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1
Content available Bearing capacity of E-shaped footing on layered sand
EN
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to estimate the ultimate bearing capacity of the E-shaped footing resting on two layered sand using finite element method. The solution was implemented using ABACUS software. Design/methodology/approach: The numerical study of the ultimate bearing capacity of the E-shaped footing resting on layered sand and subjected to vertical load was carried out using finite element analysis. The layered sand was having an upper layer of loose sand of thickness H and lower layer was considered as dense sand of infinite depth. The various parameters varied were the friction angle of the upper (30° to 34°) and lower (42° to 46°) layer of sand as well as the thickness (0.5B, 2B and 4B) of the upper sand layer. Findings: The results reveal that the dimensionless ultimate bearing capacity was found to decrease with the increased in the H/B ratio for all combinations of parameters. The dimensionless ultimate bearing capacity was maximum for the upper loose sand friction angle of 34° and lower dense sand friction angle of 46°. The results further reveal that the dimensionless bearing capacity of the E-shaped footing was higher in comparison to the dimensionless bearing capacity of the square footing on layered sand (loose over dense). The improvement in the ultimate bearing capacity for the E-shaped footing was observed in the range of 109.35% to 152.24%, 0.44% to 7.63% and 0.63% to 18.97% corresponding to H/B ratio of 0.5, 2 and 4 respectively. The lowest percentage improvement in the dimensionless bearing capacity for the E-shaped footing on layered sand was 0.44 % at a H/B = 2 whereas the highest improvement was 152.24 % at a H/B = 0.5. Change of footing shape from square to E-shaped, the failure mechanism changes from general shear to local shear failure. Research limitations/implications: The results presented in this paper were based on the numerical study conducted on E-shaped footing made out of a square footing of size 1.5 m x 1.5 m. However, further validation of the results presented in this paper, is recommended using experimental study conducted on similar size E-shaped footing. Practical implications: The proposed numerical study can be useful for the architects designing similar types of super structures requiring similar shaped footings. Originality/value: No numerical study on E-shaped footing resting on layered sand (loose over dense) were conducted so far. Hence, an attempt was made in this article to estimate the bearing capacity of these footings.
EN
This paper is focusing on 3D Finite Elements Analysis (FEA) based modelling of protrusions as defects or imperfections in the XLPE high voltage cable. This study is aiming to examine the impact protrusions have on the initiation of partial discharges. Spherical and ellipsoidal protrusions with different sizes at the conductor screen of the high voltage cable is an essential content of this paper. In addition, a spherical gas-filled void is placed inside and outside the protrusions, and a water tree produced from protrusions is under consideration. The partial discharge influence taking place at the protrusions and the stress enhancement factor is determined for all the variations mentioned to quantify the rise in the inception of partial discharges due to the protrusions.
EN
The article deals with the stress-strain state of the cutters used in the mills of a new design for the restoration of the working surfaces of locomotive wheels. A comparative analysis of stresses in the cutters was carried out using the finite element method, which showed a significant advantage of the new technical solution, the novelty of which is confirmed by the patent.
EN
The axial crushing behaviour of tubes of different section shapes has been extensively investigated as they have an excellent energy absorption, but the thin walled corrugated tube structures have been designed to further improve their energy absorption performance. The study aims to analyze the effect of sinusoidal corrugations along cross section of the tube on peak force, energy absorption and specific energy absorption. In the present work the response surface methodology (RSM) using central composite design (CCD) has been used and simulation work is performed by using ANSYS workbench to explore the effects of geometrical parameters on the responses of constructing models.
EN
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the ultimate bearing capacity of the rectangular footing resting over layered sand using finite element method. Design/methodology/approach: Finite element analysis was used to investigate the dimensionless ultimate bearing capacity of the rectangular footing resting on a limited thickness of upper dense sand layer overlying limitless thickness of lower loose sand layer. The friction angle of the upper dense sand layer was varied from 41° to 46° whereas for the lower loose sand layer it was varied from 31° to 36°. Findings: The results reveal that the dimensionless ultimate bearing capacity was found to increase up to an H/W ratio of about 1.75 beyond which the increase was marginal. The results further reveal that the dimensionless ultimate bearing capacity was the maximum for the upper dense and lower loose sand friction angles of 46° and 36°, while it was the lowest for the upper dense and lower loose sands corresponding to the friction angle of 41° and 31°. For H/W = 0.5 and 2, the dimensionless bearing capacity decreases with the increase in the L/W ratio from 0.5 to 6 beyond which the dimensionless ultimate bearing capacity remains constant for all combinations of parameters. The results were presented in nondimensional manner and compared with the previous studies available in literature. Research limitations/implications: The analysis is performed using a ABAQUS 2017 software. The limitation of this study is that only finite element analysis is performed without conducting any experiments in the laboratory. Further the study is conducted only for the vertical loading. Practical implications: This proposed numerical study can be used to predict the ultimate bearing capacity of the rectangular footing resting on layered sand. Originality/value: The present study gives idea about the ultimate bearing capacity of rectangular footing when placed on layered sand (dense sand over loose sand) as well as the effect of thickness of top dense sand layer on the ultimate bearing capacity. The findings could be used to calculate the ultimate bearing capacity of the rectangular footing on layered sand.
EN
In the present research, a physical-geometric-feature of continuous yarn in a plain woven fabric was created and its FE model was analysed by considering the two key issues of woven fabric, the crimp and inter-yarn friction. The basic parameters of Young’s modulus of single yarn and the inter-yarn friction coefficient were investigated for practical fabrics in tensile and pull-out tests. FE analysis indicated that the stress-strain curves of the FE model were effective in evaluating the equivalent modulus of a woven fabric by comparing with a tensile experiment on Twaron CT® Plain Woven Fabric. In addition, a simplified three dimensional model of the unit cell of plain woven fabric (UCPW) was employed to quantitively investigate two important fabric characteristics – the crimp rate of the yarn and inter-yarn friction-to determine their influence on the mechanical properties of the fabrics. Furthermore, we used FE analysis to evaluate how the crimp rate and inter-yarn friction affected the mechanical properties by determining the equivalent modulus of single yarn and UCPW in both uniaxial and biaxial tensile loading. The stresses at representative nodal points and the mechanical interaction between yarns were also investigated from a microscopic perspective, and their deformation mechanisms were also analysed and discussed.
PL
W pracy stworzono fizyczno-geometryczną cechę przędzy ciągłej w gładkiej tkaninie i przeanalizowano jej model FE, biorąc pod uwagę dwa kluczowe zagadnienia tkaniny: karbikowatość i tarcie między przędzami. Zbadano podstawowe parametry: moduł Younga przędzy pojedynczej oraz współczynnik tarcia między przędzami. Analiza FE wykazała, że krzywe naprężenie-odkształcenie modelu FE były przydatne w ocenie tkaniny przez porównanie z eksperymentem rozciągania tkaniny Twaron CT® Plain Woven. Ponadto zastosowano uproszczony trójwymiarowy model komórki elementarnej z gładkiej tkaniny (UCPW) do ilościowego zbadania dwóch ważnych cech tkaniny: szybkości fałdowania przędzy i tarcia między przędzami – w celu określenia ich wpływu na właściwości mechaniczne tkaniny. Ponadto wykorzystano analizę FE, aby ocenić, w jaki sposób szybkość fałdowania i tarcie między przędzami wpłynęły na właściwości mechaniczne. Dokonano tego poprzez określenie równoważnego modułu pojedynczej przędzy i UCPW zarówno przy jednoosiowym, jak i dwuosiowym obciążeniu rozciągającym. Naprężenia w reprezentatywnych punktach węzłowych i mechaniczne interakcje między przędzami zbadano również z perspektywy mikroskopowej, a także przeanalizowano i omówiono ich mechanizmy deformacji.
7
Content available remote Deflection of an eccentric crack under mixed-mode conditions in an SCB specimen
EN
Crack propagation under mixed-mode (I + II) conditions has been investigated in a semicircular disc where various levels of mixed-mode can be achieved by means of different geometry configurations. The research has been performed on a novel cementitious material, alkali-activated concrete. Its main advantage is that it is environment-friendly. On the other hand, its fracture mechanical properties, as of yet, have not been described sufficiently. Therefore, a fracture analysis has been performed. The crack deflection under three point bending conditions has been investigated numerically as well as experimentally. The numerical approach is based on a combination of the common finite element analysis and a multi-parameter form of the maximum tangential stress criterion. This generalized method is suitable especially for materials with specific (elasto-plastic, quasi-brittle etc.) fracture behaviour. The over-deterministic method together with the Williams expansion is applied to approximate selected stress tensor components around the crack tip. In this work, the influence of the eccentric crack is also discussed. In the conclusions, several recommendations about using single-parameter/multi-parameter fracture mechanics are stated.
EN
Bone is a nonlinear, inhomogeneous and anisotropic material. To predict the behavior of bones expert systems are employed to reduce the computational cost and to enhance the accuracy of simulations. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) was used for the prediction of displacement in long bones followed by ex-vivo experiments. Three hydrated third metacarpal bones (MC3) from 3 thoroughbred horses were used in the experiments. A set of strain gauges were distributed around the midshaft of the bones. These bones were then loaded in compression in an MTS machine. The recordings of strains, load, load exposure time, and displacement were used as ANN input parameters. The ANN which was trained using 3,250 experimental data points from two bones predicted the displace-ment of the third bone (R2 ≥ 0.98). It was suggested that the ANN should be trained using noisy data points. The proposed modification in the training algorithm makes the ANN very robust against noisy inputs measurements. The performance of the ANN was evaluated in response to changes in the number of input data points and then by assuming a lack of strain data. A finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted to replicate one cycle of force-displace-ment experimental data (to gain the same accuracy produced by the ANN). The comparison of FEA and ANN displacement predictions indicates that the ANN produced a satisfactory outcome within a couple of seconds, while FEA required more than 160 times as long to solve the same model (CPU time: 5 h and 30 min).
EN
Different stabilization devices have been used for treating lumbar spine disorders, including fusion, dynamic stabilization devices, flexible rods etc., which possess a different level of limitations. A simple experimental procedure is developed using a prototype lumbar spine specimen (L1-S), to evaluate the biomechanical performance of the lumbar spine. The range of motions (ROM) are tested for pedicle screw made of stainless steel (SS) fixation, using Teflon rod, ultra high molecular weight poly ethylene (UHMWPE) rod, poly ether ether ketone (PEEK) rod and SS flexible rod device (FRD). SS pedicle screw is used for fixation on the prototype lumbar spine. Experimental results are validated and compared with finite element (FE) results. It is observed that, in both flexion and extension, reduction in ROM is higher for Teflon and UHMWPE as compared to PEEK and FRD system. Differences between experimental and numerical results are found to be within an acceptable limit of 5–11%. For flexibility study, both numerical and experimental results support that PEEK rod plays an effective and important role among all the semi-rigid rods. The FRD devices are found to preserve the flexibility of the segment considerably better than PEEK rod.
EN
In this paper we aim to improve the understanding of the relationship between unilateral-uniplanar external fixator design parameters and their influences on fixator performance. Stability and strength of bone-fixator construct as well as the quality of healing were defined as our major concerns in order to evaluate the performance of fixator. The roles of six key design parameters were assessed during the early stage of healing by using finite element models. Tissue differentiation within the callus was predicted through the implementation of a mechanoregulation theory of bone healing. Taguchi and ANOVA methods were used to achieve optimal design sets for outputs and to determine contribution percentage of each design parameter on outputs. For improving overall fixator performance, optimal set of design parameters consisting of 2 mm, 8 mm, 120 mm, 20 GPa, 50 mm and 20 mm were determined by Taguchi for pin diameter, rod diameter, rod elevation, fixator Young's modulus, distance of the nearest pin to fracture site and distance between adjacent pins, respectively. Also, results of ANOVA revealed that rod elevation is the most important design parameter, with 43 % effectiveness on overall fixator performance, which was followed by fixator material and pin diameter with 28 % and 19 %, respectively. Results of this study can assist orthopedic surgeons to achieve an optimal fixator device with respect to the patient's condition and give insight into the importance of different design parameters.
EN
To find the relationships between internal fixation parameters and biomechanical indexes with least number of runs, a regression orthogonal approach is proposed to establish surrogate models of different biomechanical indexes. Firstly, a simplified model of transverse femoral shaft fracture is built, and varieties of geometric sizes for plates and screws configurations are combined based on orthogonal array. Next, the biomechanical indexes of different combinations are calculated through finite element analysis (FEA). Furthermore, surrogate models are developed with the aid of regression orthogonal analysis. Finally, with comparison of biomechanical indexes obtained from the surrogate models and FEA results, highly coincident results validate the surrogate models. The number of combinations is greatly reduced compared with that arranged by comprehensive regression analysis. The surrogate models show acceptable results for predicating biomechanical indexes, whose relative deviation is less than 9%. Moreover, the results obtained by the surrogate models suggest that working length and thickness of the plate are the significant parameters on the maximum plate stress and maximum intra-fragmentary movement respectively, which complies with previous studies. The regression orthogonal method presented in this study can greatly reduce the number of experimental runs for investigating the biomechanics of internal fixation for femoral shaft fracture. The method can also be applied to other scenarios of fractures or even the other biomedical fields to provide a comprehensive insight into biomedical relationships with least number of trials.
EN
Three-dimensional angle-interlock woven composites (3DAWCs) are widely used for their excellent mechanical properties. The most significant feature is the existence of the undulated warp yarns along the thickness direction, which makes it interesting to study the mechanical properties in the warp direction. The quasi-static tensile behavior of a layer-to-layer 3DAWC along the undulated warp direction was studied by experimental and finite element analysis (FEA) methods. Based on the experimental results, the typical failure mode involving fibers, resin, and their interfaces was found. According to the FEA results, the stress concentration effect, key structural regions, and microstructural (yarn and resin) damage mechanism were obtained, which provided effective guidance for structural optimization design of the 3DAWC with stronger tensile resistance performance. In addition, the three-step progressive failure process of the 3DAWC under quasi-static tensile load was also described at the “yarn–resin” microstructural level.
EN
Purpose: The present work aims to investigate the influence of CO2 laser spot welding (LSW) parameters on welding profile and mechanical properties of lap joint of AISI 321 thin sheet metals, and analyze the welding profile numerically by finite element (FE) method. Design/methodology/approach: The weld carried out using 150 W CO2 continues wave laser system. The impact of exposure time and laser power on the welding profile was investigated using an optical microscope. Microhardness and tensile strength tests were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the joint. Ansys software was utilized to simulate the welding profile numerically. Findings: The results revealed that 2 s exposure time and 50 W power have led to uniform welding profile and highest shear force (340 N), lower hardness gradient across the heat affected zone (HAZ) and fusion zone (FZ). Finite element (FE) analysis of the welding profile showed good agreement with experimental analysis. Research limitations/implications: The selection of laser spot welding parameters for thin sheet metal was critical due to the probability of metal vaporisation with extra heat input during welding. Practical implications: Laser welding of AISI 321 steel is used in multiple industrial sectors such as power plants, petroleum refinement stations, pharmaceutical industry, and households. Thus, selecting the best welding parameters ensures high-quality joint. Originality/value: The use of CO2 laser in continuous wave (CW) mode instead of pulse mode for spot welding of thin sheet metal of AISI 321 austenitic stainless steel consider a real challenge because of the difficulty of control the heat input via proper selection of the welding parameters in order to not burn the processed target. Besides, the maintenance is easier and operation cost is lower in continuous CO2 than pulse mode.
EN
The current report is devoted to the flexural analysis of a composite structural insulated panel (CSIP) with magnesium oxide board facings and expanded polystyrene (EPS) core, that was recently introduced to the building industry. An advanced nonlinear FE model was created in the ABAQUS environment, able to simulate the CSIP’s flexural behavior in great detail. An original custom code procedure was developed, which allowed to include material bimodularity to significantly improve the accuracy of computational results and failure mode predictions. Material model parameters describing the nonlinear range were identified in a joint analysis of laboratory tests and their numerical simulations performed on CSIP beams of three different lengths subjected to three- and four-point bending. The model was validated by confronting computational results with experimental results for natural scale panels; a good correlation between the two results proved that the proposed model could effectively support the CSIP design process.
15
Content available remote Noise and vibration analysis of a distribution transformer
EN
Transformer noise is a significant contribution to unwanted ambient noise, especially in the vicinity of the electrical transmission facility. It is therefore very important to get to know the mechanism of noise generation of the distribution transformer. As outcomes of this work, a finite element based multiphysics model is presented which provides a convenient and efficient toolchain for simulating the transformer sound emission mechanism. Finally, the operation of modelling chain is presented on a 200kVA distribution transformer simulation.
PL
Hałas transformatora ma znaczący wpływ na niepożądany hałas otoczenia, zwłaszcza w pobliżu instalacji przesyłowej prądu elektrycznego. Z tego powodu ważnym jest poznanie mechanizmu generowania szumu transformatora rozdzielczego. Jako wynik tej pracy przedstawiono model transformatora rozdzielczego 200 kVA oparty na analizie elementów skończonych, który zapewnia wygodny i wydajny zestaw narzędzi do symulacji mechanizmu emisji dźwięku z analizowanego urządzenia.
EN
Purpose: Modelling of biomechanical behaviour of heart valve materials aids improvement of biofunctional feature. The aim of the work was assessment of influence of material thickness of leaflets of artificial aortic valve on displacements and stresses during opening phase using finite element analysis (FEA). Design/methodology/approach: The model of aortic valve was developed on the basis of average anatomical valve shapes and dimensions. Nonlinear dynamic large displacements analysis with assumption of isotropic linear elastic material behaviour was used in simulation (Solidworks). The modulus of elasticity of 5.0 MPa was assumed and Poisson ratio set to 0.45. The rigidly supported leaflets was loaded by pressure increasing in the range 0-55 mmHg in time 0.1 s. Leaflets with material thickness 0.13 and 0.15 and 0.17 mm were analysed. The thickness was simulated with shell finite elements. Findings: The highest stresses were observed in the areas of fixation of the leaflets near the scaffold and were lower than dangerous value of fatigue of polyurethanes. Increasing the thickness of valve leaflet material in the range of 40 micrometres resulted in reduction of the valve outlet by almost 10 percent. Research limitations/implications: The FEA was limited to the isotropic linear-elastic behaviour of the material albeit can be used to assess leaflet deformation during dynamic load. Practical implications: Leaflets design may be start from efficient FEA which helps estimation of material impact on stress and fold formation which can affect local blood flow. Originality/value: Aortic heart valve leaflet material can be initially tested in dynamic conditions during opening phase with using FEA.
EN
Purpose: The aim of the study was to determine forces which are transferred to supporting teeth during the treatment with the midpalatal device with Hyrax screw and to evaluate orthodontic and orthopaedic effects based on displacement analysis. Design/methodology/approach: The finite element method (FEM) was used to simulation the midpalatal expansion forces activated by the screw pre-loaded during a turn of 180° which corresponds to daily recommended value. Distribution of expansion forces of Hyrax device was calculated as reaction forces on elastic supports with stiffness corresponding to the teeth working on periodontal ligament in alveolar bone. Findings: On the basis of the displacement analysis was observed the movement of supporting teeth by a value higher than 0.1 mm which corresponds to the recommended daily value. The midpalatal suture splitting forces were determined on the first premolars with a value of 32.8 N and on the first premolars of 44.2 N. Research limitations/implications: The studies did not take into account the shape of palate other craniofacial bones and their stiffness. Practical implications: Adjusting the stiffness of the device to degree of ossification midpalatal suture and teeth mobility. Searching for new solutions which eliminate the negative phenomenon of tilting teeth during the expansion of maxilla and recommending a surgically assisted techniques. Originality/value: The simulation confirmed that treatment with Hyrax screw gives a uniform expansion with values of forces corresponded to stiffness of premolar and molar teeth. The studies have indicated a possibility of tendency to tilting the supporting teeth what is a negative phenomenon.
EN
Titanium alloys, due to their exceptional mechanical properties and biocompatibility, are commonly used to produce medical implants nowadays. However, the presence of such elements as aluminium and vanadium can be harmful to human health. One of the possible solutions could be replacing the titanium alloys with ultrafine-grained commercially pure titanium (cpTi). The yield and also the ultimate strength of cpTi can exceed 1000 MPa. One of the most promising methods in manufacturing medical implants with improved biological fixation is laser cladding in which bioactive glass coatings are imposed on metallic substrates. The aim of this work is development of a 3D numerical model of the above mentioned additive manufacturing process. The obtained model is able to predict the stress-strain and temperature distributions during the processing. A sequentially coupled finite element (FE) model of laser cladding has been developed by applying element birth and death technique to calculate the transient temperature fields used in the stress analysis. The concentrated volumetric heat source from the laser beam moving along the metal surface has been represented by the Gaussian distribution in the radial and exponential decay in the depth direction. The developed FE based numerical model is capable to support the optimal design of such advanced multi-layered structural materials using the laser cladding technique.
PL
Stopy tytanu są obecnie powszechnie stosowane do produkcji implantów medycznych ze względu na wyjątkowe własności mechaniczne i biokompatybilność. Jednakże obecność takich pierwiastków jak aluminium i wanad może być szkodliwa dla zdrowia ludzkiego. Jednym z możliwych rozwiązań tego problemu może być zastąpienie stopów tytanu ultradrobnoziarnistym komercyjnie czystym tytanem (cpTi), którego granica plastyczności i wytrzymałość na rozciąganie cpTi może przekraczać nawet 1000 MPa. Jedną z najbardziej obiecujących metod produkcji implantów medycznych jest napawanie laserowe, w którym powłoki szkła bioaktywnego są nakładane na podłoża metaliczne. Celem pracy było opracowanie modelu numerycznego 3D w/w procesu wytwarzania przyrostowego. Otrzymany model jest w stanie przewidywać rozkłady naprężeń, odkształceń i temperatur występujących w trakcie procesu. Opracowano model sekwencyjny napawania laserowego wykorzystując metodę elementów skończonych (MES) i technikę dezaktywacji i aktywacji elementów skończonych, co pozwoliło obliczyć przejściowe pola temperatury, które wykorzystano następnie do analizy naprężeń. Skoncentrowane objętościowe źródło ciepła wiązki laserowej przemieszczającej się wzdłuż powierzchni metalu było opisane za pomocą rozkładu Gaussa. Opracowany model numeryczny może wspomóc projektowanie i wytwarzanie zaawansowanych wielowarstwowych materiałów z wykorzystaniem techniki napawania laserowego.
EN
An ancient forging device in Spain has been studied, namely the forge with a waterwheel and air-blowing tube or hydraulic trompe, found near the village of Santa Eulalia de Oscos (province of Asturias, Spain). Three procedures using ad hoc methods were applied: 3D modelling, finite element analysis (FEA), and computational-fluid dynamics (CFD). The CFD results indicated the proper functioning of the trompe, which is a peculiar device based on the Venturi effect to take in air. The maximum air volume flow rate supplied to the forge by the trompe was shown to be 0.091 m3/s, and certain parameters of relevance in the trompe design presented optimal values, i.e. offering maximum air-flow supply. Furthermore, the distribution of stress over the motion-transmission system revealed that the stress was concentrated most intensely in the cogs of the transmission shaft (a kind of camshaft), registering values of up to 7.50 MPa, although this value remained below half of the maximum admissible work stress. Therefore, it was confirmed that the oak wood from which the motion system and the trompe were made functioned properly, as these systems never exceeded the maximum admissible working stress, demonstrating the effectiveness of the materials used in that period.
EN
Anisotropic rotor configurations influenced by the presence of a large number of geometrical parameters in a permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance (PMASR) motor pose design challenges in obtaining a robust geometry satisfying the requirements of reduced torque ripple and high torque density. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to perform detailed geometrical sensitivity analysis of a 36 slot/4 pole permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance (PMASR) motor using h-indexing and level sensitivity analysis in order to specify a guideline for designers to prioritize the design variables for optimization. Systematic multi-level design optimization for multiple objectives is implemented by an NSGA-II algorithm aided by the finite element analysis tool, hardware prototyping and experimental validation. The optimized designs also exhibit better structural and thermal characteristics.
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