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EN
The paper analyzes the development opportunities of solar systems in the Republic of Serbia. Renewable energy sources and their energy potential, such as solar energy, should be considered in order to meet the needs of consumers. Solar energy can be considered the most modern renewable energy whose utility is still developing, and it is not represented as the utilization of hydro energy sources. Researches show that Serbia is a country with a high RES potential and that it has favorable conditions for production of electrical and heat energy from renewable sources. The aim of this paper is to present the possibilities of using solar energy in Serbia. Energy supply from renewable energy sources is a key factor for each country's strategy, because it directly contributes to reducing the negative effect on the environment.
PL
Niniejsza praca przedstawia analizę możliwości rozwoju systemów solarnych w Republice Serbii. Należy wziąć pod uwagę odnawialne źródła energii i ich potencjał energetyczny, taki jak energia słoneczna by sprostać potrzebom konsumentów. Energię słoneczną można uznać za najnowocześniejszą energię odnawialną, stopień użycia której ciągle wzrasta. Naukowcy wskazują, że Serbia jest krajem z wysokim potencjałem i posiada korzystne warunki do produkcji energii elektrycznej i ciepła z odnawialnych źródeł. Praca ta ma na celu przedstawić możliwości zastosowania energii słonecznej w Serbii. Dostarczanie energii z odnawialnych źródeł jest kluczowym czynnikiem dla strategii każdego kraju, ponieważ bezpośrednio wpływa na zmniejszenie negatywnego wpływu na środowisko.
PL
Artykuł relacjonuje wykład prof. Jerzego Buzka przewodniczącego Komisji Przemysłu, Badań Naukowych i Energii Parlamentu Europejskiego na temat polityki energetycznej Unii Europejskiej w odniesieniu do Polski. Tekst zawiera również sugestie i pytania autora oraz odpowiedzi prelegenta dotyczące energetyki jądrowej w Polsce.
EN
The article represents a round-up of the lecture on the EU energy policy and its relevance for Poland by Professor Jerzy Buzek, President of Industry, Research and Energy Commission of the European Parliament. The suggestions and questions by the author related to nuclear power in Poland as well as answers by Professor Buzek were also presented.
PL
System zysków bezpośrednich ze słońca w budynkach mieszkalnych polega na maksymalnym pozyskiwaniu promieniowania słonecznego przenikającego przez okna i inne przeszklone przegrody. Najpowszechniejszymi systemami do biernego pozyskiwania ciepła są: okna, przegrody akumulacyjno kolektorowe, ogrody zimowe. Celem pracy była analiza trzech przyjętych rozwiązań materiałowo-konstrukcyjnych służących do biernego pozyskiwania ciepła słonecznego w modelowym budynku o konstrukcji szkieletowej pod kątem jego zapotrzebowania na energie grzewczą. Zakres badań obejmował wykonanie dokumentacji technicznej oraz niestacjonarną analizę energetyczną budynku. Jako kryterium rozstrzygające o wyborze najkorzystniejszego systemu biernego pozyskiwania energii słonecznej został przyjęty wskaźnik ilości energii którą można zaoszczędzić na 1 m2 powierzchni użytkowej budynku. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań stwierdzono, że najefektywniejszym systemem pozyskującym energię cieplną ze słońca są duże przeszklenia okienne na południowej ścianie budynku. Dzięki zastosowaniu takiego rozwiązania można ograniczyć zużycie energii grzewczej w budynku modelowym nawet o 14% przy jego prawidłowej lokalizacji względem stron świata.
EN
The biggest and basic advantage of the system of sun direct profits is a simple way it design and subsequently construction. It involves obtaining maximum solar radiation penetrating through windows and other glazed partition. The most common systems for the passive heat obtaining in buildings are the direct profits systems, thermal storage wall, conservatories. The aim of the study was to analyze three of the solutions adopted material and construction used for passive heat obtaining in solar model-timbered building in terms of energy demand for heating. The scope of research involved the making of technical documentation and non-stationary building energy analysis using computer programs. As the decisive criterion for selecting the most favorable passive solar energy obtaining system has been accepted indicator of the amount of energy you can save per 1 m2 of usable floor space. Based on the research it was found that the most effective energy solar heat obtaining system are large glass windows on the south wall of the model building. By using this solution you can reduce heating energy consumption in the model building by as much as 14% at its correct location relative to the world directions.
PL
W publikacji zasygnalizowane zostały niektóre możliwości chłodzenia i klimatyzacji pomieszczeń przy wykorzystaniu energii słonecznej, które mogą być realizowane w różnych wariantach, co jest dokonywane w zastosowaniach praktycznych. Zaletą systemów opartych na chłodzeniu pomieszczeń wykorzystujących energię promieniowania słonecznego jest to, że są one użyteczne w tym czasie, gdy do powierzchni Ziemi dociera duża ilość energii słonecznej, kiedy chłodzenie oraz klimatyzacja są niezbędne. Wykorzystanie energii słonecznej do tego celu pozwala oszczędzać energię elektryczną z sieci elektrycznej. Chłodzenie i klimatyzacja pomieszczeń z użyciem energii słonecznej jest jedną z form wykorzystania energii odnawialnej.
EN
In the paper chosen methods of cooling and air conditioning with the use of solar energy are discussed. They are particularly useful in periods with large amount of solar radiation reaching a region, when cooling or air conditioning is necessary. Then the use of solar energy allows to save electric energy supplied from the grid. This is one of the cases when renewable energy is harnessed.
5
Content available remote Rozwój cieplnej energetyki słonecznej w Polsce i Unii Europejskiej
PL
W pracy przedstawiono możliwości i potencjał energii Słońca oraz tendencje w jej wykorzystaniu. Polityka energetyczna UE, a w szczególności nowa dyrektywa UE o promocji stosowania odnawialnych źródeł energii stwarzają warunki do szybkiego rozwoju nowoczesnych technologii energetyki słonecznej. Ewolucja wykorzystania energii Słońca w Polsce i UE pokazuje na wielki potencjał termalnej energetyki słonecznej.
EN
The paper presents the possibilities and potential of solar energy and the trends in its use. EU energy policy, and in particular the new EU Directive on the promotion of renewable energy sources create conditions for rapid development of modern technology of solar energy. The evolution of the use of solar energy in Poland and the EU points to the great potential of thermal solar energy.
PL
Wszelkie procesy mające miejsce na powierzchni Słońca oraz w jego atmosferze mają wpływ na powstawanie zaburzeń promieniowania elektromagnetycznego, które dociera do Ziemi oraz fluktuacji wiatru słonecznego. W tym kontekście niezbędne wydaje się być wyjaśnienie tego zjawiska, tym bardziej, że w ostatnich latach notowano podwyższoną aktywność słoneczną. Co więcej, pojawiają się pierwsze doniesienia o istniejącym związku pomiędzy aktywnością słoneczną, a czasem życia ludzi. W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono część badań i analiz dotyczących wpływu aktywności słonecznej na propagację fal radiowych, ilustrujących związek pomiędzy zmianami cyklu słonecznego a tłumieniem fal radiowych, długoterminowy rozkład aktywności słonecznej oraz zmian temperatury, a także przykładowe okresy interferencji słonecznych wyznaczone z użyciem metod komputerowych.
EN
Paper discussed the impact of solar activity on the radio waves propagation on the basis of satellite signal. In this context the Author presents e.g. extraterrestrial natural noise sources, the influence of changes in the solar cycle on the radio wave propagation among selected frequency, the distribution of solar activity and the changes in temperature in 130 years. Moreover the Author presents the approximated periods of solar interferences for EUTELSAT Hot Bird 13A, 13B and 13C satellites.
Logistyka
|
2015
|
nr 3
4093--4100, CD 1
PL
W artykule przedstawiono analizę obciążeń chłodniczych budynku przy uwzględnieniu zmienności czynników wpływających na wielkość zysków ciepła. W celu zminimalizowania zapotrzebowania na chłód określono wpływ elementów zacieniających instalowanych po stronie zewnętrznej na oknach na wielkość mocy chłodniczej niezbędnej do klimatyzacji wybranego budynku. Wielowariantowe obliczenia obciążenia chłodniczego budynku mają na celu określenie wielkości redukcji zapotrzebowania na chłód. Określenie zysków ciepła od nasłonecznienia jest pracochłonne, lecz daje wynik odzwierciadlający wpływ powierzchni przegród przezroczystych, zastosowanych urządzeń przeciwsłonecznych oraz usytuowania budynku względem stron świata, na wewnętrzne zyski ciepła. W niniejszej pracy, wchodzące w skład bilansu zyski ciepła od nasłonecznienia określone są w trzech wariantach zacienienia okien. Aby ograniczyć zużycie anergii elektrycznej w instalacji chłodniczej określono wariant najmniejszego zapotrzebowania na energie potrzebną do funkcjonowania układu chłodzenia. Oszacowano również korzyści wynikające z czasowego niedotrzymania warunków komfortu cieplnego.
EN
The article presents an analysis of the building cooling load taking into account the variability of the factors affecting the size of the heat gains. In order to minimize the demand for cooling, the effect of shading elements installed on the outside on the windows and its effect on size of the cooling capacity of air conditioning system for the building has been estimated. Multivariate building cooling load calculations to determine the size of the reduction in cooling demand has derived. Determination of heat gain from the sun is laborious, but gives a result which reflects the influence of the surface transparent partitions, devices used as sunscreen and its location on the building envelope in relation to the world, as well as to the internal heat gains has great attention in obtained calculation. In this study, included in the balance sheet of solar heat gains are defined in three different shading of windows. To reduce the consumption of electricity energy in the cooling system of the smallest variant identified the need for the power supply for the operation of the cooling system. Also assessed the financial benefits of the temporary default of comfort.
8
Content available remote The Evolution of Unstable 'Beta-Gamma' Magnetic Fields of Active Region AR 2222
EN
This event allows us to investigate how plasma–magnetic field interactions in the solar corona can produce suprathermal electron populations over periods from tens of minutes to several hours, and the interactions of wave-particle and wave-wave lead to characteristic fine structures of the emission. An intense and broad solar radio burst type IV was recorded by CALLISTO spectrometer from 240360 MHz. Using data from a the KRIM observatory, we aim to provide a comprehensive description of the synopsis formation and dynamics of a a single solar burst type IV event due to active region AR2222. For five minutes, the event exhibited strong pulsations on various time scales and “broad patterns” with a formation of a group type III solar burst. AR 2222 remained the most active region, producing a number of minor C-Class solar flares. The speed of the solar wind also exceeds 370.8 km/second with 10.2 g/cm3 density of proton in the solar corona. The radio flux also shows 171 SFU. Besides, there are 3 active regions, AR2217, AR2219 and AR2222 potentially pose a threat for Mclass solar flares. Active region AR2222 have unstable 'beta-gamma' magnetic fields that harbor energy for M-class flares. As a conclusion, we believed that Sun’s activities more active in order to achieve solar maximum cycle at the end of 2014.
EN
The formation of detected solar radio burst type II occurred was captured using Compound Astronomical Low Cost Frequency Spectrometer Transportable Observatory (CALLISTO) system which gives a better resolution of a wonderful image than other countries. The phenomenon was found on 2nd November 2014 at 09:39 [UT] in Switzerland. CALLISTO spectrometer device detects and traces a Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) phenomenon that causes the occurrence of the solar burst type II. As it happened, the drift rate of the solar radio burst Type II is calculated and discussed in details. Plasma frequency (fp), Langmuir waves and type II radiation relates each other in the establishment of this phenomenon. This paper presents a study of drift rate selected event of solar radio burst type II based on CMEs. The drift rate at this moment was about 3.2 MHz/s which has low drift rate thus the velocity OF THE CMEs was just about 695 km/s shown from NOAA.
EN
Recent data of a complex solar radio burst type II is analyzed and reviewed. The monitoring of solar radio burst was done by using the Compact Astronomical Low cost, Low frequency Instrument for Spectroscopy and Transportable Observatory (CALLISTO) from BLEIN 7 meter dish telescope at ETH, Zurich in frequency range of 25 until 1000 MHz. During the inspection of the X-ray spectrum, we observed that the C3-category flare was caused by a filament of magnetism, which rose up and erupted between 0400 and 0600 UT. This occurred three hours before the signature of solar radio burst type II. There are some of the material in the filament fell back to the sun, causing a flash of X-rays where it hit the Sun surface. This is a Hydra Flare which occurred without sunspots. On the basis of these results, we suggest that a single shock in the leading edge of the CME could be the source of the multiple type II bursts and support the notion that the CME nose and the CME-streamer interaction are the two main mechanisms able to generate the bursts.
11
Content available remote An Analysis of Eruption of the Sun Detected by Solar Radio Burst Type I
EN
Type I solar burst were identified based on data recorded by CALLISTO BLEIN, Switzerland in the period of 17th of January, 2011. Solar Radio Burst Type I is one of the main type of solar burst which is believed to provide a diagnostic of electron acceleration in the corona. This noise storm burst is associated with emerging and growing active regions and last from hours to days. It can be observed that solar radio burst type I is formed within four minutes, although the number of sunspots is just 15. The results of the recent time indicate that Sunspot group 1147 has been mostly quiet since it rounded the eastern limb, but previous week's far side activity shows it is capable of significant eruptions. In 2011, only one day has been detected with spotless day, which means that it is about 7% of overall cases. Probabilities for significant disturbances in Earth's magnetic field are given for three activity levels: active, minor storm, severe storm. From the current conditions in the space weather website on 16th January 2011 that is the first event was shown that the solar wind occurred with a speed of 433.2 km/second while its density about 3.2 protons/cm3. Besides the solar wind, X-ray solar flare with 6 hours maximum: B1 at 1846 UT and 24 hours: B2 at 1544 UT were detected. While type I seem to be an indicator of pre-solar flare and CMEs, on the observational analysis, we could not directly confirmed that this is the only possibility, and we need to consider other processes to explain in detailed the injection, energy loss and the mechanism of the acceleration of the particles. We could conclude one active region will not produce a huge explosion of solar phenomena.
EN
A preliminary correlation study of the herring − bone type II with a type III solar burst of has been made. On the basis of this study and in combination with the observation in radio emission, an interpretation of the mechanism of the occurrence of this event has been proposed. The type II solar radio burst with a split and herring bone is occurring at the same time from 36 MHz till 50 MHz. We have noted that an individual type III burst also can be observed at 13:23 UT from 45-50 MHz. During that day, a stream of solar wind from a coronal hole on the Sun has disturbing Earth's magnetosphere creating a minor geomagnetic storm, G1 on the NOAA scale of G1-G5. In this case, the solar flare is not very high, but CME is responsible to form a solar radio burst type II. Overall, based on seven days observation beginning from 25th March 2013, the solar activity is considered as very low. The highest solar flare can be observed within 7 days is only a class of B8 flare. There was no CMEs event that directed to the Earth is detected. The geomagnetic field activities are also at minimum level. Although the solar flare event is at a lower stage, it is still possible to form the solar radio burst type II which is associated with CME event. From the selected event, although theoretically solar radio burst type II is associated with CMEs, there is no compelling solar radio burst type II without a flare. The only difference is the dynamic structure and the intensity and speed of both phenomena (solar flares and CMEs) which depend on the active region. Nevertheless, understanding how energy is released in solar flares is one of the central questions in astrophysics. This solar radio burst type II formation is the first event that successfully detected by e-CALLISTO network in 2013.
EN
We report the timeline of the solar radio burst Type II that formed but fragmented at certain point based on the eruption of the solar flare on 13th November 2012 at 2:04:20 UT. The active region AR 1613 is one of the most active region in 2012. It is well known that the magnetic energy in the solar corona is explosively released before converted into the thermal and kinetic energy in solar flares. In this work, the Compound Astronomical Low-frequency, Low-cost Instrument for Spectroscopy Transportable Observatories (CALLIISTO) system is used in obtaining a dynamic spectrum of solar radio burst data. There are eight active regions and this is the indicator that the Sun is currently active. Most the active regions radiate a Beta radiation. The active regions 1610, 1611 and 1614 are currently the largest sunspots on the visible solar disk. There is an increasing chance for an isolated M-Class solar flare event. It is also expected that there will be a chance of an M flare, especially from AR 1614 and 1610. Although these two observations (radio and X-rays) seem to be dominant on the observational analysis, we could not directly confirmed that this is the only possibility, and we need to consider other processes to explain in detailed the injection, energy loss and the mechanism of the acceleration of the particles. In conclusion, the percentage of energy of solar flare becomes more dominant rather than the acceleration of particles through the Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and that will be the main reason why does the harmonic structure of type II burst is not formed. This event is one fine example of tendencies solar radio burst type III, which makes the harmonic structure of solar radio burst type II fragmented.
EN
This paper provides a short review of some of the basic concepts related to the origin of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). The numerous ideas which have been put forward to elucidate the initiation of CMEs are categorized in terms of whether this event is a gradual CME or impulsive CME. In this case, an earth-directed Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) was observed on April 2, 2014 by the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) C2. This recent observations obtained a large impulsive CMEs. The CME, originating from the active region AR2027. The speed of CMEs is 1600 kms-1. A halo CME, a bright expanding ring at the North-West region is exploded beginning at about 14:36 UT, and the process of departing, expansion and propagation are highlighted. We discuss the correspondence of this event with the structure of the CME in the LASCO data. It is believed that the high solar flare and a Moreton waves initiate this kind of CMEs.
EN
Solar space weather events like Coronal Mass Ejections and solar flares are usually accompanied by solar radio bursts, which can be used for a low-cost real-time space weather monitoring. In order to make a standard system, a CALLISTO (Compound Astronomical Low-cost Low-frequency Instrument for Spectroscopy in Transportable Observatory) spectrometers, designed and built by electronics engineer Christian Monstein of the Institute for Astronomy of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich) have been already developed all over the world since 2005 to monitor the solar activities such as solar flare and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). Up to date, there are 25 sites that used the same system in order to monitor the Sun within 24 hours. This outstanding project also is a part of the United Nations together with NASA initiated the International Heliophysical Year IHY2007 to support developing countries participating in ‘Western Science’. Beginning February 2012, Malaysia has also participated in this project. The goals of this work is to highlight how does the signal processing of solar radio burst data transfer from a site of National Space Centre Banting Selangor directly to the Institute of Astrophysics Switzerland. Solar activities in the low region, focusing from 150 MHz to 400 MHz is observed daily beginning from 00.30UT 12.30 UT. Here, we highlighted how does the signal processing work in order to make sure that the operation is in the best condition. Although the solar activities have experienced rapid growth recently, high-level management of CALLISTO system has remained successfully manage the storage of data. It is also not easy to maintain the future data seems the number of sites are also growing from time to time. In this work, we highlighted the potential role of Malaysia as one of the candidate site that possible gives a good data and focusing on a few aspects such as optimization, and performance evaluation data and visualization.
16
Content available The Development of Solar Astronomy In Malaysia
EN
Monitoring the Sun reveals a variety of fascinating and complex physical phenomena which are being studied mainly by analyzing its emission. Solar activity has an impact with space weather. The characteristic features of the climate of Malaysia are uniform temperature, very high humidity and copious rainfall. It has an average of temperature of 26.7 ºC. Therefore, it is suitable to monitor the Sun. In following work, we will emphasize the development of solar astronomy in Malaysia. The ground based observation (i) optical and (ii) radio are the main region that we focused on. Optical observation has started earlier comparing with radio observation. In optical region it covers from 400 –700 nm while in radio region, we focus from 45 MHz to 870 MHz. The number of observatories is increasing. A dedicated work to understand the Sun activity in radio region is a part of an initiative of the United Nations together with NASA in order to support developing countries participating in „Western Science‟ research. Realize how important for us to keep doing a research about the solar bursts, by using the new radio spectrometer, CALLISTO (Compound Low Cost Low Frequency Transportable Observatories) spectrometer. Malaysia is one of the earliest country from South-East Asia (ASEAN) that involve this research. One of the advantages to start the solar monitoring in Malaysia is because our strategic location as equator country that makes possible to observing a Sun for 12 hours daily throughout a year. We strongly believe that Malaysia as one of contributor of solar activity data through E-CALLISTO network. This is a very good start for developing a radio astronomy in Malaysia. With the implementation of 45 MHz -870 MHz CALLISTO systems and development of solar burst monitoring network, a new wavelength regime is becoming available for solar radio astronomy. Overall, this article presents an overview of optical and radio astronomy in Malaysia. With the present level of the international collaboration, it is believed that the potential involvement of local and international scientist in solar astrophysics will increase.
EN
A short term variation of solar flare in nine months (January 2010 to September 2010) is presented. This paper review and analyze the correlation between radio flux strength measurement and solar flare in the X-ray region. The radio flux measurement data were taken from the National Research Council; Ottawa while hard X-ray emission observed by Royal Observatory of Belgium. The overall range of solar radio flux recorded in this study ranging from 68 x 10-22 Wm-2Hz-1 to 96 x 10-22 Wm-2Hz-1. As there was no class of an X of solar flare reported at all in this study, we can confirm that there are no major effects that happened on Earth and outer space such as Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and solar storms. We concluded that the Sun shows a very minimum activity towards 24th solar cycle.
EN
Solar flare is one of the solar activities that take place in the outermost layer of the corona. Solar flares can heat the material to several million degrees in just a few minutes and at the same time they release the numerous amount of energy. It is believed that a change of magnetic field lines potentially creates the solar flares. The objectives of the study are to identify and compare the types of solar flares (in X-Ray) region and to improve understanding of solar flares. Data are taken from the NOAA website, from the United States Department of Commerce, NOAA, Space Weather Prediction Center (SPWC). Solar radio flux readings were merged together with the three classes and a total of nine graphs were plotted. In illustrating the relationship of solar radio flux and solar flares, it can be explained by studying the range values of flux corresponding to flares values. From this case study, it was found that the minimum value of solar radio flux in order for the flares to occur is equivalent 68 x 10-22Wm-2Hz-1. Thus, whenever the values of solar radio flux are high, there should be a higher number of flares produced by the sun. The overall range of solar radio flux recorded in this study ranging from 68 x 10-22 Wm-2Hz-1 to 96 x 10-22 Wm-2Hz-1. Observing and collecting data from the Sun and develop our very own new prediction methods will leads the accuracy of the prediction of the behavior of the Sun more precisely.
EN
The impact of solar activities indirectly affected the conditions of earth's climate and space weather in general. In this work, we will highlight a low cost project, however, potentially gives a high impact through a dedicated long-term and one of the most successful space weather project. This research is a part of an initiative of the United Nations together with NASA in order to support developing countries participating in „Western Science‟ research. At the beginning of 2007, the objective to monitor the solar activities (solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections) within 24 hours all over the world has positively turned to reality. Realize how important for us to keep doing a research about the solar bursts, by using the new radio spectrometer, CALLISTO. This research is not only hoping to give a knowledge to the people about how the solar bursts are produced, the characteristics of every type of solar burst at the wide range (45 MHz to 870 MHz) but also the effect of the solar burst toward the Earth. By using the same CALLISTO spectrometer within the 45-870 MHz, designing and leading by Christian Monstein from ETH Zurich, Switzerland, this research project is the one of successful project under ISWI program. Malaysia becomes the 19th countries that involve this research. One of the advantages to start the solar monitoring in Malaysia is because our strategic location as equator country that makes possible to observing a Sun for 12 hours daily throughout a year. We strongly believe that Malaysia as one of contributor of solar activity data through E-CALLISTO network. This is a very good start for developing a radio astronomy in Malaysia.
EN
A compact solar flare was observed during a total solar eclipse event on 13-14 November 2012. This phenomenon is beginning in local time on November 14 west of the date line over northern Australia, and ended in local time on November 13 east of the date line near the west coast of South America. During the eclipse, the highest magnitude was 1.0500, occurring only 12 hours before perigee, with the maximum eclipse totality lasting just over four minutes. Considering the observational facts, the solar radio burst type III can be detected from the National Space Centre Malaysia by the Compound Low Cost Low Frequency Transportable Observatory (CALLISTO) system from 00:00 UT –1:30 UT. The group and individual solar burst type III can be detected in the region of 150-400 MHz. However, the eclipse cannot be observed from our site. From the observation, it was found that the eruption in the active region is becoming more active with a tens of groups solar radio burst type III can be observed. It continuing bursting within the first one hour. The sunspot number exceeds to 108 and solar wind speed 454.9 km/sec. Still the Sun remains active and we need to consider other processes to explain in detailed the injection, energy loss and the mechanism of the acceleration of the particles.
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