Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników

Znaleziono wyników: 5

Liczba wyników na stronie
first rewind previous Strona / 1 next fast forward last
Wyniki wyszukiwania
Wyszukiwano:
w słowach kluczowych:  lever
help Sortuj według:

help Ogranicz wyniki do:
first rewind previous Strona / 1 next fast forward last
EN
At present, the speed of production and its complexity increases with each passing year due to the shorter product life cycle and competition in the global market. This trend is also observed in the machine-building industry, therefore, in order to ensure the competitiveness of enterprises and reduce the cost of production, it is necessary to intensify production. This is especially true in the machining of complex parts that require a great number of setups, and technological equipment. The problem-oriented analysis of complex parts was carried out, the parts classification was structured and developed according to the design and technological features. This made it possible to offer advanced manufacturing processes for complex parts like levers, forks, and connecting rods. The flexible fixtures for specified complex parts were developed. The effectiveness of the proposed manufacturing processes, as compared with the typical ones, provides significant improvement in the production.
EN
The aim of this study was to compare the activity of upper limb muscles during hand rim wheelchair propulsion and lever wheelchair propulsion at two different velocity levels. Methods: Twenty male volunteers with physical impairments participated in this study. Their task was to push a lever wheelchair and a hand rim wheelchair on a mechanical wheelchair treadmill for 4 minutes at a speed of 3.5 km/h and 4.5 km/h in a flat race setting (conditions of moving over flat terrain). During these trials, activity of eight muscles of upper limbs were examined using surface electromyography. Results: The range of motion in the elbow joint was significantly higher in lever wheelchair propulsion (59.8 ± 2.43°) than in hand rim wheelchair propulsion (43.9 ± 0.26°). Such values of kinematics resulted in a different activity of muscles. All the muscles were more active during lever wheelchair propulsion at both velocity levels. The only exceptions were extensor and flexor carpi muscles which were more active during hand rim wheelchair propulsion due to the specificity of a grip. In turn, the examined change in the velocity (by 1 km/h) while moving over flat terrain also caused a different EMG timing of muscle activation depending on the type of propulsion. Conclusions: Lever wheelchair propulsion seems to be a good alternative to hand rim wheelchair propulsion owing to a different movement technique and a different EMG timing of muscle activity. Therefore, we believe that lever wheelchair propulsion should serve as supplement to traditional propulsion.
3
Content available Intact stability of a bulk carrier
EN
Due to the accelerating demand for transporting raw materials around the world over the last century, bulk carriers are being constantly developed in order to maximise their capacity and efficiency whilst maintaining safety and durability of the vessels. With regards to safety, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) recurrently issue regulations and technical standards for the design and construction of ships, in order to safeguard the crew and other people on board. In light of these regulations, three issues concerning the properties of a bulk carrier are investigated. Firstly, the floodability of a bulk carrier is researched, to determine the largest possible volumes of compartments which can be flooded without causing the bulk carrier to capsize. Results were determined both manually and by means of marine design software, Maxsurf Enterprise; results generated by the two methods are compared. Additionally, a series of loadcases, each consisting of a different cargo and ballast configuration, are sought to reveal their effect on both the still water bending moment and the intact stability of the vessel. The results are analysed in relation to the IMO’s criteria.
PL
Kucie matrycowe jest jedną z najstarszych metod obróbki plastycznej odkuwek. Technologia ta jest jednym z podstawowych sposobów kształtowania części maszyn i jest wykorzystywana w niemal każdej gałęzi przemysłu maszynowego, lotniczego, zbrojeniowego, motoryzacyjnego, rolniczego czy budowlanego. Z odkuwek wykonuje się najbardziej odpowiedzialne części maszyn. Jest to spowodowane licznymi zaletami tego procesu, do których należą: wysoka dokładność, możliwość odkuwania przedmiotów o skomplikowanych kształtach czy możliwość stosowania mniejszych naddatków technologicznych. W produkcji światowej najwięcej wytwarza się odkuwek stalowych, jednakże wzrasta ilość odkuwek wykonywanych ze stopów metali nieżelaznych, takich jak stopy magnezu, tytanu i aluminium. W artykule przedstawiono analizę teoretyczną oraz numeryczną procesu kucia matrycowego na przykładzie kształtowania odkuwki dźwigni. W pierwszej części opisano proces kucia matrycowego oraz przykłady jego szerokiego zastosowania w przemyśle. W kolejnej wykonano rysunki wsadu, matryc dolnej i górnej oraz odkuwki, wykorzystując oprogramowanie Solid Egde. Do wykonania elementu odkuwanego użyto łatwej w obróbce stali niestopowej jakościowej C45. Obliczenia przeprowadzono w oparciu o metodę elementów skończonych (MES), przy użyciu oprogramowania DEFORM 3D. Zastosowano siłę nacisku prasy wynoszącą 10000 kN oraz współczynnik tarcia równy 0,1. Następnie zaprezentowano wyniki symulacji przeprowadzonej w warunkach przestrzennego stanu odkształcenia, które umożliwiły wyznaczenie rozkładów intensywności odkształceń, naprężeń, temperatury oraz zniszczeń. Na ich podstawie stwierdzono poprawny dobór parametrów geometrycznych modelu oraz właściwy przebieg procesu, w którym nie zaobserwowano żadnych niewłaściwych deformacji lub pęknięć materiału.
EN
Die forging is one of the oldest methods of forming forgings. This technology is one of the basic ways of shaping machine parts and is used in almost every branch of mechanical engineering, aerospace, defense, automotive and construction industries. The most responsible parts of machines are made from forgings. It is caused by many advantages of this process, which include: high accuracy, ability to forge objects with complex shapes and the possibility of using fewer technological allowances. Steel forgings are the most popular produced elements in the world production, but the number of forgings made from non-ferrous alloys such as magnesium, titanium and aluminum alloys increase. In this paper, theoretical and numerical analysis of die forging was presented on example of forming of lever forging. In first part die forging procces and examples of their wide use in industry was described. In the next part drawings of the charge, the upper and lower dies and forgings were made, using Solid Edge . Material used to make forging element was carbon quality steel C45. Calculations were based on the finite element method (FEM) using DEFORM 3D. Press force of 10,000 kN and the coefficient of friction equal 0.1 were applied. Then, results of simulations, made in conditions of three dimensional state of strain were presented, allowed for determining distributions of strain intensity, stress, temperature and damage. On the basis of them, it was found that selection of parameters and course of process was appropriate, which influenced by many factors, including the selection of the respective radii of rounding the forging, which prevented the appearance of cracks in the first steps of the process.
first rewind previous Strona / 1 next fast forward last
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.