abundance. Our study showed that HC1 and HC2 are more effective gear than BT1 and BT2, as both species richness (including NIS) and abundance were higher. Furthermore, the double deployment of BT1 and BT2 increased the diversity and abundance of the captured fauna. The use of artificial habitat collectors as an additional method to the already recommended baited traps for mobile epifauna monitoring in ports should be considered and the number of baited trap deployments should be increased during the growing season.
EN
Muscles and livers of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) found in the coastal area of the southern Baltic Sea were tested for the presence of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) isomers. They were detected in the muscles (ΣHBCD = 42.82 ± 30.65 ng g-1 l.w.) and livers (ΣHBCD = 65.51±27.96 ng g-1 l.w.) of all examined gulls. The α-HBCD isomer dominates in all types of samples. Our study has shown that bodies of gulls are less contaminated with HBCD than bodies of aquatic birds from other regions of the world. There was no clear correlation between HBCD concentrations and sex and age of birds. Nevertheless, it was indicated that the highest concentrations of HBCD and the α-HBCD isomer were found in the livers of immature females (mean = 89.31 ± 21.63 ng g-1 l.w. and mean = 76.72±24.54 ng g-1 l.w., respectively). The highest liver sequestration rates of the α-HBCD isomer were found in both adult and immature males (mean = 7.7 ± 13.7 and mean = 6.2 ± 11.9, respectively).
EN
The present study describes a finding of the demodecid mite Demodex phocidi in the seal Phoca vitulina in the Baltic Sea. This is the first identification in Europe and the second in the world. This is also the first observation of the Demodecidae family in the pinnipeds outside North America. A high density of demodecid mites was observed in the skin of the examined seal, but no symptoms of parasitosis were observed. Our findings also supplement the taxonomic description and morphometry of D. phocidi.
EN
The paper presents the results of the analysis of diatoms from surface sediments (stones, sands) and macroflora (seagrass, macroalgae) collected at 16 sampling sites located along the inner coastal zone of Puck Bay (southern Baltic Sea) along the Hel Peninsula. The main diatom species of epilithon, epipsammon and epiphyton were characterized with respect to their autecological preferences (habitat, salinity, trophic status, saprobity). Three groups of diatoms were distinguished with respect to the type of substrate based on the results of benthic flora analysis: diatoms (i) of one type of substrate, (ii) of two types and (iii) those occurring on all types of substrates. Moreover, the distribution of benthic diatom communities indicates ecological differences in the study area. Marine and brackish-water species were observed in large numbers in the coastal zone of the Outer Puck Bay, whereas freshwater flora occurred with a higher frequency in the coastal zone of the Puck Lagoon. The content of polysaprobionts and of α-mesosaprobionts indicates that the region of the Hel Tip is highly eutrophicated and very polluted. The coast in the vicinity of Kuznica is less polluted, whereas the best environmental conditions are found in the Jurata–Jastarnia region, as evidenced by the frequency of diatoms that are β-mesosaprobionts.
EN
In this study, we collected submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and seawater samples at six sites in the Bay of Puck, in the southern Baltic Sea, in order to estimate the nutrient distribution in groundwater affected areas. In addition, we estimated nutrient fluxes via SGD, including both fresh SGD (FSGD) and recirculated seawater SGD (RSGD), to the entire Bay of Puck. Phosphate (PO43−) concentrations varied significantly among study sites and seasons, while both ammonium (NH4+) and nitrates (NO3−) concentrations varied only seasonally. The N:P ratio indicated P limitation in most of the samples. The estimated seasonal and annual loads, via SGD, of both dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN; 9303 t yr−1) and PO43− (950 t yr−1), were the most significant source of nutrients to the Bay of Puck, and notably higher than quantified before (FSGD nutrient loads of 50 t yr−1 and 56 t yr−1 for DIN and PO43−, respectively). The SGD fluxes reported here indicate some of the highest rates of sediment-water fluxes reported in the Baltic Sea. These results suggest that SGD (both FSGD and RSGD) should be considered as source of chemical substances to the marine environment.
EN
This study presents the preliminary results of combining underwater acoustic ambient noise measurements with those of in-situ sea spray fluxes (SSF). Hydroacoustic measurements (in the frequency range 80 Hz-12.5 kHz) were made using an underwater noise recording system developed at the Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences which was then deployed in the southern Baltic Sea. The simultaneous measurements of coarse sea spray fluxes (with particle diameters ranging from 0.5 to 47 µm) were made on board the r/v Oceania using the gradient method. Observations were conducted for the duration of the passage of an atmospheric front that lasted 2.5 days (60 hours of measurements). There were significant differences in the sound pressure level (SPL) and aerosol fluxes observed between the first part of measurements (developing wave state) and the second part (developed waves). Wave parameters, such as peak period, significant wave height, wave age, and mean wave slope acquired from the WAM (WAve Model), were used to investigate the impact of wave field properties on noise and aerosol flux measurements. We observed different behaviours in the power spectrum density (PSD) levels of noise for these parameters depending on the wave state development.
15
Content available remote Argo floats in the southern Baltic Sea
EN
This work aims to familiarize the reader with issues related to modern oceanographic measurement techniques performed by Argo autonomous profiling floats. The opportunity for this is the three years of innovative activity on the part of Argo-Poland in the Baltic Sea. Based on the experience and results acquired by the Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IO PAN), we can say that a revolution in the Baltic Sea monitoring is underway. During three years of activity, the floats launched by IO PAN provided more than 1600 CTD profiles, including 600 O2 profiles. Together with synoptic data from ships, data from moorings and surface buoys, the Argo float measurements are an important part of the southern Baltic monitoring system. Two Argo floats launched by IO PAN collected enough data to determine the dynamics of the oxygen content in various layers, the extent of hypoxic and anoxic zones, and to detect small baroclinic inflows to the Gotland and Gdańsk Deeps.
EN
People responsible for crisis management, especially in coastal voivodships (Pomeranian, West Pomeranian and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship) must be aware and prepared to take effective action in the event of emergencies in maritime waters. The geographical, hydro meteorological conditions and geographical conditions of the Baltic Sea of the Baltic Sea and the increasing intensity of Baltic shipping, and in particular the increase in oil transport, mean that the likelihood of maritime accidents that can generate crises in sea areas increases significantly. There are about 2000 ships in the Baltic marine area at any given moment and about 3500 - 5500 ships navigate through the Baltic Sea per month. Approximately 20% of the ships in the Baltic Sea are tankers. Despite different uncertainties some trends in the Baltic shipping can be expected. For example ship traffic is likely to increase yearly and it is expected that vessel size will increase because the maritime transport must be more efficient and cost-saving. Such trends create serious threats for Baltic States. The maritime administrations of the Baltic States and international maritime organizations undertake a number of actions to increase maritime safety in the Baltic Sea. The publication characterizes Baltic shipping and analyzes the scale of threats generated by maritime accidents, as well as ways of responding and minimizing the probability of emergencies in the Baltic Sea. Activities including: legislative and organizational activity were also characterized; practical use of modern technology both on vessels and in land navigation monitoring systems; marine traffic engineering and shipbuilding, which aim is to minimize the likelihood of maritime accidents in the Baltic Sea and analyses of Baltic states capacity to oil spill response. In addition, the publication proposes a definition of a crisis situation in relation to sea areas and presents when a maritime accident or incident can generate a crisis situation in sea areas. The result of the research process is proposals for actions that, in the author's opinion, should be taken to reduce the number of maritime accidents in the Baltic Sea.
EN
Although SOLAS still requires nautical paper charts on pleasure crafts, more and more sailors prefer navigating digitally. What are the impacts on their spatial abilities? We conducted a field experiment at the Baltic coast and two simulator experiments with altogether 40 sailors. Participants plotted and/or piloted routes either in the classic manner on paper charts or digitally on an ECS. We assessed the situation awareness, the cognitive map, and (for the simulator only) the wayfinding with and without the navigation media. We found that digital navigation significantly impaired the cognitive map. Its impact on situation awareness, however, depended on previous navigation habits: Only sailors who used their paper charts regularly and actively benefitted from the ECS. We concluded that ECS navigation with its high level of automation lastingly alters spatial perception at sea and impairs orienting. With the vulnerable electricity supply on sailboats, this is a safety issue for shipping.
PL
Wybuch II wojny światowej pokazał od 1 IX 1939 r. niebywale ważną rolę lotnictwa. W pierwszym dniu działań wojennych jednak nad polskim Bałtykiem operowały nie tylko jednostki Luftwaffe lecz również jednostki niemieckiego lotnictwa morskiego dając się poważnie we znaki obrońcom Wybrzeża. Artykuł ten prezentuje działania tych właśnie jednostek w świetle nieznanych dotąd archiwaliów.
EN
The outbreak of the Second World War showed from 1 September 1939 an extremely important role of aviation. On the first day of military operations, however, not only the Luftwaffe units operated on the Baltic Sea, but also units of the German naval aviation, giving seriously to the defenders of the Coast. This article presents the activities of these individuals in the light of previously unknown archives.
EN
The purpose of this study is to reconstruct the temperature conditions in the sediment during the diagenesis history of Pennsylvanian sandstones drilled in three deep boreholes in the Baltic Sea. These sandstones are represented by quartz and sublithic arenites and wackes, cemented by matrix and autigenic minerals. Among the autigenic minerals: quartz, clay minerals (kaolinite, dickite, illite) and carbonates (calcite, dolomite, ankerite) are the temperature indicators. The presence of dickite in the sediments indicates a temperature of about 120°C. Quartz and carbonate crystallization temperatures, based on the analysis of fluid inclusions, are estimated to be in the range of 70-180°C. The K/Ar age of the fibrous illite thatforms at the final stage of diagenesis (above 100° C), was determined at 262 ±2 to 247 ±4 My, i.e. from the Middle Permian to the Early Triassic. It determines a length of the post-deposition period, when the deposits were permeable for pore fluids.
EN
The ever-increasing risk of terrorist attacks is a stimulus for seeking new, more effective danger detection methods. The article describes new methods of detecting hazardous materials based on the interaction between neutrons and matter. The status of the design of the device for detecting hazardous materials in water environments based on these methods, currently in development at the Jagiellonian University (Kraków, Poland), will be presented as well.
PL
Wciąż rosnące ryzyko ataków terrorystycznych skłania do poszukiwania nowych, efektywniejszych metod wykrywania zagrożeń. W artykule opisane zostaną nowe metody wykrywania materiałów niebezpiecznych, których podstawę stanowi oddziaływanie neutronów z materią. Przedstawiony zostanie również status projektu urządzenia do wykrywania materiałów niebezpiecznych w środowisku wodnym opartego na tych metodach, które jest rozwijane na Uniwersytecie Jagiellońskim.
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