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EN
The Core Network Algebra (CNA) is a model for concurrency that extends the point-to-point communication discipline of Milner’s CCS with multiparty interactions. Links are used to build chains describing how information flows among the different agents participating in a multiparty interaction. The inherent non-determinism in deciding both the number of participants in an interaction, and how they synchronize, makes it difficult to devise verification techniques for this language. We propose a symbolic semantics and a symbolic bisimulation for CNA which are more amenable for automating reasoning. Unlike the operational semantics of CNA, the symbolic semantics is finitely branching and it represents, compactly, a possibly infinite number of transitions. We give necessary and sufficient conditions to efficiently check the validity of symbolic configurations. We also propose the Symbolic Link Modal Logic, a seamless extension of the Hennessy-Milner logic which is able to characterize the (symbolic) transitions of CNA processes. Finally, we specify both the symbolic semantics and the modal logic as an executable rewriting theory. We thus obtain several verification procedures to analyze CNA processes.
EN
The article presents a comprehensive economic analysis of a CO2 injection project in one of the Po-lish oil fields for both increased production (CO2-EOR) and underground storage (CCS). An interesting differentiator of this work is the use of a multilayered reservoir, which is actually not one reservoir but several located in the same place, as an example. It allows the optimization of the processes of injection, production and storage. Such projects are becoming more and more important because recently, after a period of long-term stagnation, costs of carbon allowances have started to rise which affects e.g. the electricity market in Poland. This can be an important incentive for the development of CCS technology, especially in combination with CO2-EOR. In the case of very high costs of carbon emissions rights CCS may turn out to be a cheaper solution. Economic efficiency is the main determinant of the EOR project’s success, as well as a very significant factor influencing the potential development of CO2 underground storage. Results are based on the numerical simulation of a combined CO2-EOR and CCS project. This analysis has been divided into two parts. The first uses a standard, deterministic approach, based on the DCF method and NPV indicator. It also provides a detailed sensitivity analysis, with particular reference to the impact of oil prices and the cost of carbon emissions rights on a project’s profitability. The second part of the economic analysis is probabilistic and involves estimating the maximum amount of CAPEX using the Monte Carlo method. Two cases were taken into account. The first assumes that the CO2 emitter pays for CO2 storage and the price is equal to 80% of the emissions rights price (with storage revenue). In the second one the emitter does not pay for storage (without storage revenue).
PL
Artykuł przedstawia wyniki badań ankietowych na temat ograniczania emisji dwutlenku węgla do atmosfery metodą jego geologicznego składowaniem (CCS). Pokazały one, że respondenci ankiety w większości akceptują tę metodę, aczkolwiek w dużym stopniu występuje problem braku jej znajomości oraz związanego z tym braku zdecydowania. Analiza wyników badań wykazała również potrzebę aktualizacji programów nauczania w zakresie ochrony środowiska.
EN
Despite the sophistication of technology designed to limit the impact of burning fossil fuels on the environment one of the key requirements of its input can be social acceptance. This work presents the results of the studies conducted in Poland in the area of social acceptance of geological storage of carbon dioxide (CCS). Findings were published in most positive acceptance of this method, however, next to a large extent there is a problem of ignorance of this method and the fact the lack of decisiveness. Analysis of the results of the study showed the need to update curricula in the field of environmental protection.
EN
One of the most important environmental issues bothering scientists nowadays are greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide, and the possibility of limiting their emission and utilization. Many countries have been actively trying to limit the greenhouse gases emission, mainly carbon dioxide, and implement the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology for years. One of the essential aspects of geological injection is constant monitoring of carbon dioxide, especially its pressure and temperature. Those parameters have an impact on viscosity, density and phase alterations during the flow. It is of vital importance to maintain the supercritical state of the fluid because it is the most efficient way of CO2 storage. The negative impact of CO2 on the properties of the cement slurry may disturb the exploitation of the well and create considerable hazard for the geological storage of carbon dioxide. Therefore, the cement slurry should be appropriately selected and the role of CO2 in the development of technological properties of fresh and hardened cement slurry should be determined. The aim of this research is to select the most appropriate cement slurry composition exhibiting optimal properties with respect to the phase changes of carbon dioxide. The first part of the research consists in creating cement slurries of various compositions and investigating its thermal conductivity and sogginess under in-situ conditions. The second part concerns a possibility of utilization of fluidal ashes from combustion of lignite as a component of cement slurry.
EN
Article contains a detailed analysis and a preliminary selection of potential CO2 emitters that can supply gas for CCS-EOR projects in oil fields clusters in Poland. The idea of CO2 injection into clusters arises from the fact that oil reservoirs in Poland are relatively small, but very often located close together. Reservoirs grouping significantly increases the potential storage capacity and improves economic indicators. In addition, CCS-EOR projects combine CO2 storage (CCS) with an increase in production from mature oil fields (EOR). The analysis was performed using a database of carbon dioxide emitters in Poland created by the National Centre for Emissions Management. This database contains a list of all registered CO2 producers with annual emissions exceeding 1 Mg. On this basis, potential CO2 sources for previously selected four clusters of oil reservoirs were chosen.
EN
The paper presents information about the latest pilot project entitled “Preparation of a Research Pilot Project on CO2 Geological Storage in the Czech Republic (REPP-CO2)”. This project was funded by the Norway Grants and performed by the consortium led by the Czech Geological Survey (ÈGS) in cooperation with a Norwegian partner – IRIS (International Research Institute of Stavanger), and VSB – Technical University of Ostrava also employees of Faculty of Mining and Geology and the Faculty of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering. The scientists from the Institute of Applied Geology (Silesian University of Technology) were also involved in this Project. The main objective of the research activities was to develop and improve the methodology of chosen laboratory, modelling, and simulation and monitoring procedures and techniques, which are essential for the assessment of CO2 storage and other related activities, such as static and dynamic modelling, risk analysis, repository monitoring, etc.
EN
Adsorption is considered as one of the most promising technologies for CCS. Gas adsorption involves the separation of gaseous components from flue gas using solid adsorbents. The gaseous component, adsorbate, is adsorbed from the gas phase on a solid material. Regarding CO2 adsorption, it is important to consider the parameters, that is the high sorption capacity, CO2 selectivity, regeneration and stability in multiple cycles. New directions for the development of adsorbents are focused on increasing their capacity – for this purpose, amine impregnation is carried out. This paper presents a new approach to obtaining mesoporous material from fly ash and, based on this, a new physico-chemical adsorbent obtained by impregnation. The effectiveness of the process was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis and FTIR infrared spectroscopy.
EN
CCS(h,k) is the CCS subcalculus which can use at most h constants and k actions. We show that CCS(25,12) is Turing-complete by simulating Neary and Woods’ universal Turing machine with 15 states and 2 symbols.
PL
Rozwój przemysłu, a w konsekwencji wzrost emisji dwutlenku węgla zmusza do poszukiwania nowych technologii i sposobów redukcji jego emisji do atmosfery. W artykule przedstawiono problem społecznej akceptacji wychwytywania, transportowania i składowania dwutlenku węgla (CCS) jako potencjalnego środka redukcji jego emisji w Polsce. Ten problem ma zasadnicze znaczenie dla realizacji dużych projektów CCS. Należy więc organizować kampanie informacyjne związane z nowymi technikami ograniczenia emisji dwutlenku węgla do atmosfery w celu uświadomienia społeczeństwu, iż technologie takie są bezpieczne dla środowiska. Najważniejszą kwestią owych kampanii jest dotarcie do świadomości zwykłego obywatela.
EN
The development of industry and – consequently – the increase of carbon dioxide emissions have forced the search for new technologies and ways to reduce carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. The article presents the issue of social acceptance for carbon capture, transport and storage (CCS) as a potential means of reducing carbon dioxide emissions in Poland. This problem is essential for the implementation of large CCS projects. Organizing relevant information campaigns related to new techniques of reducing carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere may help in the implementation of CCS projects. The most important in such campaigns is to present in the proper way information to the ordinary citizen.
EN
Article contains detailed analysis and preliminary selection of potential CO2 emitters, who could be suppliers of gas for CCS-EOR projects in oil fields clusters in Poland. The idea of CO2 injection into clusters arises from the fact that oil reservoirs in Poland are relatively small, but very often located close together. Grouping reservoirs allows the potential storage capacity to increase significantly and improves economic indicators. In addition, CCS-EOR projects combine CO2 storage (CCS) with an increase in production from mature oil fields (EOR). The analysis was performed using a database of carbon dioxide emitters in Poland, which was created by the National Centre for Emissions Management. This database contains a list of all registered producers of CO2 with annual emissions exceeding 1 Mg. On this basis, potential sources of CO2 for previously selected four clusters of oil reservoirs were chosen.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono problematykę przygotowania ditlenku węgla do transportu i składowania. Wykazano, że najodpowiedniejszą formą transportu ditlenku węgla jest faza ciekła. Przedstawiono podstawy procesu wielostopniowego sprężania z chłodzeniem międzystopniowym. Dokonano analizy wyboru czynnika chłodzącego CO2 , wykazano, że ochłodzenie go do założonego poziomu 20° C wymaga zastosowania urządzenia chłodniczego w postaci chłodziarki absorpcyjnej. Przeprowadzono wielowymiarową optymalizację układów wielostopniowego sprężania z chłodzeniem międzystopniowym, której kryterium była minimalizacja mocy niezbędnej do sprężania, ustalono optymalne parametry ditlenku węgla za każdym stopniem sprężania. Dokonano analizy możliwości wykorzystania ciepła odpadowego z układu międzystopniowego chłodzenia na potrzeby zasilania chłodziarki absorpcyjnej i chłodzenia CO2 na potrzeby transportu. Ustalono, że w każdym z 4 analizowanych układów istnieje możliwość wykorzystania ciepła odpadowego do tego celu. W dwóch przypadkach istnieje możliwość produkcji chłodu na cele przemysłowe lub komercyjne. Rozważono także możliwość wykorzystania ciepła odpadowego dodatkowo w układzie regeneracji wody zasilającej kocioł parowy.
EN
The paper presents the problem of the preparation of carbon dioxide for transport and storage. It has been shown that the most suitable form of carbon dioxide transport is the liquid phase. It shows the base of the process of multi-stage compression with intercooling. An analysis of the choice of refrigerant CO2 , demonstrated that cooling it to a predetermined level of 20° C requires a refrigeration unit in the form of an absorption chiller. Multidimensional optimization systems multistage compression with intercooling was conducted, the criterion of which was to minimize the power required for compression and set optimal parameters of carbon dioxide for each compression ratio. An analysis of the possibilities of using waste heat from the inter-stage cooling needs of the power absorption chiller and cooling CO2 for transport was carried out. It was found that each of the 4 analyzed systems can utilize waste heat for this purpose. In two cases, producing cold for industrial or commercial purposes was also possible. The possibility of using waste heat in a recovery boiler feedwater steam was also considered.
PL
Zaprezentowano wyniki interpretacji 3 sekcji w wersji współczynników odbicia (EWO) dla struktury Wierzchowa. Wykonana interpretacja istotnie wzbogaciła zakres informacji przedstawianych w standardowych dokumentacjach sejsmicznych. Uwzględniając dane geologiczne z otworów przebijających strukturę, zidentyfikowano i skorelowano wzdłuż przekrojów kompleksy skalne oraz strefy nieciągłości tektonicznych w obrębie skał permomezozoicznych. Scharakteryzowano poziom o zwiększonej zawartości piaskowców formacji połczyńskiej, zaproponowany do składowania dwutlenku węgla. Stwierdzone zaburzenia tektoniczne występujące w obrębie formacji połczyńskiej przechodzące do wyżej zalegających warstw oraz obecność przewarstwień ilastych obniżają przydatność rozpatrywanej struktury do podziemnego składowania CO2. Wydaje się celowe szersze zastosowanie, także dla innych struktur, procesu przetwarzania materiałów sejsmicznych w postać efektywnych współczynników odbicia z zadaniem rozpoznania budowy geologicznej przypuszczalnych poziomów zbiornikowych pod kątem określenia ich przydatności do składowania gazów przemysłowych.
EN
The paper presents the results of the interpretation of three sections of effective reflection coefficients (ERC) in the Wierzchowo structure. The interpretation significantly enriched the amount of information presented in the standard seismic materials. Taking the geological data from boreholes piercing the structure into account, the Permo-Mesozoic rock complexes and zones of tectonic discontinuities have been identified and correlated along the sections. A horizon of increased content of sandstones in the Połczyn Formation has been characterized, which is the target formation for the storage of carbon dioxide. The observed tectonic disturbances occurring within the Połczyn Formation, which continue into the overlying beds, and the presence of clayey interbeds reduce the usefulness of this structure for the underground storage of CO2. It seems advisable to use the processing of seismic materials into sections of effective reflection coefficients more widely, also for other geological formations, in the exploration of the geological structure of potential reservoir levels to determine their suitability for the storage of industrial gases.
PL
Rozwój czystych technologii wytwarzania energii w Polsce zależy od wielu czynników. Autorzy zidentyfikowali najważniejsze z nich i scharakteryzowali w niniejszej pracy. Jednym z takich czynników jest niekorzystna struktura wiekowa krajowych bloków energetycznych, któ- ra determinuje realizację nowych inwestycji. Rosnące wymagania dotyczące ochrony środowiska przyrodniczego i ograniczenia w zakresie emisji gazów cieplarnianych niejako wymuszają wprowadzanie czystych technologii wytwarzania energii. Biorąc pod uwagę fakt, że węgiel jest podstawowym źródłem energii w Polsce, dominującym kierunkiem rozwoju czystych technologii będą technologie węglowe. Istotnym ograniczeniem dla ich wprowadzenia mogą być jednak wysokie koszty wytwarzania energii w tych technologiach, wynikające ze znacznych nakładów inwestycyjnych oraz wysokich kosztów eksploatacji. Kolejną barierą może być malejąca baza zasobowa, której zwiększenie będzie wymagało realizacji nowych inwestycji w krajowym przemyśle wydobywczym, co wpłynie na wzrost kosztów wytwarzania energii w technologiach węglowych. Ponadto większość czystych technologii energetycznych nie jest na tyle dojrzała, aby wprowadzać je do komercyjnego użycia. Budzi to obawy społeczne, które mogą doprowadzić do zablokowania realizacji inwestycji oraz zwiększa ryzyko inwestycyjne, zniechęcając inwestorów do finansowania tego rodzaju inwestycji.
EN
The development of clean energy technologies in Poland depends on many factors. The authors identified few most important ones and characterized them in this work. One of such factors is the unfavorable age structure of national power units which determines the development of new projects. The increasing requirements for environmental protection and restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions force the introduction of clean energy technologies. Considering the fact that coal is the primary source of energy in Poland, the dominant direction of clean technologies development will become the coal technologies. An important limitation to their introduction may be, however, the high cost of producing energy in these technologies resulting from substantial investment and high operating costs. Another barrier may be a declining resource base, increase of which will require new investments in the domestic mining industry that will have an impact on the cost of power generation in coal technologies. In addition, most of clean energy technologies are not mature enough for deployment and commercial use. This raises public concerns, which could lead to the retreat of the investment and increase the investment risk leading to discouraging investors to finance such investments.
EN
Concerns over greenhouse gas emissions are driving a requirement for newly built coal power units to satisfy the so-called “capture ready” conditions. This paper presents the a thermo-economic analysis supplemented by a cost evaluation of a power unit for ultra-supercritical parameters expanded by an amine-based CO2 capture plant. The analysis was performed with the use of an integrated package containing the IPSEpro, MATLAB and Revenue Requirement Method implemented in MOExcel. The 0D model of a post combustion capture installation was developed based on complex CFD calculations of the absorber and stripper. A number of CFD simulations were conducted to create a large database, which was then utilized to develop suitable correlations describing the process Thermodynamic and economic calculations were performed in respect of a power plant coupled with a CO2 separation unit for a varying ratio of amine solvent to the exhaust gas stream (L/G). A local minimum for reboiler heat duty was found for L/G≈3.5 revealing the optimal post combustion capture configuration. It was observed that complementing the power unit with a post-combustion capture (PCC) installation causes a slight increase in the investment costs due to the drop in efficiency, but more important is the rise in total cost due to the investment associated with the CO2 capture plant. It was found that about 14 years is required to compensate the investment cost of the PCC installation.
EN
Massive emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere are the most direct reason causing global warming and climate change, so more and more countries are starting to focus on carbon abatement technologies. In recent years, the method GCS (Geological Carbon Storage), injecting the CO2 in a supercritical state underground for storage, is considered the most effective way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Saline aquifers are given special attention because of its huge amount of storage and, therefore, a deep saline aquifer is the best choice for the storage of CO2. Exemplified by the well-explored Konary structure in the Polish Lowlands, results of assessments of CO2 storage capacity are compared for three cases: (1) a simplified formula based on averaged geological and reservoir parameters and (2) a model of the structure based on averaged geological and reservoir parameters (homogeneous model) and (3) a model of the structure with more detailed geological data (including those on clay interbeds in the sandstone series of the reservoir horizon – heterogeneous model). This allows the estimation of how providing of details of geological and reservoir data, introduced into the model, can affect the ability of CO2 migration within a reservoir horizon intended for CO2 storage, and, consequently, also obtain a more accurate assessment of the capacity that the structure is capable of attaining.
EN
The attentions of the textile industry has been attracted by yak wool due to its excellent properties, environmental friendly characteristics and inexpensive prices. However, the processing of yak wool is difficult due to the larger fiber dispersion and stiffness, especially spun pure and high count yak wool yarn. Therefore, in this paper, a kind of roller-type compact spinning - complete compacting spinning (CCS) was applied to spun pure high count yak wool yarns, in which a special hollow roller made of stainless steel with a strip groove structure on its surface was employed. Based on the mechanism of CCS, the processing parameters for two kinds of yak wool yarns - 20.83 tex and 16.67 tex were set. Then the qualities of the yarns prepared were tested and compared with yak wool yarns spun by common ring spinning. Finally corresponding knitted fabrics were further produced and tested for wearability.
PL
Przemysł włókienniczy zainteresowany jest produkcją przędzy z jaków dzięki jej dobrej właściwości termicznej, przyjaznych ekologicznie warunkom hodowli i niskim cenom. Jednakże przetwarzanie wełny jaków jest trudne ze względu na duże rozrzuty właściwości tych włókien i ich sztywność co uwidacznia się szczególnie przy przędzeniu wełny jaków o dużych masach liniowych. Dla rozwiązania tego zagadnienia opracowano specjalny system przędzenia oparty na przędzeniu kompaktowym z zastosowaniem wydrążonego wałka ze stali kwasoodpornej ze szczeliną o odpowiedniej strukturze na jego powierzchni. Przedstawiono wytwarzanie przędz o masie liniowej ok. 20,8 tex i 16,7 tex. Właściwości wyprzędzionych przędź porównano z właściwościami przędz otrzymanych za pomocą konwencjonalnego przędzenia obrączkowego. Badania zakończono wyprodukowaniem i sprawdzeniem właściwości użytkowych różnych wyrobów dziewiarskich.
EN
This article presents changes in the operating parameters of a combined gas-steam cycle with a CO2 capture installation and flue gas recirculation. Parametric equations are solved in a purpose-built mathematical model of the system using the Ebsilon Professional code. Recirculated flue gases from the heat recovery boiler outlet, after being cooled and dried, are fed together with primary air into the mixer and then into the gas turbine compressor. This leads to an increase in carbon dioxide concentration in the flue gases fed into the CO2 capture installation from 7.12 to 15.7%. As a consequence, there is a reduction in the demand for heat in the form of steam extracted from the turbine for the amine solution regeneration in the CO2 capture reactor. In addition, the flue gas recirculation involves a rise in the flue gas temperature (by 18 K) at the heat recovery boiler inlet and makes it possible to produce more steam. These changes ontribute to an increase in net electricity generation efficiency by 1%. The proposed model and the obtained results of numerical simulations are useful in the analysis of combined gas-steam cycles integrated with carbon dioxide separation from flue gases.
EN
The paper presents the structure and parameters of advanced zero emission power plant (AZEP). This concept is based on the replacement of the combustion chamber in a gas turbine by the membrane reactor. The reactor has three basic functions: (i) oxygen separation from the air through the membrane, (ii) combustion of the fuel, and (iii) heat transfer to heat the oxygen-depleted air. In the discussed unit hot depleted air is expanded in a turbine and further feeds a bottoming steam cycle (BSC) through the main heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). Flue gas leaving the membrane reactor feeds the second HRSG. The flue gas consist mainly of CO2 and water vapor, thus, CO2 separation involves only the flue gas drying. Results of the thermodynamic analysis of described power plant are presented.
PL
W ostatnich latach są prowadzone intensywne prace związane z ograniczeniem emisji CO2 do atmosfery z procesów spalania paliw węglowych w energetyce. W ramach tych prac powstały już nowe technologie oksyspalania, jak również kilka metod separacji CO2 ze spalin. Jedną z nich jest technologia adsorpcyjna VPSA (Vacuum Pressure Swing Adsorption). W technologii VPSA proces adsorpcji i desorpcji jest realizowany przez zmianę ciśnienia. Skuteczność tej metody zależy w dużym stopniu od właściwości sorbentu i jego zdolności sorpcyjnej względem CO2. Parametrami, które wpływają na pojemność sorpcyjną sorbentu, jest temperatura spalin i ich ciśnienie. W przypadku stosowanych sorbentów pojemność sorpcyjna bardzo wzrasta wraz z obniżeniem temperatury spalin i wzrostem ciśnienia. W takim przypadku jest możliwe ograniczenie rozmiarów jednostki adsorpcyjnej, a także kosztów procesu wstępnego sprężania spalin. W pracy przedstawiono propozycję technologii przygotowania spalin kotłowych na potrzeby procesu VPSA, przy założeniu minimalizacji kosztów energetycznych tego procesu i zapotrzebowania na sorbent. W ramach proponowanej technologii zakłada się wykorzystanie ciepła odpadowego ze spalin na potrzeby zasilania chłodziarki absorpcyjnej wytwarzającej wodę lodową. W wyniku przeprowadzonych obliczeń symulacyjnych określono zapotrzebowanie na energię do wstępnego procesu sprężania spalin przed jednostką VPSA oraz minimalne zapotrzebowanie sorbentu do separacji CO2 z przepływającego przez adsorber strumienia spalin.
EN
One of research carried out intensively nowadays is the one on reduction of CO2 emission to atmosphere from fossil fuel combustion in energy sector. The new technologies like oxycombustion or technologies of separation from the flue gas were developed as their result. One of separation technologies considered is VPSA (Vacuum Pressure Swing Adsorption) adsorption on solid sorbents, which is done owing to different pressures on both, adsorption and desorption side of the unit. The efficiency of this method depends on solid sorbent properties and its sorption capacity in respect of separated gas components. The thermodynamic parameters of the separation process that influence sorption capacity are temperature and pressure. This is because the sorption capacity strongly increases with lowering temperature and increasing pressure of the flue gas. Therefore, in such conditions, sorbent demand for separation decreases that makes separation unit to be much smaller, and moreover, it makes flue gas compression process less energy consuming. The paper presents the concept of technology of flue gas pretreatment that may minimise energy cost of separation and sorbent demand for CO2 separation. Proposed technology assumes utilisation of waste heat from flue gas for feeding the absorption cooler that produces cold water for flue gas cooling. This allows not only flue gas cooling but in the same time for moisture removal, which also has positive impact on separation process. As a result of calculation performed, the energy demand for flue gas compression as well as sorbent amount were assessed and showed advantages of proposed technology.
PL
Konieczność ograniczania emisji CO2 do atmosfery stanowi istotny problem, przed jakim stoi energetyka zawodowa. Koszt energetyczny separacji, niezależnie od zastosowanej technologii, jest duży i przekłada się na znaczący spadek sprawności procesu wytwarzania energii elektrycznej. W pracy przedstawiono rezultaty obliczeń optymalizacyjnych dla bloku nadkrytycznego o mocy 900 MWe zintegrowanego z układem VPSA (Vacuum Pressure Swing Adsorption) adsorpcyjnej separacji dwutlenku węgla i układem przygotowania wyseparowanego gazu do transportu. Celem zrealizowanych obliczeń była analiza możliwości odzysku ciepła z procesu wielostopniowego sprężania CO2 z chłodzeniem międzystopniowym. Odzyskane ciepło było rekuperowane w układzie regeneracji bloku energetycznego. W pracy przeanalizowano różne miejsca integracji układu chłodzenia z obiegiem cieplnym bloku. Rozważono różne strumienie rekuperowanego ciepła oraz temperatury czynnika. Uzyskane rezultaty wskazują, że poprzez odpowiedni dobór parametrów termodynamicznych czynnika wnoszącego ciepło oraz miejsc jego rekuperacji można zwiększyć całkowitą sprawność energetyczną bloku o ok. 2% (punkty procentowe) w stosunku do wariantu bez odzysku ciepła.
EN
The necessity of reduction of CO2 emission to atmosphere remains the important problem that energy sector stands against. The energetic cost of separation, regardless of technology applied, is significant and makes electricity generation efficiency also to decrease significantly. The paper presents results of optimisation calculations of supercritical 900 MWe power plant integrated with VPSA (Vacuum Pressure Swing Adsorption) CO2 separation adsorption unit as well as the system of separated carbon dioxide compression for transportation. The application of VPSA technology determines the necessity of flue gas compression before adsorption, and from the other hand generation of a low pressure on desorption – product side. That means, the compression system must be used, and the large amount of energy is needed for its exploitation. The main aim of performed calculations was the assessment of possibilities of heat recuperation from intercooled multistage compression system. The analysis concerned recuperation of heat into the hot water regeneration system of the power plant. Different places of integration of intercooling system were analysed. Moreover, different heat amount as well as temperatures of heat carriers were considered. The results obtained show that by appropriate selection of thermodynamic parameters of heat carriers as well as heat distribution it is possible to increase the total energy efficiency of a power plant of about 2 percentage points relative to the case without heat recuperation.
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