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EN
A significant development of the foundry industry contributes to the creation of high reliability and operational strength castings so that they meet specific standards in accordance with customers’ needs. This technology, however, is inseparably connected with casting defects in finished products. Cast products are subject to various defects which are considered acceptable or not, which is conditioned by the alloy chemical composition and strength characteristics, that is, generally – qualities to be agreed between the foundry and the customer. It is the latter that led the authors to research on designing a tool enabling the most reliable possible assessment of the emerging casting defects, which after proper consultations can be repaired and the casting – sold. The paper presents an original tool named the Open Atlas of Defects (OAD), developed for the last few years to support the evaluation of cast iron defects using Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) casting defects analysis tools (DCC card – Demerit Control Chart, Pareto-Lorenz analysis and ABC analysis). The OAD tool structure was presented as an integral part of the original system module for acquisition and data mining (A&DM) in conjunction with the possibilities of using selected tools for defect analysis support on the example of cast iron casting.
EN
The paper indicates the significance of the problem of foundry processes parameters stability supervision and assessment. The parameters, which can be effectively tracked and analysed using dedicated computer systems for data acquisition and exploration (Acquisition and Data Mining systems, A&D systems) were pointed out. The state of research and methods of solving production problems with the help of computational intelligence systems (Computational Intelligence, CI) were characterised. The research part shows capabilities of an original A&DM system in the aspect of selected analyses of recorded data for cast defects (effect) forecast on the example of a chosen iron foundry. Implementation tests and analyses were performed based on selected assortments for grey and nodular cast iron grades (castings with 50 kg maximum weight, casting on automatic moulding lines for disposable green sand moulds). Validation tests results, applied methods and algorithms (the original system’s operation in real production conditions) confirmed the effectiveness of the assumptions and application of the methods described. Usability, as well as benefits of using A&DM systems in foundries are measurable and lead to stabilisation of production conditions in particular sections included in the area of use of these systems, and as a result to improvement of casting quality and reduction of defect number.
EN
This paper presents a new stand for studying the linear shrinkage kinetics of foundry alloys. The stand is equipped with a laser displacement sensor. Thanks to this arrangement, the measurement is of a contactless nature. This solution allows for the elimination of errors which occur in measurements made using intermediary elements (steel rods). The supposition of the expansion (shrinkage) of the sample and the expansion of the heated rod lead to the distortion of the image of the actual dimensional changes of the studied sample. A series of studies of foundry alloys conducted using the new stand allowed a new image of shrinkage kinetics to be obtained, in particular regarding cast iron. The authors introduce in the study methodology a real-time measurement of two linked quantities; shrinkage (the displacement of the free end of the sample) and temperature in the surface layer of the sample casting. This generates not only a classic image of shrinkage (S) understood as S = f (t), but also the view S = f (T). The latter correlation, developed based on results obtained using the contactless method, provide a new, so far poorly known image of the course of shrinkage in foundry alloys, especially cast iron with graphite in the structure. The study made use of hypo- and hypereutectic cast iron in order to generate an image of the differences which occur in the kinetics of shrinkage (as well as in pre-shrinkage expansion - expansion occurs during solidification).
PL
Powszechne zastosowanie żelaza, w tym także żelaza lanego, było jedną z charakterystycznych cech XIX w. Potwierdzeniem tego może być fakt, że dzisiaj okres ten nazywany jest wiekiem żelaza i pary. Żelazo lane, jak dawniej nazywano żeliwo, wykorzystywane było jednak nie tylko w budowie maszyn. Na niespotykaną skalę używane było w budownictwie, a także do wytwarzania przedmiotów gospodarstwa domowego i wyrobów artystycznych. W drugiej połowie XIX w. znalazło jeszcze jedno i to bardzo nietypowe zastosowanie. Były to bowiem elementy... bruku ulicznego, które na masową skalę przez kilkadziesiąt lat były stosowane w Warszawie.
EN
A general application of iron, including cast iron, was one of the characteristic features of the 19th century. This can be confirmed by: the fact, that this period is currently called: The iron and steam age. Cast iron was applied not only in machine building. It was used, on unprecedented scale, in construction engineering and also for producing household items and artistic elements. In the second half of the 19th century it found one more, quite unusual application. These . were elements... of pavements, which on a massive scale were for j several dozen of years, applied in Warsaw.
EN
An analysis has been carried out of the influence of annealing time at the preheating temperature of 650 °C on the change in hardness and alloy structure of lamellar graphite cast iron in the working as well as in the laboratory conditions. This preheat temperature is common during reclaiming welding of castings with complex shapes. The changes in unalloyed cast iron EN-GJL 200 to EN-GJL 300 according to ISO 1690 standard and cast iron with low amount of elements such as Sn, Cu, Cr, and Mo and their combinations were assessed. It was found that the cast iron of higher strength grades has better hardness and structural stability. Cast iron alloyed with chromium or its combinations has the highest stability. In unalloyed cast iron, a partial degradation of pearlite occurs; in alloyed cast iron the structural changes are not conclusive.
EN
Gas atmosphere at the sand mould/cast alloy interface determines the quality of the casting obtained. Therefore the aim of this study was to measure and evaluate the gas forming tendency of selected moulding sands with alkyd resins. During direct and indirect gas measurements, the kinetics of gas evolution was recorded as a function of the temperature of the sand mixture undergoing the process of thermal destruction. The content of hydrogen and oxygen was continuously monitored to establish the type of the atmosphere created by the evolved gases (oxidizing/reducing). The existing research methodology [1, 7, 8] has been extended to include pressure-assisted technique of indirect measurement of the gas evolution rate. For this part of the studies, a new concept of the measurement was designed and tested. This article presents the results of measurements and compares gas emissions from two sand mixtures containing alkyd resins known under the trade name SL and SL2002, in which the polymerization process is initiated with isocyanate. Studies of the gas forming tendency were carried out by three methods on three test stands to record the gas evolution kinetics and evaluate the risk of gas formation in a moulding or core sand. Proprietary methods for indirect evaluation of the gas forming tendency have demonstrated a number of beneficial aspects, mainly due to the ability to record the quantity and composition of the evolved gases in real time and under stable and reproducible measurement conditions. Direct measurement of gas evolution rate from the tested sands during cast iron pouring process enables a comparison of the results with the results obtained by indirect methods.
PL
W pracy podjęto próbę określenia wpływu wysokotemperaturowego utleniania jako sposobu przygotowania powierzchni żeliwa szarego gatunku GJL-250 na właściwości mechaniczne powłoki cynkowej otrzymanej metodą: zanurzeniową, galwaniczną oraz lamelową. Próbki do badań zostały pobrane z części wykorzystywanych do budowy energetycznych linii napowietrznych. Intensywność zużycia powłoki cynkowej określono poprzez badania tribologiczne w warunkach tarcia suchego, które wykonano przy użyciu testera T-11. Badania umożliwiły wyznaczenie współczynnika tarcia powłoki cynkowej w zależności od sposobu przygotowania powierzchni na którą zostały naniesione. Dodatkowo w celu określenia mechanizmów uszkodzenia powłoki przeprowadzono analizę makroskopową i mikroskopową oraz wykonano pomiary struktury geometrycznej powierzchni. Na podstawie otrzymanych wyników badań określono zróżnicowanie stopnia zużycia otrzymanych powłok w zależności od sposobu przygotowania powierzchni. Przeprowadzone badania wykazały, że wykorzystanie wysokotemperaturowego utleniania jako sposobu przygotowania powierzchni żeliwa szarego może stanowić o właściwościach tribologicznych zanurzeniowej powłoki cynkowej.
EN
The paper attempts to determine the influence of high temperature oxidation as a method of preparing the surface of gray cast iron grade GJL-250 on the mechanical properties of the zinc coating obtained by the method of: hot-dip, galvanic and lamella. Samples for testing were taken from parts used for the construction of overhead power lines. Intensity of wear of the zinc coating was determined by tribological tests under dry friction conditions, which were made using the T-11 tester. The research allowed to determine the coefficient of friction of the zinc coating depending on the method of preparation of the surface on which they were applied. In addition, macroscopic and microscopic analysis was performed to determine the mechanisms of shell damage and measurements of the geometric structure of the surface were made. On the basis of the obtained test results, the differentiation of the degree of wear of the obtained coatings was determined depending on the method of surface preparation. The conducted research has shown that the use of high temperature oxidation as a way of preparing the surface of gray iron can be a tribological characteristic of the zinc coating.
PL
W artykule zaproponowano warunek plastyczności i wyprowadzono związany z nim potencjał dyssypacji stosując osobliwą transformację Legendre’a. Uzyskano jawną postać funkcji dyssypacji, co umożliwia dualny opis plastycznych własności materiału. Trójparametrowy warunek plastyczności umożliwia ciągłe przejście od warunku Druckera-Pragera do Hubera-Misesa przez odpowiedni dobór parametrów. Przedyskutowano kalibrację parametrów na podstawie typowych testów wytrzymałościowych. Na bazie założonego warunku plastyczności sformułowano relacje konstytutywne sprężysto-plastyczności, które mogą być stosowane do opisu własności porowatych metali i materiałów z tarciem wewnętrznym.
EN
A yield condition was proposed in this paper and associated dissipation function was derived via singular Legendre transformation. As a result, an explicit form of the dissipation function was obtained, which can be used for dual formulation of perfect plasticity model. The three-parameter yield condition enables continuous transition from the Drucker-Prager to Huber-Mises yield conditions by appropriate selection of free parameters. Calibration of the free parameters based on typical experimental tests was discussed. Based on the proposed yield function, a constitutive model of elastic-plastic material was given. The model can be used for modelling porous metals and other frictional materials.
EN
The influence of a shape of graphite precipitates in cast iron on the thermal shock resistance of the alloy was initially determined. Investigations included the nodular cast iron and the vermicular one, as well as the cast iron containing flake graphite. The thermal shock resistance was examined at a special laboratory stand which allowed for multiple heating and cooling of specimens within the presumed temperature range. The specimens were inductively heated and then cooled in water of constant temperature of about 30°C. There were used flat specimens 70 mm long, 5 mm thick in the middle part, and tapering like a wedge over a distance of 15 mm towards both ends. The total length of cracks generated on the test surfaces of the wedge-shaped parts of specimens was measured as a characteristic value inversely proportional to the thermal shock resistance of a material. The specimens heated up to 500°C were subjected to 2000 test cycles of alternate heating and cooling, while the specimens heated up to 600°C underwent 1000 such cycles. It was found that as the heating temperature rose within the 500-600°C range, the thermal shock resistance decreased for all examined types of cast iron. The research study proved that the nodular cast iron exhibited the best thermal shock resistance, the vermicular cast iron got somewhat lower results, while the lowest thermal shock resistance was exhibited by grey cast iron containing flake graphite.
EN
In this work, the effects of 75 mm thick cast iron, (casting mould YIV) composition (Cu) and heat treatment were investigated on the microstructure and mechanical properties (hardness, elongation, tensile strength, yield strength) of ductile iron castings. As a result of adding Cu, the amount of pearlite is at 80% reduces of amount of ferrite. Normalizing of non-alloy cast iron increases the amount of pearlite to 70%. It also, increases tensile strength (659 MPa) and hardness (248 HB). Studied metallographic crossections were made from the grip sections of the tensile specimens. The structure composition and the characteristics of graphite were determined by computer image analysis. Measurements of graphite of non-alloy cast iron after normalizing and in cooper cast iron indicate the approximate amount of precipitates of graphite and their approximate average diameters. The applied normalizing and the additive alloy (Cu) were established to give comparable mechanical properties and structure of matrix in thick-walled castings.
EN
An intentional change in material properties is an important condition for castings production. It is one way how to meet the casting requirements of how to adapt the material properties to the operating conditions. Centrifugally cast rolls are multi-layer rollers, castings. The working layer of the barrel is called the "shell" and the body of the roll and the necks rolls are called "core". The article deals with the influence of the properties of the core iron. Earlier laboratory experiments were primary analysed for metallographic analysis and mechanical properties. These data were compared back to the experiments. The results of these laboratory working were later applied in the operating conditions of the roll foundry Vítkovitcké slévárny, spol. s r.o. The spun cast roll produced with the applied metallurgical processing change was supplied to the hot strip mill. There were monitored the positive effect of the change of the metallurgical process of the production of the core iron on the useful properties of the centrifugally cast roll. The experiment was done in order to increase the mechanical properties of ductile pearlite ductile iron. The copper in these core iron material increases the hardness and strength primarily.
EN
The paper presents selected granular ceramic materials available on the Polish market. Their characteristics have been determined in the aspect on application in the production of iron alloy-ceramic composite. The possibility of obtaining a composite layer by means of bulk grains in molds of plates were considered, which was the foundation for experimental molds to be used in service tests. On the basis of obtaining results was stated that the knowledge of the characteristics of bulk grains enables the calculation of their quantity necessary for the composite production. When using the bulk grains the thickness of the composite layer is restricted by the thermal relations (cooler) and the physical phenomena (buoyancy, metal static pressure). Increasing amount of grains above definite condition causes surface defects in the castings. Each casting, due to its weight, shape and place of composite layer production requires an individual approach, both at the stage of formation and that of calculation of the required quantity of ceramic grains.
EN
Constantly developing production process and high requirements concerning the quality of glass determine the need for continuous improvement of tools and equipment needed for its production. Such tools like forms, most often made of cast-iron, are characterized by thick wall thickness compared to their overall dimensions and work in difficult conditions such as heating of the surface layer, increase of thermal stresses resulting from the temperature gradient on the wall thickness, occurrence of thermal shock effect, resulting from cyclically changing temperatures during filling and emptying of the mould. There is no best and universal method for assessing how samples subjected to cyclic temperature changes behave. Research on thermal fatigue is a difficult issue, mainly due to the instability of this parameter, which depends on many factors, such as the temperature gradient in which the element works, the type of treatment and the chemical composition of the material. Important parameters for these materials are at high temperature resistance to thermal shock and thermal fatigue what will be presented in this paper.
EN
This paper considers the assessment of attenuation in aluminium alloys castings and in cast iron prepared by gravity casting method and by casting under pressure. The issue of ultrasound attenuation is important in setting the conditions of non-destructive (NDT) testing, especially in casted materials. The characteristics of the ultrasonic technique and ultrasonic attenuation and the calculation of the attenuation and the velocity of ultrasound are presented in the theoretical part of this paper. For experimental measurements, cylindrical castings from AlSi alloy (a hypoeutectic alloy with a silicon content of about 7% - AlSi7 and a eutectic alloy with a silicon content of about 12% - AlSi12) and from grey and ductile cast iron were made. The ultrasonic records of the casting control, the calculation of ultrasound attenuation for individual samples are listed and described in the experimental part. The evaluation of measurements and comparison of calculated ultrasound attenuation is at the end of this article.
EN
A common problem encountered in hydraulic valves is a progressing deterioration of tightness of their water flow cutting-off seats. The seats are provided usually with a copper-alloy insert joined mechanically with cast-iron valve housing. The problem of unreliability of such joints can be solved by providing surface of the seat with a coating, deposited with the use of HVOF method and resistant to abrasive and cavitation wear. The tests were carried out for a sealing-draining seat insert made of CuZn39Pb2Al brass used to date and a specimen taken from the cast-iron valve housing which was the substrate for a plasma-sprayed coating of powder containing 86.1% Cr, 7.2% Ni, and 6.7% C. The coating, 345 ± 15 μm thick, was characterized with good quality of bonding with cast-iron substrate and high compactness of the material. The cavitation wear test on materials used in the study were carried out with the use of Vibra-Cell ultrasonic liquid processor (Sonics) equipped with a piezoelectric probe operating at the frequency of 20 kHz. Based on profilograms taken along a line crossing centers of cavitation craters, measurements of the height parameter Rt, and microscopic observations of surfaces it has been found that the coating plasma-sprayed onto substrate of nodular cast iron demonstrated higher resistance to cavitation compared to copper-alloy inserts used so far in cast-iron hydraulic valves. Cavitation craters on the material used typically for valve seats to date were more distinctly outlined and deeper compared to craters observed on the coating. Larger were also sizes of local tear-outs which resulted in larger difference between the peaks line and the valleys line.
16
Content available remote Analysis of concrete corrosion of manhole located near source of odorous emission
EN
The problem of corrosion of sanitary sewer concrete concerns the elements located just behind the expansion well. Evolving odorogenic substances and bioaerosols spread in the sewage system, cause in adverse conditions both chemical and biological corrosion of concrete. The paper presents the results of tests of samples taken from the top concrete circle and from a corroded cast iron hatch of 7 years old manhole located below the expansion well. Well elements were subjected to a strong interaction of hydrogen sulphide, which average concentration in the sewage air, during an exemplary 84 hours was 29 ppm. Concrete was gelatinous fine with noticeable outer pellicular layer of 1 mm thick and the inner layer containing aggregates (grain < 1 cm). Sulfur oxidizing, sulfates reducing, Fe2+ oxidizing bacteria, aerobic heterotrophs, anaerobic heterotrophs, nitrifiers and denitrifiers were determined. In the concrete sample, no sulfate-reducing bacteria were detected under the film-like layer and in the cast-iron manhole material, while the hatch also did not contain anaerobic heterotrophs, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. The sulphate content in the concrete samples tested was very high, about 20% in the mass of concrete and 50% in the weight of the binder soluble in HCl. Microscopic investigations showed that the outer layer of the concrete was very rich in gypsum, and the pH of the aqueous extract was in the range of 7-8.
EN
In the order to increase the resistance to the friction wear of machine parts appropriate surface treatment application is needed. The aim of presented research was to evaluate the laser alloying with silicon nitride effects obtained in the surface layer of nodular iron and to select the laser treatment parameters that should be appropriate for the treatment of the one of the engine parts, which is a rocker arm. After implementation of silicon nitride into the nodular iron surface layer using laser heating, a uniform, fine, dendritic microstructure similar to the hardened white cast of the allayed zone was created in all performed variants. This microstructure resulted in at least 4-times higher hardness in comparison to the core material. The hardness and the alloyed zone dimensions were dependent on the laser heat treatment variant. The laser beam power density of 41 W/mm2 and its velocity of 2.8 mm/s were selected for the treatment of the rocker arm. It was caused by the effects obtained in the surface layer. With these parameters, it was possible to achieve the hardness of 1300 HV0.1 and the width of the alloying zone of over 4 mm, which is enough to strengthen the surface area of the rocker arm most exposed to the tribological wear.
PL
W celu zwiększenia odporności na zużycie w wyniku tarcia części maszyn potrzebna jest ich odpowiednia obróbka powierzchniowa. Celem prezentowanych badań była ocena efektów stopowania laserowego azotkiem krzemu uzyskanych w warstwie wierzchniej żeliwa sferoidalnego oraz dobór parametrów obróbki laserowej, które powinny być odpowiednie do obróbki jednej z części silnika pojazdu, jakim jest dźwigienka zaworowa. W wyniku wprowadzenia azotku krzemu do warstwy wierzchniej żeliwa sferoidalnego za pomocą nagrzewania laserowego we wszystkich przeprowadzonych wariantach wytworzona została jednorodna, drobnoziarnista i dendrytyczna mikrostruktura o charakterze zbliżonym do zahartowanego żeliwa białego. Efektem takiej mikrostruktury było uzyskanie przynajmniej 4-krotnego zwiększenia twardości w porównaniu z twardością materiału rdzenia. Twardość i wielkość uzyskanej strefy stopowanej zależały od zastosowanego wariantu laserowej obróbki cieplnej. Do obróbki dźwigienki zaworowej wybrano gęstość mocy wiązki laserowej równej 41 W/mm2&enspi jej prędkości 2,8 mm/s. Było to spowodowane tym, że w przypadku takich parametrów możliwe było uzyskanie twardości 1300 HV0.1 i szerokości strefy stopowanej ponad 4 mm, co jest wystarczające do umocnienia najbardziej narażonego na zużycie tribologiczne obszaru powierzchni dźwigienki zaworowej.
EN
This article deals with the one of the most important elements of modern braking systems, which is a brake disc. A brake disc is the one of more stressed parts of the braking system, and its quality and design largely determine the braking performance of the vehicle. The article describes the technology of manufacturing disc brake pads that is important from the point of view of the wear processes occurring between two friction surfaces: the brake disc and the brake pad lining. The research of the cast iron ventilated brake disc surface measured the values of the selected roughness parameters at this site. In the context of measurements, it was also determined to be able to maintain a certain value of selected geometric parameters at a given location for the group of brake discs tested of a specific type and manufactured by a particular manufacturer. The work was carried out in the aspect of the research to create a surface layer to protect the brake discs from the effects of corrosive wear.
PL
Artykuł dotyczy jednego z ważniejszych elementów współczesnych układów hamulcowych, którym jest tarcza hamulcowa. Tarcze hamulcowe są jednym z bardziej obciążonych elementów układu hamulcowego, a ich jakość i konstrukcja decydują w dużym stopniu o skuteczności hamulców w pojeździe. W części artykułu opisano technologię wytwarzania powierzchni roboczych tarcz hamulcowych ważną z punktu widzenia procesów zużyciowych zachodzących na styku powierzchni ciernej tarczy hamulcowej z powierzchnią cierną okładziny klocka hamulcowego. Wykonane pomiary powierzchni roboczej żeliwnych wentylowanych tarcz hamulcowych pozwoliły ustalić wartości wybranych parametrów chropowatości w tym miejscu. W kontekście pomiarów ustalono także zdolność do utrzymania określonej wartości wybranych parametrów struktury geometrycznej w danym miejscu dla grupy badanych tarcz hamulcowych określonego rodzaju i wyprodukowanych przez określonego producenta. Prace prowadzono w kontekście badań zmierzających do wytworzenia warstwy powierzchniowej zabezpieczającej tarcze hamulcowe przed skutkami zużywania korozyjnego.
EN
The paper discusses the problems related to cast iron brake rotors in the context of their hardness, which is one of the fundamental mechanical properties of these components. This property fundamentally determines the resistance to the wear processes occurring at the contact of the working surface of the rotor with the brake pad. In order to ensure a proper braking process, the manufacturer must appropriately select the friction pair in terms of the hardness of the mating components and guarantee the constant hardness of each and every manufactured brake rotor. The research presented in the paper was conducted on a selected group of brake rotors. The average hardness of the investigated group of a given type and given manufacturer was ascertained by calculating the spread of the hardness results and checking whether the differences (and what type of differences) occur for newly manufactured and retailed rotors.
PL
W artykule poruszono problematykę związaną z żeliwnymi tarczami hamulcowymi w kontekście jednej z podstawowych właściwości mechanicznych tych elementów, tj. twardości. Właściwością ta w sposób zasadniczy determinuje odporność na procesy zużyciowe zachodzące na styku powierzchnia robocza tarczy hamulcowej a powierzchnia okładziny klocka hamulcowego. Biorąc pod uwagę właściwy przebieg procesu hamowania, ważny jest odpowiedni dobór pary ciernej w kontekście twardości, ale także utrzymanie stałej twardości każdej z wyprodukowanych przez producenta tarcz. Przedstawione w artykule badania prowadzono na wybranej grupie tarcz hamulcowych, ustalając średnią twardość badanej grupy tarcz hamulcowych określonego rodzaju i producenta, obliczając rozrzut wyników twardości oraz sprawdzając, czy i jakie różnice w twardości tarcz hamulcowych występują dla tarcz bezpośrednio po wyprodukowaniu i przekazaniu do sprzedaży.
PL
W artykule omówiono zasady budowy schodów żeliwnych. Do analizy szczegółowej wybrano jeden z nielicznych zachowanych przykładów schodów kręconych w zespole fabrycznym Izraela Poznańskiego. Analizę wykonano w zakresie konstrukcji, sposobu montażu i dekoracji. Na podstawie obserwacji i pomiarów in situ sformułowano wnioski praktyczne.
EN
The paper discusses the principles of construction of cast-iron stairs. For a detailed analysis one of the sparse examples of spiral staircases preserved in the complex of Izrael Poznanski Factory was chosen. The performed analysis comprised the structure, method of installation and decoration. On the basis of the in situ observations and measurements practical conclusions were formed.
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