The maritime industry is a high-risk industry, which constantly has to make decisions in a rapidly changing environment. Therefore, understanding the essence of "situational awareness" is very important for making the right decision. In this regard, it is obvious that a correct situation analysis, based on a theoretical basis, creates the proper prerequisites for making the right decision in a developing situation, and vice versa. Considering this fact, this article proposes to study the factors that influence this phenomenon, their regularities and connections. It presents the data of a survey among seafarers to determine the level of understanding of situational awareness as a predominant component of the human factor in most accidents in the maritime industry.
Safety of crew, passengers, cargo and vessel is the most important aspect in terms of navigation. Boat Captain’s is responsible for the safety of vessel of less than 35GRT. The primary reason while MARINA conducting the MBSTC Training with Typhoon Awareness together with the ISCOF to be sure that they are enough knowledge in terms of safety at sea. Life is a very important to all of us that’s why the boat Captain must be aware about the safety of his crew, passengers, cargo and vessel. When disaster and emergency happen onboard you must know what to do. Based on this premise, the objective of this study is to train the Boat Captain and Motormen in Medical First Aid, Advanced Fire Fighting, Personal Survival Techniques and Collision Regulations. The study employed qualitative research using purposive sampling to gather the opinions and ideas of the respondents.
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The safety of vessels navigating in the sea waterway system is ensured by fulfilling the acceptable restrictions called safe ship operation conditions in that system. The assessment of navigation safety is particularly important when the conditions for safe operation of ships in the waterway system are changed concerns increasing the maximum parameters of vessels, increasing the allowable hydrometeorological conditions or changing the minimum tug assistance. The article presents a method for assessing navigation safety when the conditions for the safe operation of vessels in the waterway system get changed. The method uses two indicators, which are difference in navigation risks and relative navigation risk. To determine the navigational risk, algorithms were developed for calculating the probability of accidents caused by the deterioration of navigation conditions and technical failure of ship equipment and tugs. Another algorithm was developed for calculating the consequences of the accidents that involve blocking a waterway by a ship anchoring in an emergency, grounding, impact of the ship against a port structure or moored ship and a collision with another ship in motion. The method developed for assessing navigation safety by means of relative navigation risk can be used in practice when changing the conditions for safe operation of vessels in the waterway system and when the system is modernized. Navigational safety management is a decision process that is implemented in the loop presented in the article. The acceptable risk is determined on the basis of vessel traffic intensity and ship parameters defined by safe operation conditions for a given waterway system. Relative navigational risk may be used in assessment and comparison of various conditions of safe ship operation. The probability of an accident caused by ship's moving outside the available navigable area due to technical failures of ship equipment or tugs is determined, depending on the type of port waterway and the manoeuvres performed.
Presented are regulations concerning the operation of passenger ships (with particular emphasis on Polish ferries) designed to increase maritime safety the SOLAS Convention, established in 1974 and codified in 2002, codifies these regulations, and the International Maritime Organization mandates additional regulations, created in response to a rapidly increasing number of maritime disasters. The analyses described herein were based on restrictions established for the “Jan Śniadecki” and “Mikołaj Kopernik” ferries. Safety of ro-ro units, which also typically have a significant number of people on board, was also analyzed. Also included in the study were ship operational- limitation characteristics with respect to structure, unsinkability, and stability of machinery and electrical equipment, fire protection, operational requirements, and rescue measures and devices, along with their purpuroses. Safety management consists of taking appropriate actions to prevent or minimize the effects of an accident or a disaster and is assessed on the basis of calculations and experience gleaned from analogous cases. Safety management can proceed if a problem has been thoroughly assessed. The potential risk of negative consequences with respect to the safety of the transport process as a whole must be considered, and the safety of the whole must not be risked for that of a particular part of it. A safety management decision can be made when its necessity is not in doubt. A problem is assumed to have only one solution. The effectiveness of the previously used method should be carefully assessed before proceeding to the next method. Security management is not easy and requires much professional knowledge and experience.
The International Maritime Organization (IMO) introduces, adopts, and implements new instruments, such as conventions, resolutions, and guidelines, to prevent and minimize the number and severity of accidents involving ships at sea. The results of international maritime safety requirements introduced in recent years are presented in this paper. The impact of these regulations on ship safety improvement in European marine waters was determined via an analysis of accidents over a seven-year period of 2014–2020. The analysis was based on the classification of accidents by their severity, by the type of ship involved, and by the identified causes or contributing factors. Evident, still existing “weak points” of maritime safety monitoring are emphasized, such as low reporting of incidents and superficial identification of contributing factors. It is worth noting that the technological development of marine electronic systems introduced both positive effects and novel threats to the safety of navigation. An example is an uncritical overreliance on technology and information provided via electronic means and sensors. In this context the usage of integrated, digitized bridge systems in contemporary maritime vessels and future remote control systems was stressed.
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Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie oryginalnego podejścia do problematyki modelowania bezpieczeństwa morskiego, które powszechnie jest traktowane jako jedna z wielu kategorii dominującego w teorii i praktyce bezpieczeństwa narodowego. We wstępne zarysowano elementy teorii bezpieczeństwa i podstawowe jego definicje. Podjęto także dyskusję na temat niekończącego się problemu rozłączności/ tożsamości bezpieczeństwa narodowego i bezpieczeństwa państwa. Dla bezpieczeństwa morskiego zostały wyspecyfikowane zasadnicze rodzaje zagrożeń powodujących jego destrukcję. Szczególną uwagę zwrócono na wielowymiarowość bezpieczeństwa morskiego i związane z tym podziały typologiczne oraz konsekwencje prawno-międzynarodowe. Nakreślono zasadnicze przesłanki, zgodnie z którymi bezpieczeństwo morskie jest uważane za pojęcie wieloznaczne, o znaczeniu ogólnoświatowym i transgranicznym. Odnosi się ono do całego środowiska morskiego, będącego kategorią wspólną dla wszystkich uczestników życia międzynarodowego. Określa ono ogólne warunki korzystania z przestrzeni i obszarów morskich przez różne podmioty krajowe, międzynarodowe, a także komercyjne, publiczne i niepubliczne – zgodnie z pewnymi zasadami przestrzegającymi uniwersum bezpieczeństwa. W zakończeniu wskazano główne podmioty i organa administracyjne kształtujące wymagane standardy bezpieczeństwa w wymiarze krajowym i międzynarodowym. Główna teza pracy orzeka, iż bezpieczeństwo morskie jako kategoria rodzajowa bezpieczeństwa narodowego w istotny sposób wpływa na wiele rodzajów bezpieczeństwa przedmiotowego, a tym samym na ogólny poziom bezpieczeństwa narodowego każdego państwa nadbrzeżnego. W dobie globalizacji bezpieczeństwo morskie tych państw, obok bezpieczeństwa ekonomicznego, społecznego, gospodarczego, informacyjnego, energetycznego i wielu innych, jest jednym z kluczowych komponentów bezpieczeństwa narodowego i bezpieczeństwa państwa.
The aim of the article is to present an original approach to the issue of maritime security modeling, which is commonly treated as one of the many categories dominant in the theory and practice of national security. Elements of the theory of security and its basic definitions are initially outlined. There was also a discussion on the endless problem of severability / identity of national security and state security. For the eponymous maritime security, the basic types of threats causing its destruction have been specified. Particular attention was paid to the multidimensionality of maritime security and the related typological divisions and legal and international consequences. The underlying rationale for considering maritime safety as an ambiguous concept with global and transboundary relevance has been outlined. It relates to the entire marine environment, which is a category common to all participants in international life. It defines the general conditions for the use of sea space and areas by various national, international, commercial, public and non-public entities – in accordance with certain rules respecting the security universe. The conclusion indicates the main entities and administrative bodies shaping the required safety standards in the national and international dimension. The main thesis of the work states that maritime security, as a generic category of national security, has a significant impact on many types of subject security, and thus on the general level of national security of each coastal state. In the era of globalization, the maritime security of these countries, along with economic, social, economic, information, energy and many other securities, is one of the key components of national security and state security.
This paper addresses the importance of the development of maritime safety culture, in terms of sustainable shipping through continuous improvement of the safety management system (SMS) that enables a shipping company’s personnel to effectively implement the company’s safety and environmental policy. The main aim of the International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention (International Safety Management Code – ISM Code), which was adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and became mandatory, by virtue of its entry into force on the 1st of July 1998, in SOLAS Chapter IX on the Management for Safe Operation of Ships, is to provide an international standard for the safe management and operation of ships as well as pollution prevention. Thus, compliance with the ISM Code and its effective enforcement is necessary to ensure adequate standards of safety and pollution prevention. The purpose of this paper is to show that the internationally unified legal measures that have been developed under the IMO in the ISM Code are an instrumental consequence of maritime safety values, and allow them to be achieved in practice. The result of this research is the justification of the thesis concerning the need to create a safety culture as a condition for sustainable shipping, including the safe operation of ships in the environment.
Maritime safety involves minimizing error in all aspects of the marine system. Human error has received much importance, being responsible for about 80% of the maritime accident worldwide. Currently, more attention has been focused to reduce human error in marine engine maintenance. On-board marine engine maintenance activities are often complex, where seafarers conduct maintenance activities in various marine environmental (i.e. extreme weather, ship motions, noise, and vibration) and operational (i.e. work overload and stress) conditions. These environmental and operational conditions, in combination with generic human error tendencies, results in innumerable forms of error. There are numerous accidents that happened due to the human error during the maintenance activities of a marine engine. The most severe human error results in accidents due to is a loss of life. Moreover, there are other consequences too such as delaying the productivity of marine operations which results in the financial loss. This study reviews methods that are currently available for identifying, reporting and managing human error in marine engine maintenance. As a basis for this discussion, authors provide an overview of approaches for investigating human error, and a description of marine engine maintenance activities and environmental and operational characteristics.
People responsible for crisis management, especially in coastal voivodships (Pomeranian, West Pomeranian and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship) must be aware and prepared to take effective action in the event of emergencies in maritime waters. The geographical, hydro meteorological conditions and geographical conditions of the Baltic Sea of the Baltic Sea and the increasing intensity of Baltic shipping, and in particular the increase in oil transport, mean that the likelihood of maritime accidents that can generate crises in sea areas increases significantly. There are about 2000 ships in the Baltic marine area at any given moment and about 3500 - 5500 ships navigate through the Baltic Sea per month. Approximately 20% of the ships in the Baltic Sea are tankers. Despite different uncertainties some trends in the Baltic shipping can be expected. For example ship traffic is likely to increase yearly and it is expected that vessel size will increase because the maritime transport must be more efficient and cost-saving. Such trends create serious threats for Baltic States. The maritime administrations of the Baltic States and international maritime organizations undertake a number of actions to increase maritime safety in the Baltic Sea. The publication characterizes Baltic shipping and analyzes the scale of threats generated by maritime accidents, as well as ways of responding and minimizing the probability of emergencies in the Baltic Sea. Activities including: legislative and organizational activity were also characterized; practical use of modern technology both on vessels and in land navigation monitoring systems; marine traffic engineering and shipbuilding, which aim is to minimize the likelihood of maritime accidents in the Baltic Sea and analyses of Baltic states capacity to oil spill response. In addition, the publication proposes a definition of a crisis situation in relation to sea areas and presents when a maritime accident or incident can generate a crisis situation in sea areas. The result of the research process is proposals for actions that, in the author's opinion, should be taken to reduce the number of maritime accidents in the Baltic Sea.
Automatically recognizing and tracking dynamic targets on the sea is an important task for intelligent navigation, which is the prerequisite and foundation of the realization of autonomous ships. Nowadays, the radar is a typical perception system which is used to detect targets, but the radar echo cannot depict the target’s shape and appearance, which affects the decision-making ability of the ship collision avoidance. Therefore, visual perception system based on camera video is very useful for further supporting the autonomous ship navigational system. However, ship’s recognition and tracking has been a challenge task in the navigational application field due to the long distance detection and the ship itself motion. An effective and stable approach is required to resolve this problem. In this paper, a novel ship recognition and tracking system is proposed by using the deep learning framework. In this framework, the deep residual network and cross-layer jump connection policy are employed to extract the advanced ship features which help enhance the classification accuracy, thus improves the performance of the object recognition. Experimentally, the superiority of the proposed ship recognition and tracking system was confirmed by comparing it with state of-the-art algorithms on a large number of ship video datasets.
Safety, along with the issue of security, is the most substantial and critical issue to any society and nation of the mankind. The fact that human elements contribute dominantly, in particular, to the transportation – marine, air and road traffic – accidents requires not only the technical approaches, but also cultural configuration inherent to the accidents. This paper tries to incorporate Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture to identify possible interaction with accidents. It will be of help to figure out the need to consider the aspect of national culture to be efficient in dealing with policies for safer communities and nations.
Artykuł dotyczy potencjału instytucjonalnego i prawnego, którym dysponuje Unia Europejska w zakresie budowania bezpieczeństwa morskiego. Autorka poddała analizie dotychczasowe osiągnięcia UE w tym obszarze, stawiając pytania: w jaki sposób i za pomocą jakich narzędzi prawnych i instytucjonalnych UE stara się wpływać na proces kształtowania bezpieczeństwa morskiego, zarówno w wymiarze regionalnym, jak również globalnym?
The article is related with the institutional and legal potential which the European Union has in the field of building maritime safety. The author analyzed the EU's achievements to date in this area, asking the questions: how and with what legal and institutional tools does the EU try to influence the process of shaping maritime security, both on its territory and globally?
The paper presents the overall risk management state for the crude oil tanker fleet, evidenced by EMSA and other international marine organisations. Based on historical statistical data related to fleet size, accident reports, amount of oil spilled on the sea and the economic value of the crude oil transport business, the risk acceptance criteria are evaluated. The Formal Safety Assessment is further used for a systematic assessment of risk, where potential hazards are analysed with structured methods (HAZID) and represented in event trees. The paper studies three risks: PLL (potential loss of lives), PLC (potential loss of containment) and PLP (potential loss of property). A general approach is presented and discussed with a particular focus on the evolution of risk acceptance in recent decades and evaluations of risk F-N curves for different tanker sizes.
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Celem opracowania jest przedstawienie poglądów autora na kwestie związane z potencjalnym wykorzystaniem bezzałogowych jednostek nawodnych do zabezpieczenia funkcjonowania portu zewnętrznego w Gdyni przed zagrożeniami z kierunku morskiego. Rozwój portu związany jest z budową nowych terminali bezpośrednio wysuniętych w kierunku otwartego morza. Artykuł przedstawia potencjalne zastosowania bardzo dynamicznie rozwijających się technologii systemów bezzałogowych (powietrznych, nawodnych i podwodnych) operujących w środowisku morskim.
The main objective of this paper is to present the authors opinions about possible applications of Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USV) for the off-shore harbor in Gdynia protection. The development of Gdynia harbor is connected mainly with new terminals building on open water zone. The article presents the potential areas of applications of unmanned systems (air, surface, sub surface) use in maritime domain.
W artykule omówione zostały wybrane zagadnienia dotyczące współczesnych wymiarów bezpieczeństwa w aspekcie zwalczania zagrożeń i zanieczyszczeń w portach morskich. Analizując problematykę współczesnego wymiaru bezpieczeństwa na akwenach morskich, dokonano wyjaśnienia pojęcia bezpieczeństwa morskiego. Potencjalnymi źródłami zagrożeń i zanieczyszczeń wód portowych są wyloty kanalizacyjne odprowadzające ścieki sanitarne, przemysłowe i opadowe, procesy przeładunkowe prowadzone na nabrzeżach, prace budowlane, remontowe lub konserwacyjne, eksploatacja statków, odbiór odpadów ze statków.
The article discusses selected issues regarding contemporary security dimensions in the aspect of combating threats and pollution in seaports. Analyzing the problems of the modern dimension of safety on sea areas, the concept of maritime safety was clarified. Potential sources of hazards and pollution of port waters are sewage outlets discharging sanitary, industrial and rain-water sewage, transhipment processes carried out on quays, construction, renovation or maintenance works, operation of ships, collection of waste from ships.
Implementation of ERIKA III, the third package of EU legislation intended to integrate international standards of marine accident investigation, has significantly changed the way Polish public authorities investigate marine accidents. Until the implementation, maritime chambers conducted the investigation of marine accidents. Since October 2012 there has been a dual system in place whereby public authorities are entitled to investigate marine accidents in Poland. This article reviews distinctive features of both approaches and the impact thereof on the system of investigating marine accidents. Beside a theoretical description of the legal basis for the functioning of both maritime chambers and the State Marine Accident Investigation Commission, this paper includes analytic data of investigations conducted by both these bodies in order to prove that the number of investigations conducted by maritime chambers has drastically decreased since the establishment of the State Commission, and that the number of investigations conducted by the State Commission itself cannot be sufficient, leading to a decrease of safety in maritime navigation.
Oil spills from maritime activities can lead to very extensive damage to the marine environment and disrupt maritime ecosystem services. Shipping is an important activity in the Northern Baltic Sea, and with the complex and dynamic ice conditions present in this sea area, navigational accidents occur rather frequently. Recent risk analysis results indicate those oil spills are particularly likely in the event of collisions. In Finnish sea areas, the current wintertime response preparedness is designed to a level of 5000 tonnes of oil, whereas a state-of-the-art risk analysis conservatively estimates that spills up to 15000 tonnes are possible. Hence, there is a need to more accurately estimate oil spill scenarios in the Northern Baltic Sea, to assist the relevant authorities in planning the response fleet organization and its operations. An issue that has not received prior consideration in maritime waterway oil spill analysis is the dynamics of the oil outflow, i.e. how the oil outflow extent depends on time. Hence, this paper focuses on time-dependent oil spill scenarios from collision accidents possibly occurring to tankers operating in the Northern Baltic Sea. To estimate these, a Bayesian Network model is developed, integrating information about designs of typical tankers operating in this area, information about possible damage scenarios in collision accidents, and a state-of-the-art time-domain oil outflow model. The resulting model efficiently provides information about the possible amounts of oil spilled in the sea in different periods of time, thus contributing to enhanced oil spill risk assessment and response preparedness planning.
The article presents the impact of major maritime accidents on the development of international regulations concerning the safety of navigation and environmental protection of the seas and oceans. It contains analysis of the reasons and consequences of maritime disasters like the accidents of: ‘Titanic’, ‘Torrey Canyon’, ‘Amoco Cadiz’, ‘Herald of Free Enterprise’, ‘Exxon Valdez’, ‘Estonia’, ‘Erika’ and ‘Prestige’ as well as international agreements established in order to prevent this type of accident in the future or, at least, limit their consequences.
Artykuł prezentuje wpływ największych wypadków morskich na rozwój międzynarodowych przepisów dotyczących bezpieczeństwa żeglugi i ochrony środowiska naturalnego mórz i oceanów. Zawiera analizę przyczyn i konsekwencji katastrof morskich statków „Titanic”, „Torrey Canyon”, „Amoco Cadiz”, „Herald of Free Enterprise”, „Exxon Valdez”, „Estonia”, „Erika” i „Prestige” oraz porozumień międzynarodowych ustanowionych w celu zapobiegnięcia tego typu wypadkom w przyszłości lub przynajmniej ograniczenia ich negatywnych skutków.
This article describes the proposal to use the M2M communication to enhance the safety of people, ships and other marine infrastructure, in broadly defined marine systems. In addition, there are numerous examples of planned solutions to be implemented in the near future as well as new services. The proposal for M2M communication system architecture is described below. In addition, the use of the STRUGA system radio interface as the M2M communication interface is proposed.
W artykule opisano propozycję zastosowania komunikacji typu M2M do zwiększenia bezpieczeństwa ludzi, statków i innych elementów infrastruktury morskiej w szeroko pojętych systemach morskich. Podano liczne przykłady planowanych do wdrożenia w najbliższej przyszłości tego typu rozwiązań, jak również zaproponowano nowe usługi. W dalszej części opisano strukturę komunikacyjną dla M2M. Przedstawiono propozycję architektury systemu komunikacyjnego M2M. Ponadto zaproponowano wykorzystanie interfejsu radiowego systemu STRUGA jako interfejsu komunikacyjnego M2M.
Learning the radiotelephone procedures and rules for naval operations in allied and coalition format is a challenge for the training of communications specialists. This paper proposes a training methodology developed on the basis of an adaptation of the approach described in Allied Communications Publication – ACP 125 Communication Instructions Radiotelephone Procedures. An experience acquired after many years of studying the document with cadets from the Bulgarian Naval Academy is shared. The paper identifies the main paragraphs subject to adaptation, lists the added examples and explanations, and points out some specific features during the practical play through of scenarios in simulation environment.