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PL
W artykule zaprezentowano wyniki oznaczeń trytu w wodach z czterech źródeł usytuowanych na terenie Pienińskiego Par¬ku Narodowego. Za pomocą programu FLOWPC podjęto próbę oszacowania trytowego wieku wód w systemie hydrogeologicznym, tj. czasu wymiany wody w zbiornikach drenowanych przez źródła. Z uwagi na skomplikowany porowo-szczelinowy system krążenia wód i niewielkie obszary zasilania najbardziej prawdopodobne wyniki uzyskuje się dla modeli dyspersyjnych i eksponencjalno-tłokowych. Uzyskane wyniki szacowania wieku wód, niezależnie od przyjętego modelu i jego parametrów, potwierdzają stosunkowo młody wiek wód, nieprzekraczający najprawdopodobniej 30 lat, i świadczą o drenowaniu przez badane źródła wód współczesnego zasilania infiltracyjnego.
EN
The paper presents the results of tritium determinations in four springs located within the Pieniny National Park. The attempt of assessing the age of groundwater, i.e. the groundwater tritium turnover time in the drained reservoirs was made using the FLOWPC computer code application. Due to the complex fissure-pore groundwater circulation system as well as relatively small recharge areas, the most reliable results were obtained for dispersion and exponential-piston flow models. The obtained groundwater age estimations, regar¬dless of the assumed model and its parameters, corroborated the relatively young age of studied waters, presumably not exceeding 30 years. This proves that the studied springs in the Pieniny National Park are recharged mainly by modern infiltration.
2
Content available The Pieniny Klippen Belt in Poland
EN
The Pieniny Klippen Belt in Poland marks the Central Carpathian-North European plate suture zone. The strictly tectonic present-day confines of the Pieniny Klippen Belt are characterized as (sub)vertical faults and shear zones. A strong reduction in the space of the original sedimentary basins took place. The strike-slip-bounded tectonic blocks, thrust units, toe-thrusts and olistostromes are mixed together, resulting in the present-day mélange character where individual tectonic units are difficult to distinguish. The sedimentary rocks of the Pieniny Klippen Belt were deposited in the paleogeographic realm known as the Alpine Tethys that was divided into two basins separated by the Czorsztyn Ridge. The accretionary prism formed in front of the advancing Alcapa (Central Carpathians) terrane had overridden the Czorsztyn Ridge during the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene. The destruction of the Czorsztyn Ridge supplied huge amounts of coarse-clastic material, including olistoliths, into the Magura Basin during the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene. The rotation of the Alcapa caused the strike-slip motions which led to the deformation of the previously created nappes and development of the flower structure. Two parallel faults delineate the southern and northern limits of the Pieniny Klippen Belt. The stops in Sromowce (Macelowa and Sobczański Gorge area) allow the observation of the southern marginal zone of the Pieniny Klippen Belt, the overturned position of the rotated counterclockwise deformed rock as well as the diapiric uplift of the Pieniny rocks in a transpressional strike-slip regime. The Zawiasy (Krościenko area) stop is located in the northern marginal zone (Hulina Unit) of the Pieniny Klippen Belt along the major dextral strike-slip Dunajec Fault.
3
Content available The North European Platform suture zone in Poland
EN
The authors interpret the structure of the Central Carpathian-North European plates suture zone in Poland, where three main Carpathian tectonic units: the Central Carpathian, Pieniny Klippen Belt (PKB) and Outer Carpathian are present. In general, the PKB follows this zone. Several deep bore-holes were drilled in this region and the seismic lines were tied to bore-hole data and geological maps. The Polish PKB belongs to the complex geological structure stretching from Vienna in Austria to Romania. The rocks included in the PKB tectonic components were deposited within the paleogeographic realm known as the Alpine Tethys, mainly during the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous times. Both strike-slip and thrust components occur within the Polish section of the PKB. The strongly tectonized, few kilometer wide PKB zone is limited by a flower structure marked by two major faults, linked to the strike-slip zone. These faults reach the North European Platform (part of the North European Plate). The flysch sequences, arranged into a series of north-vergent thrust-sheets, constitute the main component of the PKB in the survey zone. They contain olistoliths, which are mainly Jurassic-Early Cretaceous in age. The PKB tectonic components of different age, strike-slip, thrust as well as toe-thrusts and olistostromes are mixed together, giving the present-day mélange character of this belt, where individual units are hard to distinguish. Two olistostrome belts (mélange units) exist within the PKB structure. The seismic lines show the Central Carpathian Paleogene rocks covering the Paleozoic Central Carpathian Basement south of the PKB. The Subtatric covers the High-Tatric autochthonic and allochthone rocks. The Central Carpathian Plate is thrust over the North European Platform in the Podhale region. The allochthonous Outer Carpathians consist of several nappes (thrust-sheets) verging northward. They are thrust over each other and over the North European Platform which dips gently southward.
EN
The radiolarian biostratigraphy of the Middle–Upper Jurassic pelagic siliceous sediments (Czajakowa Radiolarite Formation) in the Niedzica succession of the Pieniny Klippen Belt (Carpathians) is interpreted in terms of their age in a stratotype section, and facies equivalents in other tectonic-facies units of this region. The siliceous sediments are represented by radiolarian cherts and silicified limestones which are underlain and overlain by red nodular limestones, equivalents of the Rosso Ammonitico facies. The radiolarian association includes thirty-seven taxa belonging to twenty one genera which represent the Northern Tethyan Palaeogeographic Province. Key radiolarians recorded provide a means of correlation with zonation schemes based on Unitary Associations defined for the Jurassic Tethyan sediments. The age of the Czajakowa Radiolarite Formation in the stratotype section is determined as U.A.Z.9 to U.A.Z.11 corresponding to middle Oxfordian up to Kimmeridgian. Comparison of radiolarian biozones from the stratotype section with other facial equivalent sections in the Pieniny Klippen Belt reveals a significant diachronism for both the lower and the upper limits of the Jurassic pelagic siliceous facies.
EN
The paper discusses the results of stationary limnimetric observations conducted since 2003 for three springs located in Pieniny Czorsztyńskie within the Pieniny National Park. Current knowledge on the hydrogeological regime of the examined springs, and especially their response to precipitation, meltwater supply and type of discharge recession during periods with no water supply indicated that all the springs drained small local groundwater reservoirs characterized by rapid water exchange. One of the springs was ofperiodic nature. Relatively short (14 years) observational series on spring discharge were used to identify the periods of low flow and hydrogeological drought. In order to achieve this goal, total precipitation and snow cover thickness were analyzed in individual hydrological years. Low flow periods were defined as those when the spring discharge dropped below an average value calculated on the minimum annual spring discharge for the observation period. Identification of the hydrological drought was based on the interpretation of moving average values, which allowed for the elimination of changes in spring discharge due to seasonal fluctuations and random deviations. The basis for the determination of hydrogeological droughts were the deviations ofmoving average values from the mean value over the entire observation period. The methodology was similar to the ways of determining hydrogeological drought described by other authors in mountainous areas of Poland. Periods of the most severe hydrogeological drought in the Pieniny occurred in the 2003-2004, at the turn of 2005 and 2006, in 2012, and in the 2015-2016. Specific dates of drought occurrence for different springs were variable and depended on the morphological location of the spring and local hydrogeological conditions.
EN
A concise stratigraphic synthesis of the Grajcarek Succession of the Pieniny Klippen Belt (West Carpathians,Poland) is presented. This succession consists of 12 lithostratigraphic units with the rank of formation, and two with the rank of member, spanning the geological time from middle Toarcian (late Early Jurassic) to Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) and mid Paleocene. The stratigraphical column starts with deep-water flysch (the Szlachtowa Fm; Toarcian–Aalenian through Bajocian–?lower Bathonian), followed by dysoxic shales, marls and limestones (the Opaleniec Fm; Bajocian–Bathonian). The previously distinguished Krzonowe and Stembrow formations, are downgraded to members. Late Bathonian–Oxfordian times were characterized by the widely occurring deposition of abyssal radiolarites and shales, which is represented by the Sokolica Radiolarite Fm and the Czajakowa Radiolarite Fm, common to both the Grajcarek and Klippen successions. Red nodular limestones and aptychus marls (the Czorsztyn Limestone Fm; Kimmeridgian–lower Tithonian) overlie the radiolarites. Above, pelagic cherty limestones occur (the Pieniny Limestone Fm; Tithonian–Aptian). These are followed by Lower Cretaceous predominantly dark shales and marls (the Kapuśnica Fm; Aptian–Albian, the Wronine Fm; Albian, and the Hulina Fm; Albian–Cenomanian), succeeded by abyssal, red shales (the Malinowa Shale Fm; upper Cenomanian–Campanian), and these in turn by grey, marly, flyschoid strata (the Hałuszowa Fm; ?Campanian). The Grajcarek Succession terminates with the Jarmuta Fm (Maastrichtian–mid Paleocene). It consists of sedimentary breccias, often with large olistoliths of Jurassic–Cretaceous rocks, and conglomerates and sandstones in a southern zone, giving way to proximal flysch and distal flysch facies further north. This was the time of orogenic Laramian folding events, associated with subaerial and submarine erosion. A sedimentary hiatus separates the Jarmuta Fm flysch (Maastrichtian) from the Szczawnica Fm (Upper Paleocene–Eocene) in both the Klippen and Grajcarek successions. This hiatus seems to diminish and finally close in a northward direction, in the Magura Nappe succession.
EN
The paper presents the 12-years discharge variations of the three springs located within the Pieniny National Park. The background was the observations of the water table variation in the springs and seasonal measurements of the springs discharge, which made the possibility of calculation of the rating curves. Generally, the Pieniny springs are characterized by low discharge. The mean discharge of the springs studied for the period 2003–2014 was as follows: spring of the Potok pod Wysoki Dział – 1.66 dm3s‒1, spring of the Kotłowy Potok – 0.26 dm3s‒1, seasonal spring of the Kirowy Potok – 0.10 dm3s‒1. Variations of the springs discharge are different due to the fact that particular spring drain separate, and relatively small groundwater reservoir. First of all, the influence of the many-years variation in the sum of atmospheric precipitation as well as the amount of infiltrating meltwater can be observed. Observations with monthly distribution showed the characteristic shift between maximum discharge of the spring and the sum of atmospheric precipitation (about 1 month shift) as well as the thawing period (1–3 months shift). Presumably, during dry seasons the springs have mainly the thawing regime, in the normal (balanced) seasons – the thawing-precipitation regime is dominant, and during the wet season – the precipitation-thawing regime prevails. In the years 2012 and 2013 the sudden decrease of discharge of the Kotłowy Potok and Kirowy Potok springs have been observed which is in well agreement with the hydrogeological drought identified in Poland.
EN
A petrographical and geochemical analysis was carried out on intrusive rocks from the Pieniny and Moravian areas, with special attention to boron content and K-Ar radiometric ages. The intrusions form medium- to high-potassium calc-alkaline andesitic suites, which are compositionally slightly different from each other and from the other calc-alkaline sequences in the Carpathian-Pannonian Region. No significant geochemical differences were observed within the different phase intrusions in the Pieniny areas. However, there is a slight difference in major and trace element composition between the Moravian and Pieniny intrusions. The andesitic rocks in the Pieniny and Moravian area are enriched in large ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements and depleted in high field strength elements, indicating a metasomatized mantle source of the parent magmas. The low boron concentration of the andesitic rocks in the Pieniny area is in the range measured in back-arc, intraplate basalts of the Bakony-Balaton Highland volcanic field, whereas the higher boron content of the Moravian rocks overlaps with that of the Western Carpathian andesites. This may indicates the heterogeneity of the mantle lithosphere below the areas, or indicates different magma evolution histories. On the basis of the systematic geochronological study, the intrusive rocks along the Outer Carpathians can be divided on three groups, which overlap with each other temporally. The oldest magmatism occurred from 14.8 Ma to 11.0 Ma in the Uhersky Brod area, Moravia, which was followed by the emplacement of andesitic dikes and sills in the Pieniny Mts., south Poland (13.5–10.8 Ma). In the Pieniny area, two intrusive phases were distinguished. Partly overlapping with this area, but generally younger than this magmatism, the emplacement of the youngest intrusions is referable to the Poiana Botizei-Ţibleş-Toroiaga-Rodna-Bârgâu intrusive area, Romania, where magmatic activity started at ~11.8 Ma and terminated at 8.0 Ma.
EN
The results presented are a part of the biostratigraphical and palaeoenvironmental studies of the authors on the microfauna and organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from the Mesozoic dark deposits of the Pieniny Klippen Belt. The authors present the latest results from the Lower–Middle Jurassic strata, including the Szlachtowa and the Skrzypny Shale formations in the Slovak part of the Pieniny Klippen Belt near the villages of Jarabina, Kamienka and Litmanová. Material for the present study comes from exposures along the Malý Lipník, Veľký Lipník and Riečka Streams, and from the Jar-1 borehole, near Jarabina. The authors document the microfaunal and phytoplanctonic content of these rocks that contain over 50 foraminifera and 20 dinoflagellate cyst species. Their Middle Toarcian?–Aalenian to Bajocian–Bathonian ages are proposed and discussed. Quantitative and qualitative variations of both microfossil groups are interpreted as reflecting various sedimentary settings, related mainly to the variable intensity of influx of terrestrial matter into marine basins, leading to different bottom-water living conditions.
EN
Planktonic foraminifera, calcareous dinocysts and nannofossils have been identified in thin sections of the “spotted limestone”, exposed in the Grajcarek Stream at Szlachtowa and assigned to the Pieniny Limestone Formation in the Magura Succession, Pieniny Klippen Belt (southern Poland). The new data indicate that the “spotted limestone” is older than was suggested in previous reports (Albian or Cenomanian?). The foraminiferal taxa belong mainly to the upper part of the Lower Aptian. The calcareous nannofossils may correspond to the Aptian NC6(?)-NC7 zones, whereas the assemblage of calcareous dinoflagellate cysts is less conclusive (Late Barremian-Aptian).
EN
Czorsztyn Lake is an artificial water reservoir backed up by the hydropower plant Niedzica earth dam on Dunajec River in south Poland. Its filling began in 1995 and ended in 1997. The reservoir of 234.5 million m3 capacity is shallow, between 20 to 50 m of water column, on average. Until 2011 the seismic activity in this region was sparse, some 1 event trimonthly. However, in November 2011 more than 60 events occurred. Such bursts of activity, separated by low activity periods, continue to appear. Since August 2013 the area is monitored by a local seismic network. The setup allows to accurately locate the epicenters and to determine source mechanisms for stronger events. The events are clustered and aligned along NE-SW direction and their mechanisms are very similar, indicating N-S strike slip faulting. This and the irregular pattern of activity suggest that this seismicity is triggered by the reservoir impoundment.
EN
The main aim of this paper is presentation of the most characteristic outcrops/geological monuments, which occur in Szczawnica spa vicinity and are perfect geotouristic objects. These objects are presented with short geological/geomorphological remarks about their origin, development and significance in natural sciences. They provide the excellent inanimate natural monuments (geotourist trail in Pieniny Mountains from Szczawnica to Červený Kláštor, Palenica Mountain, Zawiasy area, Bryjarka Mountain, Jarmuta Mountain and Zaskalnik Waterfall), which can be used for better understanding of the history of our Earth and numerous geological processes, which „sculptured” its surface, especially very complicated geological story of the Pieniny Klippen Belt.
EN
The purpose of this paper is to identify and characterize a fault zone located within poorly indurated Pliocene clastic strata occurring in the southern part of the Orava Basin on the boundary of Outer and Central Western Carpathians, close to the Pieniny Klippen Belt. The Orava Basin is a part of the Orava - Nowy Targ intramontane basin. The fault zones within poorly indurated sediments are usually very complex. If the rocks are well indurated, a fault zone is divided into two parts - the fault gouge and the damage zone (Fossen 2010). The fault gouge is characterized by the slip plane and strong deformations such as fractures or clasts' reorientation. Not all the researchers, however, agree with a general fault zone model described by Fossen (2010). This model is indeed appropriate for strongly lithified rocks. In case of poorly lithified sediments, Rawling & Goodwin (2006) and later Gudmundsson (2011) and Loveless et al. (2011) suggested adding the third, additional zone - the mixed zone. It separates the fault gouge and the damage zone and the presence of the deformation bands and clasts' reorientation are its main features. The mixed zone records the initial deformations of the sediment and stays active for some time even after the lithification (Rawling & Goodwin 2006). Although no displacement of strata can be noticed in the studied exposure, the occurrence of numerous fractured clasts and exposure-scale fissures can be used in the interpretation of a potential fault zone. In order to describe the considered fault's anatomy, the presented research has been concentrated on the identification of three main fault parts occurring within poorly indurated strata: the fault gouge, the mixed zone and the damage zone. The analyzed exposure, whose length and height exceeds 70 and 15 meters, respectively, is located within a natural scarp in the Cichy Stream Valley. The scarp is mostly NNE-SSW to NE-SW oriented. It is dominated by poorly indurated Pliocene muddy to sand-supported paraconglomerates, mainly comprised of mudstone and sandstone clasts and up to 40% of matrix. The thickness of the rocks observed within the exposure reaches about 15 meters. Besides that, in few places, lense-shaped bodies of sandstone were observed. Their thickness is lower than 1 meter. They appear in the lower part of exposure, close to its easternmost side. From the neotectonic point of view, three groups of structures were recognized: clast-scale fractures, deformation bands and exposure-scale fissures. The paraconglomerates are dominated by the fractured clasts. The clasts are cut either by one or two sets of fractures. The planes of these fractures mainly strike NE-SW to NNE-SW. In the western part of the exposure, the measurements were the most consistent, while the eastern part shows a greater dispersion of the data. In both western and easternmost parts of the exposure, some clasts are reoriented. Inclination reaches even 90°. Fractured clasts' investigation have yielded information about the intensity of the deformation within the paraconglomerate. The counts have shown that the prevailing amount of the fractured clasts occurs in the western part of the exposure - even 126 counts per square meter. The average amount of fractures observed in the middle of the scarp is 57 per square meter, whereas in the eastern part approximately 30 fractures per square meterwere be counted. The deformation bands have been observed within the lenses of sandstones, located in the center of the eastern part of the exposure. Moreover, the whole exposure is cut by numerous fissures that either cut across or bypass the clasts. Some of them are open and wide, while other are narrow. The fissures differ between themselves in terms of size. Therefore they were subdivided into three groups: (1) cutting the whole exposure, (2) disappearing towards the top of the exposure, (3) inferior (the smallest) ones. Except for one fissure placed on the west, the first group appears mainly in the center of the eastern part of the scarp. Second group is located in the center of the exposure. The third group, in turn, can be observed mainly in the eastern part of the paraconglomerate. Besides the inferior fissures (3), they mostly strike NNE-SSW, similarly to the fractures in clasts. The fractured clasts' abundance, fissures' presence and clasts' reorientation can be interpreted as the indicators of a potential fault zone. The large amount of fractures in clasts in the westernmost part of the scarp, in combination with first group fissure presence and clasts's reorientation, leads to the conclusion that it may represent the location of the fault gouge. Whether the gouge is relatively narrow, the observed reorientation might belong to the adjacent mixed zone. The mixed zone seems to occur in few places within the scarp. Its presence can be inferred from deformation bands' location and clasts' reorientation. Quite high background of fractures at the level of approximately 50 per square meter and tension fissures' presence within the whole scarp may indicate of the damage zone location. In this case, the damage zone would cover the largest part of the exposure, leaving the rest of it for a fault gouge and the mixed zone. The model of the dominant damage zone also matches another theory, associated with a shear zone. In this case, the fissures observed within the scarp could be interpreted as the Riedel fractures related to left-lateral strike-slip fault occurring in the vicinity of the scarp.
14
Content available remote Fault zone imaging based on refraction seismic surveys
EN
Refraction surveys were carried out along the border lines between Outer Carpathians, Inner Carpathians and Pieniny Klippen Belt. Measurements were focused on imaging transition zone structured by para-conglomerates, sandstone and clays lenses, crossing in near neighbourhood of Stare Bystre, village in the southern part of Poland. The geological and geophysical investigation was conducted to prove that occurring on site, main fault (NW-SE) has a system of smaller discontinuities. Para-conglomerate exposure, which was localized close to survey area, was cut by observable system of cracks. That geological evidence could be an effect of previous fault activity and suggests its continuation up to core of fault zone – covered by Neogene river sediments. In this case non-direct, refraction method was applied to confirm existence of a local bedrock faulting. Seismic acquisition was extremely focused on determining any changes of elevation and estimated P-wave velocity of buried para-conglomerates. Surveys were carried out in azimuthal schema, fitted to field conditions. 24-channels seismograph and 10 Hz geophones were used. Hypothetical discontinuities were estimated after analyzing high resolution seismic records. The obtained geophysical data had a volumetric character which allowed easier interpratation and was better related to initial assumptions about geological form of fault zone.
EN
The area studied, known as the Małe (Little) Pieniny Mts., belongs to the Pieniny Klippen Belt (PKB), a suture zone that separates the Central Carpathians from the Outer Carpathian accretionary wedge. Along its northern boundary the PKB is separated from the Paleogene to Early Miocene flysch deposits of the Magura Nappe by a narrow, strongly deformed belt belonging to the Grajcarek tectonic Unit. This unit is composed of Jurassic, Cretaceous and Paleocene pelagic and flysch deposits. The Klippen units of the PKB are represented by Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous carbonate deposits overlain by Upper Cretaceous variegated marls and flysch deposits. We describe geological and biostratigraphic evidence concerning the palaeogeographic, stratigraphic and structural relationships between the Pieniny Klippen Belt and the Magura Nappe, that significantly modify previously held views on the evolution of the Małe Pieniny Mts. and the Polish sector of the PKB.
EN
Monazite-(Ce) is a widespread accessory mineral in granitic cobbles of the Krivá type (Zástranie and Krivá localities) in polymict conglomerates of Cretaceous flysch sequences, the Pieniny Klippen Belt, Western Carpathians, NW Slovakia. The granites show leucocratic muscovite-biotite granodiorite composition and peraluminous calc-alkaline, S-type character. The monazite contains unusually high U, commonly 1 to 3, and in some places up to 6.6 wt.% UO2, together with 5 to 7.7 wt.% ThO2. A cheralite-type substitution [Ca(U,Th)REE–2 is the dominant mechanism of U4+ + Th4+ incorporation into the monazite structure in the Zástranie sample, whereas both cheralite- and huttonite-type substitution [(Th,U)SiREE–1P–1] are evident in the Krivá granitic cobble. Uranium alone prefers the CaU4+(REE)–2 mechanism, whereas Th favours the huttonite substitution. The chemical U-Th-Pb dating of monazite from both granitic cobbles show an Early Carboniferous age (346 ± 2 Ma), which is consistent with the main meso-Variscan, orogen-related plutonic activity in the Central Carpathian area (Tatric and Veporic superunits). Analogous U-rich monazites were detected in some Variscan S-type leucogranites of the Rimavica massif (South Veporic Unit) and the Bojná and Bratislava massifs (northern part of the Tatric Unit). On the basis of structural and palaeogeographic data, the North Tatric Zone is the most plausible source of the monazite-bearing granitic boulders in the Pieniny Klippen Belt. However, the source granitic body was most likely hidden by ensuing tectonic shortening along the northern Tatric edge after deposition of the Coniacian–Santonian Upohlav type conglomerates.
EN
The Jurassic–Cretaceous fine-clastic dark deposits of the Grajcarek Unit (Pieniny Klippen Belt, Carpathians, Poland) show lithological similarities, which may lead to erroneous age correlations. Their well-exposed outcrop at Szczawnica-Zabaniszcze allows detailed sampling for their precise age determination. For this purpose, dinoflagellate cysts have been studied from a set of samples collected from the Szlachtowa, Opaleniec, Pieniny Limestone, Kapuśnica and Wronine formations exposed at that site (additional sample from the Pieniny Limestone Formation was studied). The Szlachtowa Formation, a very characteristic lithostratigraphic unit, which consists of black shale and sandstones extremely rich in mica flakes, occasionally referred to literature as the so-called "black flysch", yielded rich and well-preserved assemblages. Their age is Middle Jurassic, spanning the Aalenian to Lower Bajocian. The exposures of the Szlachtowa Formation at Szczawnica-Zabaniszcze are located close to the outcrops of the Opaleniec Formation. The calcareous spotted shale from this lithostratigraphic unit yielded rich dinoflagellate cyst assemblage characteristic for Late Bathonian (Early Callovian). The Opaleniec Formation tectonically contacts with very similar non-calcareous spotted shale of the Wronine Formation. Its age, based on infrequent dinoflagellate cysts is Aptian–Albian. Similar, Lower Aptian age was concluded for the Kapuśnica Formation. Late Barremian–earliest Aptian dinoflagellate cysts have been found in the underlying topmost part of the Pieniny Limestone Formation.
EN
The article deals with the carbonates, filling fissures in limestone bedrock and presently exposed in a south-facing rock wall of Kramnica hill (Pieniny Klippen Belt, southern Poland). The carbonates are composed of (i) needle-fibre calcite crystals, (ii) carbonate nanofibres, (iii) carbonate nanoparticles, and (iv) micrite and sparite calcite crystals. Detrital grains from the carbonate bedrock occur subordinately. The spatial relationships of the components give documentation that the nanofibres were formed simultaneously with or slightly later than the needle-fibre calcite crystals. There exists a continuous chain of forms from nanoparticles to elongated nanofibres. This, in turn, indicates that all the above morphological forms are related genetically. In relatively wide fissures, the carbonates studied formed stepped microterracettes, similar to those of speleothems, mainly of moonmilk type. Conversely, narrow fissures are completely filled with carbonates, which display parallel lamination. The carbonates were formed in the late Holocene. However, “dead carbon effect” precludes the possibility of any precise dating of them. Their δ13C and δ18O values are in ranges from -5.1‰ to -3.8‰ and from -6‰ to -4.7‰, respectively. The carbonates studied bear a strong resemblance to soil and spelean, moonmilk-type carbonates. This indicates that continuity exists between the depositional environments of soil and spelean carbonate.
EN
The Jurassic deposits which crop out in the quarries at Priborzhavske, Perechin and Novoselitsa in the Transcarpathian Ukraine comprise fairly similar successions, allowing their interpretation as corresponding to a single palaeogeographic zone in the Pieniny Klippen Basin. To the same zone belong also deposits from Beňatina quarry in eastern Slovakia. The following main stratigraphic units may be recognized: terrigenous and fleckenkalk-fleckenmergel deposits (Sinemurian-Pliensbachian), highly diversified and condensed deposits (uppermost Pliensbachian-Aalenian), crinoidal limestones (Bajocian, with a stratigraphical gap covering a lower part of the Lower Bajocian), nodular limestones of ammonitico-rosso type (uppermost Bajocian to Oxfordian with a possible gap covering the Callovian and Lower Oxfordian), well bedded micritic limestones (Kimmeridgian to Upper Tithonian), and bedded limestones with cherts of the maiolica type (from the uppermost Tithonian). Two rifting phases, well developed in the successions, took place: (1) Devín phase during latest Pliensbachian-Toarcian-and at least earliest Aalenian, and (2) Krasín phase during the Bajocian. The onset of pelagic deposits overlying the rift strata took place during the latest Bajocian, and corresponds well with the general subsidence and development of a more uniform facies pattern during the post-rifting time as everywhere in the Pieniny Klippen Basin. Selected ammonite taxa of the Lower and lower part of the Middle Jurassic are illustrated and discussed.
EN
The paper presents core description of the Maruszyna IG-1 Deep Borehole located in the southernmost part of the Pieniny Klippen Belt of Poland, at the Kraków-Zakopane geotraverse of the Polish Carpathians. In the borehole, two Laramian nappes have been recognized: the Pieniny Nappe, PN (0 down to 930-960 m below the surface), and the Branisko Nappe, BN (1225-4843 m below the surface). The rocks of the Branisko Nappe are unconformably covered by the Maastrichtian marine molasse (conglomerates with large olistoliths derived from this nappe) - the Jarmuta Formation, JmF (930-1190 m below the surface). The Laramian overthrust zone: PN over JnF (and BN) lies at 930-960 m below the surface. The Branisko Nappe is subdivided into three first-order (major) and numerous, second-order (minor) tectonic scales. 29 samples from the Middle Jurassic, Lower and Upper Cretaceous rocks have been analyzed for palynofacies and organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts. Biostratigraphic interpretation of dinoflagellate cyst assemblages generally confirms the ages of the earlier-distinguished Jurassic and Cretaceous lithostratigraphic units in this borehole. An Aalenian dinoflagellate cyst assemblage from rocks attributed to the Harcygrund Shale Formation, suggests a slightly wider time-range of this unit than hitherto assumed: Aalenian-Lower Bajocian.
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